“ Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women and girls, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivations of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life”.
Violence against women and girls is on the increase.
More violent forms, such as
femicide, acid attacks, ritual rapes and murders,
gang rapes, abductions, defilement and forced early marriages,
Military sexual slavery, rape as a weapon of war,
trafficking in women and girls and
ill-treatment of widows have become more widespread.
In spite of treaties, (the Protocol to the the African Charter) conventions, legislation and policies against some cultural practices the situation of women in Africa continue to be vulnerable to harmful traditional practices and customs such as FGM and widow inheritance, which expose them to the risk of HIV and AIDSduct
There is a palpable feeling that legislation alone is not enough to achieve equality in Africa, that it is not sufficient to change perceptions, or cultures of sexism – the types of cultures which are permissive to gendered violence happening. Even with an increasing number of women in parliament in some of the countries and increasing legislation to prevent discrimination and violence on the basis of gender, a culture of masculinity prevails. Why is that? Unequal power relationships continue
EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN TO END VAW- WHAT CAN WE DO?
Obtaining data on violence against women – use these to show the economic and social cost of VAW as well as emotional and psychological impact on the affected person
It is important that the extent, nature and root causes of such violence are well-documented. By analyzing such information, concrete steps can be taken, both legal and charitable, to reduce the occurrence of such violence and reduce its effects
Make ending VAW every one’s concern; everyone’s business: The boys in your life need your time and energy. Your son, grandson, nephew, younger brother, your male colleague. The boys you teach, coach and mentor. All need you to help them grow into healthy men. The girls in your life what are you teaching them above all what do they see!
THE UN has identified violence against women and girls "the most pervasive" human rights violation that we know today. Statistics from the world over, paint a clear picture of the social and health consequences of violence against women.
According to the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), violence against women is a major cause of death and disability for women aged 16 to 44 years
Ethnic groups: Maghrebians (Arab-Berbers) by heritage, Arab or Berber by identity
Languages: Classical Arabic (official, though not used in daily speech), Darija-Arabic (not used in writing), Berber (spoken and written but not fully standardized), French often the language of big business, government, military and diplomacy.
Literacy: (definition: age 15 and over can read and write) total population: 52.3% (male: 64.7% / female: 40.6%) (2004 census)
Legal system: based partly on Islamic law, French and Spanish civil law systems; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of The Moroccan Higher Council (the equivalent of the US Supreme Court).
The women of Morocco have played a major role in its history. They have been the backbone of the nation on many occasions. It suffices to take a quick look at the internationally known Karaouiyine university, to recall that it was founded by a woman. As this introduction does not allow me to go into further details, I will limit myself to mentioning the name "La Kahina" to evoke her courage and strength of character. This is our vision of a role women in Moroccan society must play as time goes by. We wish she would regain her luster and glory so she may enable the rebirth of prestige and dignity to her land and people. By Said Hajji
The Moroccan King, Mohammed VI, has announced a landmark reform to the law over women's position in the family. The changes to the personal status code would give women greater rights on matters covering marriage and divorce.
Complementary investments to increase education in Morocco
A study in Morocco used data from the Living Standards Measurements Survey, and a 1993 literacy study to
show that improved supply of school facilities in rural areas was insufficient to increase attendance and
attainment, particularly of females. It was concluded that complementary investments in rural infrastructure
and productive capacity are also needed. Different investments revealed striking gender-differentiated
effects. It was found that investment in paved roads, rural electrification and rural water supply has a more
marked impact on female than male enrollment in primary schools, whilst investing in more schools, irrigation
and advanced crop technologies increases male but not female schooling.
Source: Khandker et al. 1994, cited in Baden 1995b
Is There a Glass Ceiling in Morocco? Evidence from Matched Worker–Firm Data
Several empirical studies have found larger gender pay gaps at the upper tail of the wage distribution in developed countries, the so-called glass ceiling effect. In this paper, we investigate the relevance of the glass ceiling hypothesis in Morocco using a matched worker–firm data set of more than 8,000 employees and 850 employers working in the manufacturing sector. We estimate linear and quartile earnings regressions with controls for unobserved firm heterogeneity and perform a quantity decomposition. We also focus on the within-firm gender earnings gap using information on the firms' characteristics. Our results show that the gender earnings gap is higher at the top of the distribution than at the bottom. Furthermore, the gender gap widens in the upper tail of the earnings distribution when controlling for firm fixed effects.
(1992-97) for the first time highlighted the need to ensure a definite flow of funds from general developmental sectors to women It commented: “ … special programmers on women should complement the general development pro grammes The latter in turn should reflect greater gender sensitivity”
Reinforces commitment to gender budgeting to establish its gender-differential impact and to translate gender commitments into budgetary commitments. both preventive and post-factor action in enabling women to receive their rightful share from all the women-related general development sectors.
Aims at initiating immediate action in tying up the two effective concepts of Women Component Plan (WCP) and Gender Budgeting to play a complementary role to each other, and thus ensure both preventive and post-factor action in enabling women to receive their rightful share from all the women-related general development sectors.
“ It is more important to create a general awareness’ and understanding of the problems of women’s employment in all the top policy and decision making and executive personnel. There is also the special problem facing women like the preference for male children for social and cultural reasons. This will require awareness, understanding and action. The best way to do so is to educate the children, orient the teachers, examine the text books and teaching-aids and ensure that the next generation grows up with new thinking.” (6th Five Year Plan )
2005-06 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3)
Percentage of men and women age 15-19 regularly exposed to print media, TV, radio, or cinema
Gender Disparity 19%
The majority of employed women are engaged in agricultural work Type of worker Occupational Distribution (%) Women Men Professional 7 7 Sales 4 14 Service 7 5 Production 22 37 Agricultural 59 33 Other 2 4
Control over Women’s Earnings as Reported by Currently Married Women and Men Women’s report about their own earnings Men’s report about their wife’s earnings Mainly wife Husband & wife jointly Mainly husband Percent Percent Women’s report about their own earnings Men’s report about their wife’s earnings Mainly Husband Percent Husband & Wife jointly Mainly Wife
Are some women more likely than others to NOT participate in the use of their earnings? Percent of currently married women Age Residence Education Wealth Index
What are some of the other hurdles that prevent women from attaining gender equality?
Limited freedom of movement
Gender norms that promote men’s control over women.
A husband’s right to have sex with his wife irrespective of his wife’s wishes
Percentage of women age 15-49 who are allowed to go alone to The majority of women have little freedom of movement. Only one-third go alone to all three destinations: the market, health facility and outside the village or community .
Percentage who agree that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife if she