Strijker, A. (2004 11 27). Lcmss


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Reuse Learning objects Implementation Strategy leermiddelen arrangeren Standaarden Standards Specification SCORM LOM IEEE IMS VLE Curriculum Design Educational Onderwijskundig Ontwerpen Onderzoek

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  • Strijker, A. (2004 11 27). Lcmss

    1. 1. LCMSs Allard Strijker
    2. 2. History <ul><li>1997 Faculty wide implementation </li></ul><ul><li>1999 Royal dutch Navy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest Royal airforce (SCORM) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2000 University wide implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1600 courses / 10000 users, 50-300 objects a course / avg 75 / 120000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2001 Shell Open University </li></ul><ul><li>2001 Royal airforce Webmentor LMS </li></ul><ul><li>2002 LCMS research dutch army </li></ul><ul><li>2002 Commercial version </li></ul>
    3. 3. Larger Scale of Reuse <ul><li>Exchangeability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge management systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Departments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publishers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Universities </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Objects <ul><li>LO (Learning Objects) </li></ul><ul><li>RLO (Reusable Learning Objects) </li></ul><ul><li>KO (Knowledge Objects) </li></ul><ul><li>SCO (Sharable Content Object) </li></ul><ul><li>Bit-Size learning </li></ul><ul><li>IO (Information Object) </li></ul><ul><li>RIO (Reusable Information Object) </li></ul><ul><li>Item </li></ul><ul><li>Resource </li></ul><ul><li>Component </li></ul><ul><li>Chunk </li></ul><ul><li>Basic large object (BLOB) </li></ul><ul><li>Assignable Unit (AU) </li></ul>
    5. 5. Standards for Reusing Objects SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model) AICC Tracking /Tracing IMS Packaging LOM Metadata IMS ARIADNE
    6. 6. Size and shape of Objects <ul><li>A learning object is defined as any entity, digital or non-digital, that may be used for learning, education or training. (LOM V6.1) </li></ul><ul><li>The size and shape of an &quot;object&quot; is open to each organization to define. This decision is based upon the needs, tools, processes, and business goals of the organization (Cisco 2001) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Aggregation Levels <ul><li>The smallest level of aggregation e.g. raw media data or fragments. </li></ul><ul><li>A collection of atoms e.g. an HTML document with some embedded pictures or a lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>A collection of level 2 learning resources e.g. a web of HTML documents with an index page that links the pages together or a course. </li></ul><ul><li>The largest level of granularity e.g. a set of courses that lead to a certificate. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Aggregation Levels
    9. 9. Course Management System (CMS) CMS Resource Resource Object Subject Description Weblink Attachments Resources Category Metadata
    10. 10. Creating Objects Object Subject Description Weblink Attachments Resources Category Metadata
    11. 11. Metadata Repository content metadata content
    12. 12. Material Metadata Creation
    13. 13. Learning Content Management System (LCMS) Object metadata Object Object
    14. 14. Selecting Resources
    15. 15. Experiences With Reuse and User-support Tools
    16. 16. Experiences With Reuse and User-support Tools Results (1) <ul><li>Own and other material </li></ul><ul><li>Motivations for reuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Targetgroup </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reusing material of others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Already available in books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyrights / Intellectual property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mastering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;impoverished&quot; education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creators intentions? </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Experiences With Reuse and User-support Tools Results (2) <ul><li>Controlling reuse </li></ul><ul><li>Reuse what </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partly reuse of old courses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shell, exchange small scale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selecting material for reuse </li></ul><ul><li>Giving the opportunity for reuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metadata </li></ul>
    18. 18. Experiences With Reuse and User-support Tools Results (3) <ul><li>Structuring material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Own </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coursename </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keywords </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Authors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reused before? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 20. Target group <ul><li>This research is intended for those in education management and consultancy, course design and development involved in the reuse of digital educational material. </li></ul>
    20. 21. Learning Objects <ul><li>Learning objects are defined as digital entities, available for use or reuse in different learning settings. </li></ul><ul><li>These objects themselves may or may not have been originally created as learning objects; it is their use for learning purposes that makes them learning objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Definition used in the research: A learning object is any digital entity that may be used for learning, education, or training. </li></ul>
    21. 22. Lifecycle for reuse of learning objects <ul><li>Obtaining, </li></ul><ul><li>Labeling, </li></ul><ul><li>Offering, </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting, </li></ul><ul><li>Using, </li></ul><ul><li>Retaining. </li></ul>Obtaining Labeling Offering Selecting Using Retaining Editing
    22. 23. Contexts <ul><li>The research describes issues related to the reuse of learning objects and the implementation of learning technology standards for reuse of these learning objects in different contexts and the human and technical aspects involved: </li></ul><ul><li>University, </li></ul><ul><li>Military, </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate Learning. </li></ul>
    23. 24. Human aspects <ul><li>Human aspects relate to motivation for reuse, organizational incentives, and applied learning scenarios. </li></ul><ul><li>RQ1: Human perspective – What human aspects are important to support the different stages of the lifecycle of a learning object? </li></ul><ul><li>Human aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why takes reuse place, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is involved. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 25. Technical Aspects <ul><li>Technical aspects related to reuse of learning objects include the development of objects, repositories, services of repositories, and technology to exchange learning objects. </li></ul><ul><li>RQ2: Technical perspective - What tools and technologies are important to support the </li></ul><ul><li>different stages of the lifecycle of a learning object? </li></ul><ul><li>Technical aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What's reused, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is reuse supported, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where are learning objects stored. </li></ul></ul>
    25. 26. Overall Research Question <ul><li>RQ3. Combining human and technical perspectives - What are key dimensions to guide the selection of tools, technologies, and human procedures to support the different stages of the lifecycle of a learning object for users in different usage contexts, particularly university, corporate learning, and military training? </li></ul>
    26. 27. Context Orientations <ul><li>Personal oriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal orientation is related to human interaction, personal needs, personal incentives, and personal values. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systems oriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Systems orientation focuses on technical specifications, rules, policy, and procedures. </li></ul></ul>
    27. 28. Dimensions for Reuse <ul><li>The research identified dimensions related to use of learning technology standards for reuse such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultures within the context, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning scenarios, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentives for reuse, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work processes, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How learning objects are stored. </li></ul></ul>
    28. 29. Dimensions for Reuse Locally Repository How learning objects are stored Personal Organizational Work processes Personal habits Formal workflow Incentives for reuse Participation Acquisition Learning scenarios The world of inspiration The Merchant world The world of Opinion The Civic world The Domestic world The industrial world Cultures within the context Personal Oriented Systems Oriented
    29. 30. Results <ul><li>The results of the research show that reuse in practice may not so much be focused on a wide exchange of all available material but rather on local level sharing within departments and even primarily on the reuse of one’s own course material. </li></ul>
    30. 31. Results <ul><li>The use of specifications for learning technology may not have the expected impact on adaptive learning and building courses based on learning objects from large repositories as expected by many. </li></ul>
    31. 32. Results <ul><li>Instead, new developments for specifications may focus on support for more-personal reuse strategies. </li></ul>
    32. 33. Summary <ul><li>Organizational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyrights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strict Taxonomy, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard objects, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predefined set of keywords </li></ul></ul>
    33. 34. More Information <ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>