Organizations in both public and private sectors are realizing the value of identity and access management technology to address mission-critical needs and to ensure appropriate access to resources across heterogeneous technology environments, and to meet rigorous compliance requirements. A well-designed identity management system is fundamental to enabling better information sharing, enhancing privacy protection, and connecting the diverse web of public and private sector agencies involved in the delivery of today's public service. This article provides an overview of identity and access management literature. It attempts to analyze the business drivers, trends, issues and challenges associated with the implementation of such systems. It then presents a strategic framework and an overall ecosystem for the implementation of identity and access management system in different contexts of applications. It also introduces possible strategies and solutions for the development of a federated national identity infrastructure. It finally sheds light on a recent government implementation in the United Arab Emirates that was launched to develop a modern identity management infrastructure to enable digital identities and support their application in e-government and e-commerce context.