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  1. 1. Advantages of Survey Methods <ul><li>Ability to accommodate large samples sizes at relatively low cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of administration </li></ul><ul><li>They collect quantitative data ripe for advanced statistical analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to tap into factors or concepts that are not directly observable </li></ul>
  2. 2. Disadvantages of Survey Methods <ul><li>Possibility of systematic error increases </li></ul><ul><li>Limited use of probing questions </li></ul><ul><li>It can be difficult to know whether the selected respondents are being truthful </li></ul><ul><li>The statistical techniques selected may introduce very subtle and insidious levels of subjectivity </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types of surveys interview <ul><li>Person Administered </li></ul><ul><li>In home interview </li></ul><ul><li>Executive interview </li></ul><ul><li>Mall intercepted interview </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase interview </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone Administered </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone interview </li></ul><ul><li>Compute red assisted Telephone interview (answers by pushing buttons on their phones) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types of surveys interview <ul><li>Self Administered </li></ul><ul><li>Mail panel interview </li></ul><ul><li>Drop off survey </li></ul><ul><li>Mail survey </li></ul><ul><li>Computer assisted on line </li></ul><ul><li>Fax survey </li></ul><ul><li>E Mail survey </li></ul><ul><li>Internet surveys </li></ul>
  5. 5. Factors for selecting the appropriate survey method <ul><li>Situational Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Budgets </li></ul><ul><li>Competition time frame </li></ul><ul><li>Quality requirement of the data </li></ul><ul><li>Task Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty of the task </li></ul><ul><li>Stimuli needed to elicit a response </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of information needed </li></ul><ul><li>Research topic sensitivity </li></ul>
  6. 6. Factors for selecting the appropriate survey method <ul><li>Respondent Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Incidence rate </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of survey participation </li></ul>
  7. 7. Overview of the types of errors in survey research methods <ul><li>Non response errors </li></ul><ul><li>Response errors </li></ul><ul><li>Measurements and designs errors sources </li></ul><ul><li>Scaling Measurements error </li></ul><ul><li>Survey instruments designs error </li></ul><ul><li>Data analysis error </li></ul><ul><li>Misinterpretation error </li></ul>
  8. 8. Overview of the types of errors in survey research methods <ul><li>Administrative error source </li></ul><ul><li>Data processing error </li></ul><ul><li>Interview error </li></ul><ul><li>Sample design error </li></ul><ul><li>Non sampling error </li></ul><ul><li>Respondent error </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher ’s measurements design error </li></ul><ul><li>Faulty problem definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers administration problems </li></ul>
  9. 9. CONDITIONS FOR USING OBSERVATIONAL TECHNIQUES <ul><li>Information : Currents behavior patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Type of data : Necessary data must be observable </li></ul><ul><li>Time frame: Data patterns must meet repetitiveness frequency, and predictability factors in a prespecified time frame </li></ul><ul><li>Settings: behavior must be observable in some type of public or laboratory setting </li></ul>
  10. 10. CHARACTERISTICS OF OBSERVATION RESEARCH METHODS <ul><li>Directness of observation: The degree to which the researcher or trained observer actually observes the behavior or events as it occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects awareness of being observed </li></ul><ul><li>Structuredness of observation . The degree to which the behavior activities or events to be observed are specifically known to the researcher prior to doing the observations </li></ul><ul><li>Type of observing Mechanisms How the behavior activities or events will be observed and recorded </li></ul>
  11. 11. TECHNIQUES USED IN MEASURING PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONS AND REACTIONS <ul><li>The Voice Pitch analyzer </li></ul><ul><li>The pulpilometer </li></ul><ul><li>Eye tracking monitor </li></ul><ul><li>The Psychogalvanometer </li></ul>
  12. 12. SELECTING THE APPROPRIATE OBSERVATION METHOD <ul><li>The researcher must answer the following questions </li></ul><ul><li>What types of behavior are pertinent to the defined researcher problem? </li></ul><ul><li>How simple or complex are the behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>How much detail if the behavior is needed to be recorded? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the most appropriate setting (natural or contrived) for the behavior </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>How complex is the required public setting? </li></ul><ul><li>Is It available for observing the specified behavior or event? </li></ul><ul><li>To what extent are the desired behavior repetitious and frequently observed? </li></ul><ul><li>What degree of directness and structured should be associated with observing the behavior or events? </li></ul><ul><li>How aware should the subject be that they and their behavior should be observed </li></ul><ul><li>Are the observable events complex enough to require the use of a mechanical device for observing the behavior </li></ul>
  14. 14. Types pf variables used in experimental Designs <ul><li>Independent variable The independent variable is assumed to the causal factor of a functional relation ship with a dependent variable </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent variable a singular observable attribute or element that is the measured outcome or effect change on a specified test subject hat is derived from manipulating the independent variable measured -Control variable </li></ul><ul><li>Control Variable Variables that the researcher controls so that they don’ t affect the functional relationship between the impendent and dependent variable of the experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Extraneous variable Uncontrollable variables that should average out over a series of experiment, if not accounted for they can have a confounding impact on the dependent variable measures </li></ul>
  15. 15. Types of experimental Research Designs <ul><li>X = The exposure of an independent variable ( treatment manipulation) to a group of test subject for which the effects are to be determined. </li></ul><ul><li>O = the process of observation or measurement of the dependent variable (effect outcome) on the test subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>R = the random assignment of the test subjects to separate treatment groups </li></ul><ul><li>EG = The experimental group of a test subjects </li></ul><ul><li>CG = The control Group of a test subject </li></ul>
  16. 16. Pre experimental designs <ul><li>One shot study </li></ul><ul><li>When the researcher wishes to observe or measure al customer reactions to a product display in a single store </li></ul><ul><li>One group Pre test Post test </li></ul><ul><li>It is taken a pretest criterion measure of ad recall, product environment , media habits or purchase history the a experimental independent treatment measure is delivered( TV commercial) followed by a post test measure of the dependent variable </li></ul><ul><li>Static group comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Many studies look at a two sore settings of heavy users versus light users when comparing new produtcs sales </li></ul>
  17. 17. True experiemntal desings