Lymphatic System


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Lymphatic System

  2. 2. <ul><li>Blood circulates throughout the body,fluid from the blood leaks into tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>A network of vessels known as the lymphatic system collects the fluid and returns it to the circulatory system. </li></ul><ul><li>LYMPH – loss fluid- a transparent yellowish fluid and is collected in lymphatic capillaries and moves to larger lymph vessels like veins lymph vessels contain valves to prevent backflow of lymph,Lymph vessels from a one-way system that returns fluids collected in tissues back to the bloodstream </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>These lymph vessels pass through small bean –shaped enlargements called lymph nodes- which acts as filters and producers of special white blood cells called lymphocytes that are specialized to fight infection. </li></ul><ul><li>The fluid is returned to the circulatory system at an opening in a vein located under the left clavicle or collarbone just below the shoulder. </li></ul>
  4. 4. BLOOD <ul><li>Is a connective tissue that constitutes the transport medium of the circulatory systems. </li></ul><ul><li>TWO MAIN FUNCTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>1. transport nutrients and oxygen to the cells and carry carbon dioxide and waste materials away from the cells </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Blood is a type of liquid connective tissue that has many functions. It is composed of a liquid medium and blood solids. The liquid makes up to about 55 % of the blood, and blood solids make up the remaining 45 % </li></ul><ul><li>Blood transport nutrients,dissolved gases enzymes,hormones, and waste products. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood regulates body temperature,ph and electrolytes. </li></ul><ul><li>It protects the body from invaders and blood restricts the loss of fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Our bodies contain 4 to 5 liters of blood. </li></ul>
  6. 6. BLOOD PLASMA <ul><li>55% of blood is made up of a liquid portion called plasma( straw- colored liquid portion of blood and is 90% water and 10% dissolved fats, salts,sugars, and proteins called PLASMA PROTEINS. </li></ul><ul><li>THREE TYPES OF PLASMA PROTEINS </li></ul><ul><li>1.ALBUMINS – help regulate osmotic pressure </li></ul><ul><li>( maintain normal blood volume and blood pressure.) Most abundant plasma protein. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>2.GLOBULINS OR ANTIBODIES – include antibodies that help fight off infection. Antibodies initiate the destruction of pathogens and provide us with immunity. </li></ul><ul><li>3. FIBRINOGEN – responsible for the ability of blood to clot. </li></ul>
  8. 8. BLOOD CELLS OR SOLIDS <ul><li>The cellular portion of blood make up the other 45% and includes several types of highly specialized cells and cell fragments,they are red blood cells,white blood cells and platelets. </li></ul>
  9. 9. RED BLOOD CELLS <ul><li>Are most numerous of the blood cells.One microliter of blood contains 5 million rbc’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Are biconcave or shaped so they are narrower in the center than along the edges. </li></ul><ul><li>Are produced from cells in the bone marrow they are gradually filled with hemoglabin which forces out the nucleus and other organelles. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Mature RBC do not have cell nucleus and organelles. The mature RBC becomes liitle more than a membrane sac containing hemoglabin </li></ul><ul><li>Is the iron-containing protein that gives RBC the ability to carry hemoglabin. </li></ul><ul><li>RBC stay in circulation for about 120 days fefore they are destroyed by special WBC in the liver and splee. RBC in your body are dying and being replace at a rate of 2 million per second. </li></ul>
  11. 11. WBC <ul><li>Outnumbered by RBC almost 500 to 1 </li></ul><ul><li>WBC are produce in the red bone marrow,the lymph nodes and the Spleen. Tey are larger than RBC amost colorless and do not contain hemoglabin. </li></ul><ul><li>WBC have a nucleus and can live for many months of years. </li></ul><ul><li>Main function of WBC - is to protect the body against invasion by foreign cells or substances. </li></ul><ul><li>WBC called phagocytes. Can destroy bacteria and foreign cells by phagocytocis( ENGULGED AND DIGESTED) </li></ul>
  12. 12. PLATELETS AND BLOOD CLOTTING <ul><li>Platelets are not cells they are tiny fragments of other cells that were formed in the bone marrow. </li></ul><ul><li>Are formed when small pieces of cytoplasm are pinched off the large cells in the red bone marrow called MEGAKARYOCYTES. Which are found in the bone marrow,Platelets lack a nucleus and their life span is about 7 to 11 days. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Platelets play an important role in blood clotting </li></ul><ul><li>Help the clotting process by clumping together and forming a plug at the side of a wound and then releasing proteins called clotting factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Clotting factors start a series of chemical reactions that ends with a sticky meshwork of fibrin filaments that stop bleeding by producing a clot. </li></ul><ul><li>A genetic disoder of clotting factors is called hemophillia,suffers may bled uncomfortably from even a small cut or scrape. </li></ul><ul><li>Clotting blood in vessels can block the flow of blood, if this happens in the brain,brain cells may die, causing stroke. </li></ul>
  14. 14. BLOOD TYPES <ul><li>Blood type is determined by the type of ANTIGEN present on the surface of RBC. </li></ul><ul><li>ANTIGEN – is a protein or carbohydrate that acts as a signal,enabling the body to recognize foreign substances in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>FOUR GROUPS </li></ul><ul><li>BLOOD TYPE A, B , AB , O </li></ul><ul><li>An individual RBC may carry an A antigen both A and B antigens ,or no antigen at all. These antigen are called blood types A,B,AB, O respectively </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Type AB is known as universal receiver meaning they can receive any type of blood. </li></ul><ul><li>RH SYSTEMS: </li></ul><ul><li>An antigen that is sometimes on the surface of the RBC is the RH FACTOR,named after the rhesus monkey in which it was discovered. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>85% of the US population is RH –positive meaning an antigen are present. People who do not have RH Antigens are called RH –Negative </li></ul><ul><li>If an RH persons receives a transfusion of blood that has RH + antigens,RH antibodies will react with the antigen and agglutination (CLUMPING ) will occur. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>The rh is the reasons there are blood test before marriage.the most serious problem with RH incompatibility occurs during pregnancy. </li></ul><ul><li>If the mother is rh – and the father is rh+ the child may inherit the dominant rh+ ALLELE (gene) from the father. </li></ul><ul><li>If the babies rh+ blood gets into the mother during delivery the mother will develop antibodies to the rh factor. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>If a second rh+ Childc conceived later,the mother antibodies can cross the placenta and attack the blood to the fetus. This condition is ERYTHROBLASTOSISFETALIS. </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent this condition an rh mother of an rh+ Child can by given antibodies to destroy and rh+ cells that have entered her bloodstream from the fetus. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>The antibodies called rhogam,may be administered to the mother within three days after the birth of her first rh+ CHILD to remove from her bloodstream any rh + ANTIBODIES. </li></ul><ul><li>By destroying any rh+ Cells in her bloodstream any danger to a second child is prevented because the mother will not make any antibodies against the blood cells of the rh+ fetus. </li></ul>