View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!Introducing SlideShare for AndroidExplore all your favorite topics in the SlideShare appGet the SlideShare app to Save for Later — even offline
View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new Android app!View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!
SPECIAL EXAMINATIONS AND TEST SPECIAL EXAMINATIONS AND TEST Diagnostic examinations – is a procedure that involves physical infection of body structures and evidence of their functions. It is facilitated by the use of technical equipment and techniques .
If conscious sedation( no memory of having the test trough the client can communicate during the procedure).
To prevent aspiration withhold food and fluids or advise the client to do so for at least 6 hours before any procedure in which an endoscope is inserted into the upper gastrointestinal tract.
Have oxygen resuscitation equipment readily available.
If topical anesthesia is used to facilitate the passage of an endoscope into the airway or upper gastrointestinal tract, withhold food or fluids for at least 2 hours after the procedure and until swallow, cough and gag reflex return.
Relieve the client’s sore throat with ice chips. fluids or gargles when it is safe to do.
Confirm the bowel preparation using laxatives and enemas has been completed before endoscopic procedures of the lower intestines.
Report difficulty in arousing a client or any sharp pain fever, unusual bleeding, nausea, vomiting or difficulty with urination after any Endoscopic examinations
For best visualization schedule abdominal and pelvic ultrasonography before any examinations that use barium.
Instruct clients undergoing abdominal ultrasonography tp drink 5 to 6 full glasses of fluid approximately 1 to 2 hours before the test. To ensure full bladder they should not urinate after the test is completed.
Explain that acoustic gel is applied over the abdomen where the transducer place.
Instruct the client to shampoo the hair in the evening before the procedure to facilitate firm attachment of the electrodes. He /She Should shampoo the hair after the test to remove adhesive from the scalp.
Consult with physician about withholding scheduled medications especially those that affect neurologic activity.
If a sleep-deprive EEG is scheduled the client that he/she must stay awake after the midnight before the examination.
- is a procedure that involves the examinations of the body fluids or specimens. It involves comparing the components of a collected specimen with normal findings. A diagnostic examination or may not include the collections of specimens
is performed by collecting body fluid or substances suspected of containing infectious microorganisms, growing the living microorganisms in a nutritive substance and examining their characteristics with a microscope
Some examinations and tests require special preparation of the client such as withholding food and fluids or modifying the diet.
Because preparations requirements vary among health care agencies, the nurse refers to written protocols in the agency’s manual rather than relying on memory.
Once he or she understands the specific requirements for a test, the nurse provides directions to the client, nursing staff and other hospital requirements such as the dietary department, involve the test.
Everyone involved must cooperate to ensure test. The nurse reports any incorrect test preparations promptly because the procedure may need to be cancelled and rescheduled.
Because many tests examinations are done on an outpatient basis, the nurse must understand the client’s responsibilities and instruct him or her accordingly.
Regardless of the type of examination or test, the nurse helps the client to change into an examination gown, applies an identification bracelet, takes vital signs, and suggests theat the client empty the bladder
The nurse continues to monitor the condition of waiting clients who can experience adverse effects from fatique delayed food consumption or medical symptoms.
Client and Family Teaching Preparation for Special Examinations Or Tests
Call (specify the number) If he or she does not clearly understand or cannot follow any test preparation instructions.
Refrain from eating or drinking anything for at least 8 hours before a test or examinations that requires fasting state.
Follow exactly as directed all dietary specifications for eating or omitting certain foods.
Check with physician about taking or readjusting the time schedule for taking prescribed medications on the day of the test or examinations.
Dress caually and in layers so that he or she can remove or add items of clothing to maintain comfort in the test environment
If an examination or test is performed at the bedside or in an examination room on the nursing unit. The nurse obtains equipment and supplies ahead of time.
Nurses are relieve of this responsibility if the examination or test is carried out in other locations or when a special technician performs the procedure.
Some items that are nurses may need are in packed kits( such as lumbar puncture kit) Kept in clean utility room or obtained from a central supply department (Also called materials management in some health care agencies).
If using packaged kit, the nurse checks the list of contents to determine what, if any, additional items are needed.
Clean gloves, goggles,masks and gowns are required to prevent direct contact with blood or body secretions.