The Question of Identity in GCC Countries

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Al-Khouri, A.M. (2010) 'The Question of Identity in GCC Countries', The 21st-Century Gulf: The Challenge of Identity, June30 - July 3, University of Exeter, Exeter, U.K.

Al-Khouri, A.M. (2010) 'The Question of Identity in GCC Countries', The 21st-Century Gulf: The Challenge of Identity, June30 - July 3, University of Exeter, Exeter, U.K.

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  • 1. 2010 Exeter Conference The Question of Identity in GCC? Developing a Cohesive National Identity Management System Conference: The 21st-Century Gulf: The Challenge of Identity University of Exeter, U.K. Date: 30 June - 3 July 2010Federal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ www.emiratesid.aeOur Vision: To be a role model and reference point in proofing individual identity and build wealth informatics that guarantees innovative and sophisticated services for the benefit of UAE © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 2. Agenda • Introduction • GCC Population • GCC Identity • National Identity System • ConclusionFederal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved 3/15/2013
  • 3. Agenda • Introduction Introduction • GCC Population • GCC Identity • National Identity System • ConclusionFederal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved 3/15/2013
  • 4. Introduction • Globalisation: distance became irrelevant • Modernisation: socio-cultural implications • National Identity: restoration of rooted tradition, religious fervourFederal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 5. GCC CountriesFederal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 6. GCC CountriesFederal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 7. Federal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 8. Background information … • Area: 2.55 Million Km2 • Population: 46.5 million (growth rate: 3.73%). • Economy: Oil since 1970s (75% of the annual government revenues. Has around 45% of the world’s proven oil reserves and 25% of crude oil exports).Federal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 9. Agenda • Introduction • GCCPopulation • GCC Population • GCC Identity • National Identity System • ConclusionFederal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved 3/15/2013
  • 10. GCC Population • Grown > 10 times during the last 50 years (from 4 million in 1950 to > 46 million in 2010.) Citizens 41% Foreigners 59%Federal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 11. GCC Population (2010) Country Population Citizens % Foreigners % UAE 8,190,000 950,000 12% 7,240,000 88% Qatar 1,678,568 218,214 13% 1,460,354 87% Kuwait 3,480,000 1,044,000 30% 2,436,000 70% Bahrain 1,050,000 507,150 48% 542,850 52% Oman 3,418,085 2,392,660 70% 1,025,426 30% Saudi Arabia 28,686,633 20,941,242 73% 7,745,391 27% GCC (Total) 46,503,286 19,058,559 41% 27,413,687 59% • 2010: 27 million foreigners (59% of population) 2008Federal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 12. GCC Population Foreigners Constitute majority in 4 states Population Population Country Citizens % Foreigners % 2005 2010 UAE 4,106,427 8,190,000 950,000 12% 7,240,000 88% Qatar 796,186 1,678,568 218,214 13% 1,460,354 87% Kuwait 2,991,189 3,480,000 1,044,000 30% 2,436,000 70% Bahrain 727,000 1,050,000 507,150 48% 542,850 52% Oman 2,508,837 3,418,085 2,392,660 70% 1,025,426 30% Saudi Arabia 22,673,538 28,686,633 20,941,242 73% 7,745,391 27% GCC (Total) 33,803,177 46,503,286 19,058,559 41% 27,413,687 59% • Population Forecast: 60 million by 2020Federal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 13. Vision and population demographics • Vision: economic development, and cosmopolitan culture • Population demographics • highest proportion of migrant workers in the world (3rd world largest after EU and North America)Federal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 14. Workforce Pattern … 2010 2006- mid 2008 Building 1990-1991 Global Society Gulf War Building Economic & Political Post-Oil Crisis Environment Economy 1973 Higher Oil Modern Gov. Wealth infrastructure spending World Accumulation construction War II Foreign Labour to Large short growth-driven transform oil income term labour workforce models (Arab Middle East) (Asians) (Skilled & Nationalisation)Federal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 15. Workforce and Employment • Employment: 1 % in oil and gas sector which produces 47 % of GCC GDP . • Foreign workforce: 60 % of working population • Large number employed in construction, utilities, government (20%), and other service sectors. • Labour policies: evolved to meet labour market conditions.Federal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 16. GCC Countries: Formed in 1981 Co-operation Council between 6 Arab States of the Southern Gulf in ME • geographical proximity, common religion, language, culture, similarity of regulations, economic and social conditions. • Establishment: based on the need to reconstruct identity, and the principle of single culture and nation. strengthen the collective sense of uniquenessFederal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 17. Agenda • Introduction • GCC Population • GCCIdentity • GCC Identity • National Identity System • ConclusionFederal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved 3/15/2013
  • 18. GCC Identity • Individual and Societal perspectives • Individual: observed as the central project of humanity (Erikson 1963) • Societal: primary driving forces of the information or network era (Castells 1997)Federal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 19. Individual Identity • Since their independence, the issue of identity in GCC countries has featured prominently and has been an integral part of the psyche of the citizens. • The sense of national identity in the Gulf countries is very strong.Federal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 20. Societal Identity: Collective National Identity common identity elements shaped the ‘ Gulf Society People sharing common ancestry and kinship, and use their Tribalism tribal affiliation as their last names. Religion Islam Arabic; Language created a linguistic culture that is specific to the Gulf population. Dress Code Gulf citizens wear traditional attire the GCC formation led to cooperation and integration, in the Political fields of health, education, labour and social affairs, tourism, System sports, etc. Economy Oil based, custom union, common exchange rateFederal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 21. GCC National Identity • National Identity (Gulf Society): • most important component of the collective identity structure; • Collective Identity: • typology to understand collective identities;Federal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 22. GCC National Identity Principal forms of collective identities into three types: • Legitimizing Identities: Constructed to sustain social order A set of logic and meaning introduced and propagated by the ruling powers, in order to rationalize, reproduce, and expand existing rule; • Resistance identities: Constructed in response to devaluation generated by those who are being marginalized, devalued and/or stigmatized by the logic of domination and in opposition to the ruling norm; • Project identities: Construction of ‘new identity’ attempts to redefine their position in society and, by doing so, seek the transformation of overall social structure .Federal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 23. GCC Identity Evolution • International 1973 - now correlation – global acceptance Project (generation of civil • Major social society) • Build identity: reforms • Membership in the people with shared conditions League of Arab • Cultural survival of belonging States • Formation of GCC • Development of Council a monarchy social structure. • Strong political Resistance Gulf-wide identity Legitimising World War II - 1973Federal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 24. GCC Identity: serious challenges Resistance • Coexistence of • ‘invasion’ of • New forms of multiple identities modernisation and identity and representing globalisation democracy different groups in (language) the society • Formulate • influx of foreign independent • Foreign labour workers and various building/bringing • increasing policies and their own project International legislations identities pressures and circumstances Project LegitimisingFederal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 25. GCC Identity and foreign workforce • The impact of foreign labor in the GCC countries is considered enormous. • Traditional cultures undergone dramatic changes. • > 200 nationalities: brought various cultural backgrounds, articulated values and norms that constituted their identities. • GCC countries become more vulnerable and have had a pervasive influence on its identity .Federal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 26. Foreign Labour • some see this diversity as a threat to traditional values and customs . • exposed it to often contradictorily opinions and viewpoints that is hardly reconcilable. • Nationals find it difficult to accept that they are now national minorities. Such population demographics have long-term political, economic and social consequencesFederal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 27. information on the various community groups to identify social problems. Population Growth: Economy-driven Foreign workforce Living standards Rapid growth Skilled opportunity modernization Relative youth Unskilled workers integral Construction & Economic of population forces of household personnel & Domestic growth accurate information support about population Socio-economic Legislations Growth Security & demographic & systems strategies requirements policiesFederal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 28. Agenda • Introduction • GCC Population • GCC Identity • National Identity System • National Identity System • ConclusionFederal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved 3/15/2013
  • 29. National ID Driving Forces - GCC National Identity Management System Multi- Control Minimise Crime Support Government Improve Enhance purpose illegal Identity strategic coordination public homeland solving card immigration Theft decision needs services security making Improve support Combat International Technology Border physical/ e-gov, terrorism pressure Solution control virtual identity ecommerce government Providers verification provide identity trusted integrated unification of timely, accurate identity verification population existing cards statistical info. for verification services to other database and reduce planning e.g., education, infrastructure ministeries, banks,management & healthcare, energy, etc. ) national e- hospitals, etc.production cost authentication Security infrastructure Economic Federal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 30. Program Primary Focus Determining the identity of an individual by comparing a Identification presented characteristic to all pre-enrolled in the database. WHO ARE YOU? Recognition Authenticating identity of an Verification individual by comparing a presented characteristic to a pre-enrolled characteristic ARE YOU WHO YOU SAY YOU ARE?Federal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 31. Primary Functions Central Database ID Card Population ‫رقم الهوية‬ Register • Timely and accurate identity • Smart card; authentication means. information • allow more timely delivery of • Biographical, biometrics (elimination government benefits . of redundant identity information)Federal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 32. Trust Chain : Technology driven … a three factor authentication enabling technologies... something you have? smart card something password biometric something you know? you are?Federal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 33. Key Technologies … Smart Card PKI Biometrics Smart Card: Gemplus, Chipset: Authentication: Assurance of Fingerprints Infineon identity (Digital Certificates) Facial recognition ISO 7810, 7816-1/2 compliant Confidentiality (Data Privacy): protection of data (Encryption Iris recognition Java-based OS, 32/144 KB Algorithms) EEPROM, 136 K ROM Integrity (Authorisation): data compliant with Java Card 2.1.1 consistency and integrity (Data & GP card specs. V2.0.1 Hashing) contains person’s data, portrait, Non-Repudiation: ownership of certificates, and private keys document/transaction (Digital Signatures). Updatable chipFederal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 34. Collaborative Government Environment interoperability & integration with other systems General Info. Local Ministry of Authority Authorities Justice Private Ministry of Ministries companies & org. Education Economics & Ministry of Planning Police Interior Central Database Ministry Ministry of Ministry of Central Bank Labour Health ... facilitate communication among government, industry and societyFederal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 35. Information in Chip… Stored Data in Chip … Readable data e.g., Name, Nationality, DoB, 2 fingerprints data, etc. Pin Protected Info. e.g., digital image, other personal info., etc. Restricted Info. e.g., fingerprints, validation data, etc.Federal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 36. Biometrics Systems … Civil Biometrics Forensic Biometrics Law Enforcement Biometric SystemFederal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 37. Agenda • Introduction • GCC Population • GCC Identity • National Identity System • Conclusion • ConclusionFederal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved 3/15/2013
  • 38. Conclusion • Balancing the growth, increasing demands of globalisation. • Continued rapid economic growth, requires government to develop long-term, comprehensive policies to address sources of economic, cultural, and political instability;Federal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 39. Conclusion • GCC governments tend to focus more on meeting expectation of population in the services they provide; ‘If you cannot measure it, you cannot manage it.’ OR You cannot manage, what you can’t measure … • Authorities generally believe the more they know about you, the better they can serve you.Federal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 40. Conclusion: Identity Management Strong leadership with focus to achieve two prevailing objectives: • Security enhancement and reinforcing immigration control and increasing national security. • Enhanced and expedited service delivery (‘identity- dependent’ initiatives) and support e-government.Federal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 41. Conclusion: Identity Management • Key to enable timely and accurate identity information. • ascertaining the true identities and legitimacy of their population. • elimination of redundant identity information and more timely delivery of government benefits. • explore ways to facilitate communication and collaboration among government, industry and society.Federal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 42. Conclusion: Identity Management .... fundamental planning requirement to allow governments and policy makers develop and regulate their national identity strategies ...Federal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 43. Conclusion • Increasing interest for permanent residence in GCC . • Employment of the nationals and labour migration will remain politically sensitive and highly debated subject . • Will Cause further tensions for the economy-driven GCC, from national identity standpoint (a threat to traditional values and customs).Federal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 44. Conclusion • Foreigners will continue to dominate the workforce / population. • foreigners residing in GCC countries will continue bringing new social and cultural changes; a challenge of consequences difficult to estimate . • It would be interesting to figure out how the GCC will look like in another 10 years from a National Identity perspective.Federal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved
  • 45. Federal Authority | ‫هيئــــــــة اتحــــــــــــادية‬ © 2010 Emirates Identity Authority. All rights reserved