Human Anatomy


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Human Anatomy

  1. 1. The Human Body: An Orientation
  2. 2. ANATOMY <ul><li>-is the study of structure and shape of the body and body parts and their relationships to one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Derived from the Greek word meaning to cut ( tomy ) apart ( ana ). </li></ul><ul><li>Gross anatomy - studies large body structures </li></ul><ul><li>Microscopic anatomy - studies very small structures in the body using microscope. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Level of Structural Organization Cellular level Cells are made of molecules Organismal body Human organisms are made up of many organ system Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs That work together closely Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells
  4. 4. LIFE’S PROCESS or CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE <ul><li>All living organisms carry on certain processes that set them apart from nonliving things. </li></ul><ul><li>The following are several of the more important life processes of Humans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>METABOLISM is the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body. One phase of metabolism called CATABOLISM provides the ENERGY to sustain life by BREAKING DOWN substances such as food molecules. The other phase called ANABOLISM uses the energy from catabolism to MAKE various substances that form body structures and enable them to function. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASSIMILATION is the changing of absorbed substances into forms that are chemically different from those that entered body fluids. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>RESPONSIVENESS is the ability to Detect and Respond to the changes Outside or Inside the Body . Seeking water to quench thirst is a response to water loss from body tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>MOVEMENT includes motion of the whole body, individual organs, single cells. Or even structures inside cells. </li></ul><ul><li>GROWTH refers to an increase in body size. It may be due to an increase in the size of existing cells, the number of cells, or the amount of substance surrounding cells. It occurs whenever an organisms produces new body materials faster than old ones are worn out or replaced. </li></ul><ul><li>DIFFERENTIATION is the process whereby unspecialized cells become unspecialized cells. Specialized cells differ in structures and function from the cells from which they originated. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>G. REPRODUCTION refers either to the formation of new cells for growth, repair, or replacement or to the making of a new individual </li></ul><ul><li>H. Others include: </li></ul><ul><li>Respiration - obtaining oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Digestion - chemically and mechanically breaking down of substances. </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption - the passages of substances through certain membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Circulation - the movement of substances within the body in body fluids. </li></ul><ul><li>Excretion - removal waste that the body produces. </li></ul>
  7. 7. MAINTAINING LIFE <ul><li>To sustain life, an organism must be able to maintain its boundaries, move, respond to stimuli, digest nutrients and excrete wastes, carry on metabolism, reproduce itself, and grow. </li></ul><ul><li>Survival needs include foods, oxygen, water, appropriate temperature, and normal atmospheric pressure. Extremes of any of these factors can be harmful. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Organ System Overview <ul><li>1. Integumentary system ( skin ) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Skeletal system ( bones, cartilages, ligaments and joints ) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Muscular system (skeletal muscles ) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Nervous system ( brain, spinal cord, nerves and sensory receptors ) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Endocrine system ( pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, thymus, pancreas, pineal, ovaries (in the female), testes (in the male). </li></ul><ul><li>6. Cardiovascular system (the heart and blood vessels ) </li></ul><ul><li>7. Lymphatic system ( lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphoid organs such as the spleen tonsils ) </li></ul>
  9. 9. 8. Respiratory system (nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs ) 9. Digestive system ( oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines and rectum ) 10. Urinary system ( kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra ) 11.Reproductive system male - sperms are produced by the testes of the male. Other male reproductive system structures are the scrotum, penis, accessory glands, and the duct system, which carries sperms to the body. female - The ovary of the female produces the eggs, or ova. The female duct system consist of the uterine tubes, uterus and vagina.
  10. 10. HOMEOSTASIS <ul><li>All of the above systems function together to help the Human Body to Maintain HOMEOSTASIS . </li></ul><ul><li>A person who is in the good health is in the state of </li></ul><ul><li>homeostasis. </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostasis reflects the ability of the body to maintain relative stability and to function normally despite constant changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes may be External or Internal, and the body must respond appropriately. </li></ul><ul><li>As we continue to study the human body, keep in mind that the proper functioning of each organ and organ system has a role to perform in maintaining homeostasis. </li></ul><ul><li>The human body uses Homeostasis Mechanisms to maintain its stable internal environment. Homeostasis Mechanisms work much like a Thermostat ( NEGATIVE FEEDBACK ) that is sensitive to temperature and maintains a relative constant room temperature whether the room gets Hot or Cold. </li></ul>
  11. 11. BODY CAVITIES <ul><li>1. Many organs and organ system in the human body are house in compartments called BODY CAVITIES . </li></ul><ul><li>2. These cavities protect delicate internal organs from injuries and from the daily wear of walking, jumping, or running . </li></ul><ul><li>3. The body cavities also permit organs such as lungs, the urinary bladder, and the stomach to expand and contract while remaining securely supported. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The human body has FOUR (4) Main Body Cavities that house and protect delicate internal organs: </li></ul><ul><li> A. CRANIAL CAVITY - encases the brain </li></ul><ul><li>B. SPINAL CAVITY - extending from the cranial cavity to the base of the spine surrounds the Spinal Cord. </li></ul><ul><li>THE TWO MAIN CAVITIES IN THE TRUNK OF THE HUMAN ARE </li></ul><ul><li>SEPARATED BY A WALL OF MUSCLES CALLED THE DIAPHGRAGM . </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>C. THORACIC CAVITY - The upper compartment, contains the heart, the esophagus, and the organs of the respiratory system – the lungs, trachea, and bronchi. </li></ul><ul><li>D. ABDOMINAL CAVITY - The lower compartment, contains organs of the digestive, reproductive, and excretory systems. </li></ul><ul><li>PELVIC CAVITY – It is the lower portion of the abdominal cavity which contains the urinary bladder,rectum and the parts of the reproductive system. </li></ul>
  13. 13. ANATOMICAL TERMINOLOGY <ul><li>To communicate effectively with one another, </li></ul><ul><li>researchers, and clinicians have develop a set of </li></ul><ul><li>terms to describe anatomy that have precise </li></ul><ul><li>meaning. Use these terms assumes the body in the </li></ul><ul><li>ANATOMICAL POSITION . This means that </li></ul><ul><li>the body is standing erect, face forwards with </li></ul><ul><li>upper limbs at the sides and with the palm </li></ul><ul><li>forward. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>RELATIVE POSITION </li></ul><ul><li>Terms of relative position describe the location of one body part with respect to </li></ul><ul><li>Another. These include the following: </li></ul><ul><li>SUPERIOR – means that a body part is above another part or is closer to the head. </li></ul><ul><li>INFERIOR – means that a body part is below another body part or toward the feet. </li></ul><ul><li>ANTERIOR – means toward the front. </li></ul><ul><li>VENTRAL – also means toward the front. </li></ul><ul><li>POSTERIOR – is the opposite of the anterior; it means toward the back. </li></ul><ul><li>DORSAL – also is the opposite of the anterior ; it means toward the back. </li></ul><ul><li>MEDIAL – relates to the imaginary midline dividing the body in equal right and left halves. Sample: The nose is medial to the eyes. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>8. LATERAL – means toward the side with respect to the imaginary midline. Sample : The ears are lateral to the eyes. </li></ul><ul><li>9. PROXIMAL – describes a body part that is closer to a point of attachment or closer to the trunk of the body than another part. Sample: The elbow is proximal to the wrist. </li></ul><ul><li>10. DISTAL – is the opposite of proximal. It means that a particular body part is farther from the point of attachment or farther from the trunk of the body than another part. Sample: The fingers are distal to the wrist. </li></ul><ul><li>11. SUPERFICIAL – means situated near the surface. </li></ul><ul><li>12. PERIPHERAL – also means outward or near the surface. </li></ul><ul><li>13. DEEP – describes parts that are more internal. </li></ul><ul><li>14. CORTEX – the outer layer of an organ. </li></ul><ul><li>15. MEDULLA – the inner portion of an organ. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Summary of Major ORGAN SYSTEM <ul><li>SKELETAL- bones,cartilage,tendons,ligaments and joints-provides structure,supports and protects internal organs. </li></ul><ul><li>MUSCULAR- muscles(skeletal,cardiac and smooth)- provides structure,supports and moves trunk and limbs,moves substance through body </li></ul><ul><li>INTERGUMENTARY-skin,hair,nails- protects againts pathogens,helps regulate body temperature </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>CIRCULATORY –heart, blood vessels,blood –transports nutrients and wastes to and from all body tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>RESPIRATORY – air passages,lungs –carries air into and out of lungs,where gases(oxygen and carbon dioxide) are exchanged. </li></ul><ul><li>IMMUNE – Lymph nodes and vessels,white blood cells-provides protection against infection and disease </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>DIGESTIVE- mouth esophagus ,stomach ,liver ,pancreas ,small and large intestines –stores and digest food , absorbs nutrients ,eliminates waste. </li></ul><ul><li>EXCRETORY AND URINARY – kidneys , ureters ,bladder ,urethra, skin and lungs –eliminate waste ,maintains water and chemical balance. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>NERVOUS –brain,spinal cord,nerves,sense organs and receptors –controls and coordinate body movements and senses,controls consciousness and creativity,helps monitor and maintain other body systems. </li></ul><ul><li>ENDOCRINE -endocrine glands and hormones –maintain homeostasis,regulates metabolism,water and mineral balance,growth and sexual development and reproduction. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Lymphatic – Lymph nodes,spleen,lymph vessels –cleans and returns tissue fluid to the blood and destroys pathogens that enter the body. </li></ul><ul><li>REPRODUCTIVE – ovaries,uterus,mammary glands (IN FEMALES)testes (MALES) </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Diffusion – a transport mechanism where movement is always from higher concentration to lower concentration. </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Phacocytosis - it is termed as the ingestion and digestion of bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves connected to the peripheral nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>I –OLFACTORY NERVE - responsible for sense of smell </li></ul><ul><li>II – OPTIC NERVE - sense of sight.. </li></ul><ul><li>III – OCULOMOTOR NERVE – movement of the eyeball,constriction of pupil in bright light or for near vision </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>IV – TROCHLEAR NERVE – innervates sup. Oblique,movement of the eye. </li></ul><ul><li>V. TRIGEMINAL NERVE – mixed nerve with three branches.,sensation in face,scalp and teeth, contraction of chewing muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>VI . ABDUCENS NERVE – movement of the eyeball, </li></ul><ul><li>VII. FACIAL NERVE - sense of taste,contraction of facial muscle,secretion of saliva,innervates 2/3 of the tongue. </li></ul><ul><li>VIII. ACOUSTIC NERVE - loss of balance if damaged. </li></ul><ul><li>IX. GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE – for mastification,swallowing </li></ul><ul><li>X. VAGUS NERVE – stimulation causes heart rate. </li></ul><ul><li>XI. ACCESORY MUSCLE – (spinal accessory) - innervates muscle that helps in breathing. </li></ul><ul><li>XII. HYPOGLOSSAL – for movement of tongue. </li></ul>