Direct & Indirect Speach (English)


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Direct & Indirect Speach (English)

  1. 1. There are two ways of reporting what somebody says; direct speech indirect (or reported) speech.
  2. 2. In indirect speech (sometimes called reported speech) we do not use the exact words of the speaker.Instead we report what was said.We sometimes need to change pronouns and verb tenses. We don’t use speech marks. “I am Helen said she was going going home. home.”
  3. 3. When using direct speech in your writing you need to use the correct punctuation. The exact words spoken must be enclosed in speech marks. The first word of the speech must begin with a capital letter. The words in the speech marks must be separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma. You must use a new line when a new speaker begins to speak.
  4. 4. Using speech in fiction and non-fiction writing adds variety.However, writing out long pieces of direct speech can make your writing confusing. It also slows down the action.Reported speech can summarise what the speaker has said so that the action moves along more quickly.Reported speech is useful when you want a contrast between what a character says and what he or she is thinking. (e.g. Lady Macbeth)
  5. 5.  Direct speech can  Indirect speech can show what a be summarised character is like. briefly so that it does Long speeches can not slow down the be boring. pace of the action. Too many speakers  It can show a can confuse the contrast between reader. what a character is Direct speech can saying and what he add variety to or she is thinking. writing.
  6. 6.  In your writing use mainly reported speech. Use direct speech only to emphasise the main points your characters make. Don’t bore and confuse your readers by writing out long conversations between your characters. Direct speech should be used sparingly. It is most effective when only the most forceful statements are put into direct speech.
  7. 7.  1. Change of pronouns Direct Speech John said, “I am coming.”Indirect Speech John said that he was coming.
  8. 8. 2. Change of tenses Direct Speech John said, “I am coming.”Indirect Speech John said that he was coming.
  9. 9. 3. Change of situationsDirect SpeechJohn said, “I did this exercise lastnight.”Indirect SpeechJohn said that he had done thatexercise the previous night.•this becomes that•last night becomes the previous night
  10. 10. •other examples are as follows :Direct Speech Indirect Speechthis thathere therenow thentoday that dayyesterday the day before / the previous daytomorrow the next daylast week the week before / the previous weeknext month the following monthago before
  11. 11. 4. Questions and answersDirect Speech1 John asked her, “Are you coming?” (yes/no question)2 John asked, “Where is Mary?” (wh-question)Indirect Speech1 John asked if / whether she was coming.2 John asked where Mary was.•yes/no questions - use if/whether•wh-questions - use the wh-word
  12. 12. 5. Actions : promises, orders, requests,advice etc.Direct SpeechJohn ordered Bill, “Clean my boots.”Indirect Speech John ordered Bill to clean his boots. (object + to + infinitive)
  13. 13. 6. Report using present and future tensesDirect SpeechJohn said,The sun rises from the east.Indirect Speech John said that the sun rises from the east.•if the original speaker’s present and future is still present andfuture•in other words, the tense is unchanged
  14. 14. 7. Modals verbsDirect SpeechJohn said,I must do my homework now.Indirect SpeechJohn said that he must do his homework then.•would , should, could, might, ought to and must are unchanged
  15. 15. 8. Wh- QuestionsDirect SpeechMy friend asked,"Where is Venus?"Indirect SpeechMy friend asked where Venus was.
  16. 16. Other examples of WH-questions:Direct SpeechMy friend asked "How are you?"Indirect SpeechMy friend asked how I was.TRANSFORMATION PROCESS:1) Put the subject before the verb.2) Change the pronoun: you to I3) Join the clauses using the how,who, whom, where, when, why4) Adjust the 2nd verb tothe time frame of the 1st verb.
  17. 17.  My friend said, "Where are you going?" My friend asked where I was going. My friend said, " Whom did you call?" My friend asked whom I had called.
  18. 18.  My friend said, " Whom I was calling?" My friend asked whom I had been calling. My friend said, " Where have you been?" My friend asked where I had been.
  19. 19.  He asked me, "What did she say?" He asked me what she had said. He asked me, "When are you leaving?" He asked me when I was leaving.
  20. 20.  He asked me, "Who is coming for dinner?" He asked me who was coming for dinner. He asked me, "How many times have you seen that movie?" He asked me how many times I had seen that movie.
  21. 21.  He asked me, "What time is it?" He asked me what time it was. He asked me, "How old are you?" He asked me how old I was.
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