Stroke Cerebrovascular Accident(CVA) - is a condition that occurs when the blood flow to the brain is interrupted long enough to cause damage. People over 50 are the most common victims, but younger people can have them too.
Causes 1. Thrombus or Embolism 2. Ruptured artery in the brain due to: - head injury - high blood pressure, - a weak spot in the wall of the blood vessel (Aneurysm) -fat deposit lining a vessel (Atherosclerosis) 3. Compression of an artery in the brain - brain tumor - inborn anomalies
Signs and Symptoms -weakness and numbness of the face, arm, or leg often on one side only. - dizziness, - confusion, -headache -ringing in the ears -a change in mood -difficulty in speaking, breathing and swallowing -loss of bowel and bladder control
First Aid Management Check the victim’s ABC’s. Have the victim rest in a comfortable position. Seek immediate medical help. Do not give the victim anything by mouth. If unconscious, place in a recovery position and administer first aid for unconsciousness. Continue monitoring his ABC’s Stay with victim until you have medical help.
1. In a diabetic emergency, it is possible to confuse signs & symptoms of insulin shock and diabetic coma. Since Insulin Shock is a true emergency that needs quick response, give any fully conscious victim in diabetic emergency sugar-candy, fruit juice, or a soft drink containing sugar.
2. If a victim is unconscious check his ABC’s and call for a physician.
3. A person/victim of diabetic coma also needs immediate transport to the hospital.
Seizure - is sudden involuntary muscle contraction, usually due to uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain. -in some cases, an individual can sense that a seizure is going to occur. -last 30-45 sec.
Stages Of Generalized Seizure Aura Phase Described as unusual smell or flash of light that lasts a split second. Tonic Phase 15-20 seconds of unresponsiveness followed by 5-15 seconds of extreme muscle rigidity. Clonic Phase 1-5 mins of seizure Post ictal Phase 5-30 mins to several hrs of deep sleep with gradual recovery.
1. Fever is over 102 º F ( rectally for baby’s under 3 months).
2. Fever is accompanied by:
- difficulty of breathing
- unusual skin color (blue, gray purple)
- a rash of tiny red or purple dots under the skin
- stiff neck
- bulging fontanel (soft spot of the baby’s skull)
- sign of dehydration (sunken fontanel, little or no
urine,dry mouth, sunken eyeballs, severe thirst,
Causes: 1. Ruptured tubal pregnancy with concealed hemorrhage into the abdominal cavity. 2. Unusual bleeding at the vagina at any stage. 3. Convulsions associated with pregnancy. 4. Miscalculations in the anticipated delivery. 5. Premature onset of labor after an accident. 6. Delay in transportation. 7. Others factors Emergency Childbirth - when delivery occurs unexpectedly and you cannot get medical help in time.
Accompanied by loss of strength or sensation, impaired consciousness
Accompanied by stiff neck
Follows a head injury
First Aid Help patient sit or lie down comfortably. Give recommended dose of analgesics Call a doctor if pain does not ease within 2 hours
3. Abdominal pain pain in the abdomen often has a relatively trivial cause but can indicate serious illness . First Aid Make patient comfortable. Don’t give any medicines or anything to eat/drink. Give a hot- water bottle place against the abdomen. Call a doctor if pain does not ease within 30 mins