TEACHING AND LEARNING
Reference: Principles of Teaching 1
Corpuz PhD and Salandanan PhD
The Principal elements that makes teaching
and learning possible;
1. Teachers – serves as the prime mover of
the educational wheel.
2. Learners- Key participants.
3. Conducive Learning environmentprovides essential features and
ingredients that could make a headway in
guiding the processes and methodologies
needed for a smooth linkage among the
WITHOUT ONE THERE COULD BE NO TEACHING,
NOR WILL THERE BE LEARNING OF A DESIRED
AND ONLY WHEN A POSITIVE RELATIONSHIP
EXISTS AMONG THEM CAN TEACHING AND
“Every child is a potential Genius”
1. What is the nature of the learner?
2. With what is the learner equipped that
enables him/her to learn?
3. In what ways are learners different from
NATURE OF THE LEARNER
The learner is an embodied spirit.
Union of SENTIENT BODY and a RATIONAL
BODY – experiences sensations and feels
pleasure and pain.
SOUL – principle of spiritual acts, source of
intellectual abstraction, self-reflection and free
Body and Soul exist in mutual dependence.
As Teachers, let us care for the embodied
Let us feed his/her Body as well as his/her
FUNDAMENTAL EQUIPMENT OF THE
Learners is equipped with;
COGNITIVE as well as AFFECTIVE FACULTIES.
COGNITIVE – include his/her Five senses,
Instinct, Imagination, Memory and Intellect.
AFFECTIVE – are his/her Feelings,
Emotions and Rational will.
All learners are equipped with the
Cognitive and Affective faculties. They
differ however in the degree to which they
are utilized and expressed on account of the
learners’ ABILITY, APTITUDES, INTEREST,
FAMILY and CULTURAL BACKGROUND AND
Now, let us take a look once more at
the learner from the point of view of
these five (5) distinguishing elements.
It determines their capacity to understand and
assimilate information for their own use and
Learners differ in the way they observe and
interpret happenings in their surroundings. Some
are more perceptive and discerning while others
are less inquisitive.
With such typical reactions and facility to learn,
they maybe classified generally into;
FAST, AVERAGE and SLOW LEARNERS
Others labeled as HIGH, MODERATE and SLOW
As to their mental ability learners can be
categorized into SUPERIOR, ABOVE AVERAGE
and BELOW AVERAGE.
It refers to the learners innate talent or gift.
It indicates a natural capacity to learn certain
An early recognition of said natural adeptness
among learners is indeed compelling so as not
to waste such inborn learning.
Provisions of a formative environment will be
of great help in enabling them to flourish and
Learners vary in activities that are undertaken
due to a strong appeal or attraction.
- a physically robust student would go for
athletics, while artistic and stylish student
would pursue hobbies that are fascinating.
Girls are strongly attracted to flowering plants
and greeneries, Boys go for hiking and
Lessons that give them the chance to express their
deep feelings for objects or actions will be more
meaningful and easily absorbed.
- A classroom set-up could offer a centers of
interest that that make their stay pleasant and
FAMILY AND CULTURAL
socioeconomic background manifest a wide
range of behavior due to differences in
Their participation in classroom activities are
influenced by their home training and
experiences, either they become attuned and
confident in their ways or inactive and
Beneficial relationships of learners with their
mentors and with one another affirm the kind
of bond they enjoy at home.
Cooperation, coupled with a willingness to
share is instilled and is carried over to all
associations they join.
Learners have a unique way of thinking and
reacting facing the same situations in the
learning environment, they would react
differently depending on their personal
Students Learning Attitude;
Student attitudes on learning determine their
ability and willingness to learn.
If negative attitudes are not altered, a student is
unlikely to continue his education beyond
what is required.
Changing students' negative attitudes towards
learning is a process that involves determining
the factors driving the attitude and using this
How do Educators determine Student
Attitudes on Learning?
The answer is; They ask them.
Author of the book “Learning through
children’s eyes” Penny Oldfather, conducted a
study and documented their comments,
attitudes and motivation towards learning, she
found out that learners lack motivation.
They seem to desire a positive attitude and the
motivation to learn.
Once educators uncover student attitudes on learning,
the challenge is using this information to shape a
A positive learning attitude requires motivation and
gratification; the timing of those variables depends on
the Age of the student.
Adult students can see the future results of their
learning, such as a better job and more money.
Elementary students, however, are too young to see
the big picture. To them, the need for drive and
reward is instant. i.e. students must want to learn, be
receptive and participate in the learning process to
ultimately experience satisfaction from learning.
How to Compare a Positive and
Attitudes are hard to grasp, since they are not
really tangible objects. Attitudes are complex
mental and psychological characteristics of an
individual's way of thinking, and way of
interpreting, evaluating and otherwise learning to
deal with life and its myriad issues.
Our attitudes help define who we are, as seen by
those around us. Positive attitudes usually foster
positive interactions; Negative attitudes usually
foster negative interactions with others.
Positive attitudes help
motivate many people to
people who exude positive
positive effects on friends,
family and others they
Negative attitudes are
what motivate many
people to belittle or
behave in ways which
can have depressing
influences on those
Attitudes can be recognized easily by the
"fruits" they bring forth. In other words, if
someone's attitude makes you feel sad, or
depressed, or even angry or frustrated,
those feelings are Negative; On the other
hand, if their attitude makes you feel elated,
joyous or warmly settled, those feelings are
Some positive attitudes are;
a. Curiosity – curious students are at all times
eager to learn. They are anxious to know more
about an object or event by endlessly
questioning until they get the right information
Responsibility- responsible students pursue
assigned task to completion despite personal
constraints. They can easily instill the same
trustworthy attitude among themselves.
c. Creativity- students with creative minds are
capable of generating own ideas of doing things.
Learning is achieved through their own inventions
and novel revisions, thus producing new and
d. Persistence- persistent students sustain interest
in a learning activity not mindful of the extra time
and effort being spent. They pursue the task to
completion and never give up when confronted
with problems. They are driven by a never ending
search for more knowledge and information.