A CVA also known as stroke or brain attack occurs when sudden decrease in the cerebral blood circulation as a result of thrombosis, embolus or hemorrhage leads to hypoxia of brain tissues ,causing swelling and death. When circulation is impaired or interrupted the small area of the brain becomes infracted and this changes membrane permeability ,resulting in increased edema and intracranial pressure. the clinical symptoms vary depending on the area and extend of the injury.
Increase with age, resulting in the greatest incidence of the disease in the elderly population and the aged are least likely to seek medical attention in a timely manner. People over the age of 75 have the greatest risk of strokes but are the least aware of signs and symptoms of brain attack.
Embolism is the second common cause of CVA and happens when a blood vessel is suddenly occluded with blood, air, fat, or septic particulate. The embolus migrate to the cerebral arteries and obstructs circulation causing edema and necrosis.
When hemorrhage occurs it is usually the sudden result of ruptured aneurysms, tumors or AV malformations or involve problems with hypertension or bleeding dyscrasias. The cerebral bleeding decreases the blood supply and compresses neuronal tissue.
Serum Osmolality – to detect oncotic pressures and permeability, electrolytes, glucose levels and urinalysis performed to identify problems and imbalances that may be responsible for changes in condition.