Scanning & Skimming (English)


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Scanning & Skimming (English)

  1. 1. Week IX & XReading Comprehension Techniques
  2. 2. Why do we read?InformationInformation/pleasurePure pleasureExams !!!
  3. 3. What do we read?BooksNewspapers, MagazinesPhotocopies, articlesNoticesCorrespondenceForms, SignsHandheld media devicesComputer screensMulti-media carriers
  4. 4. What is the content?Fiction (long and short)SongsPlaysCurrent events, feature articles and essaysAcademic articles, reports, reviewsWarnings, directionsLetters, postcards and notesBusiness letters, solicitationsT-shirt messages, bumper stickersRaw data
  5. 5. What is the text structure? Charts, graphs, illustrations Isolated lines of text Free form Interlinear notes Point and click images Expository Narrative Headings, subheadings
  6. 6. What skills do we use?SkimmingScanningExtraction of specific informationIn-depth (extensive) readingMeta cognition (Hudson, 2007, p. 27)
  7. 7. Hard to believe but… • Reading applies to every class and everything you do on a daily basis! – Math – Social Studies – English – And yes…computers too! • Think about it… Reading is all around you…
  8. 8. What Good Readers Do…Make ConnectionsVisualizeInferDetermine ImportanceSynthesize
  9. 9. Making Connections
  10. 10. How Do Good ReadersMake Connections?They think about what the story reminds them of in their own livesThey think about how the story relates to their own livesThey think about other books they have readThey think about things that happen in the world
  11. 11. Visualizing
  12. 12. How Do Good ReadersVisualize?Create pictures in their headMake the words on the page real and concreteCreate a movie of the text in their headBuild meaning as they go by visualizingCreate images from all of their senses
  13. 13. Inferring I wonder… Could it be?
  14. 14. How Do Good ReadersInfer?Read between the linesMake own discoveries without the author directly statingUse text clues, prior knowledge, and questions to come up with a conclusionCreate meaning based on own notions
  15. 15. How does inferring help me think as Iread?Draw conclusions based on clues in the textMake predictions before and during readingSurface underlying themesUse implicit information from the text to create meaning during and after readingUse the pictures to help gain meaning
  16. 16. Determining Importance
  17. 17. How Do Good ReadersDetermine Importance?Get the bigger ideas and themesUse text features and clues to help them figure out the important informationSome features and clues include: italicized words, pictures, graphs, key words, and headingsAlways look over the entire selection to get an idea of what the topic is aboutCarefully highlight key information
  18. 18. How does determining importance helpme think as I read?It helps me to not have to memorize the whole textIt helps me figure out what is important information and what is not important to rememberIt helps me figure out what the text is about as a whole beforeIt helps me to remember to stop and ask myself if what I am reading makes senseIt helps me to look at features such as: bold words, italicized words, pictures, captions, headings, graphs and know that I should pay attention to these words
  19. 19. Synthesizing
  20. 20. How Do Good Readers Synthesize?Take individual pieces of information and combine them with our background knowledgeForm a new picture or ideas from the pieces of informationCreate an original ideaSee a new perspectiveCombine the strategies of making connections, visualizing, questioning, inferring, and summarizingAsk ourselves, “How has our thinking changed from reading the text?”
  21. 21. How does synthesizing help me thinkas I read?Take in a lot of different facts, think about them, and learn something newSift through a lot of information, take out the key ideas and put them together to get the overall sense of the reading materialWeave together what I read and my own ideas into new, complete thoughtsUse the prompts: I have learned that… This gives me an idea… Now I understand that…
  22. 22. How can we improve our reading??? Two important techniques include: Scanning And Skimming
  23. 23. What is skimming?Skimming refers to reading a paragraph quickly to get an idea of what it is about, without trying to understand its details. This is a technique used to identify the main ideas of a text.
  24. 24. What is skimming?When skimming,don’t read every thing but try to skip the textread the first and last sentences ofparagraphsread the introduction, and the summaryread a few examples until you understandthe concepts they are meant to illustrate
  25. 25. What is skimming???Skimming is used to quickly identify the main ideas of text. It works well to find dates, names and places.Skimming strategies include: Reading the first and last paragraphs. Using headings, summary and other organizers as you move down the page or screen. Read the title, subtitles, subheadings, and illustrations. Read the first sentence of each paragraph. This technique is useful when youre seeking specific information rather than reading for comprehension.
  26. 26. What is skimming???• Skimming is reading selectively to get a general idea of what an article is about.• Read some parts/skip others.• Look for the most important ideas.• Read for main ideas.• Skip facts and details.
  27. 27. What is skimming???• Skim through a review of the metric system if you already are familiar with it.• Skim a section of a reference book if you are looking for specific information• Skim a newspaper report if you wish only to understand the main events.• Skim a movie review to make a decision on seeing a movie.
  28. 28. What is skimming???Skimming: quickly running ones eyes over the test to get the gist or general understanding. (Grellet, 1981)"Skimming gives readers the advantage of being able to predict the purpose of the passage, the main topic or message, and possible some of the developing or supporting ideas."
  29. 29. What is skimming???Scanning: quickly searching for some particular piece of information in the text. (Grellet, 1981)"The purpose of scanning is to extractcertain specific information without readingthrough the whole text." (Brown, 1994)
  30. 30. What is skimming??? Read the title. Read the subtitle or introductory byline. Read the headings. Read the first sentence of each paragraph. Read the key words. Read the title or legend of graphics. Read the last paragraph or summary.
  31. 31. Skimming Textbook ChaptersFocus on:Chapter objectives and introductions.Headings and typographical aids.Graphic and visual aids.Review and discussion questions.
  32. 32. Skimming Newspaper Articles Read the: • Title • Opening paragraphs • First sentences of remaining paragraphs
  33. 33. Limitations of SkimmingCannot expect to retain facts and details.Expect 50% comprehension rate.Use only when reading for general concepts.
  34. 34. What is Scanning?Scanning refers to reading a text quickly in order to locate specificpieces of information. When scanning,  dont start from the beginning and read to the end  jump around in the text, trying to find the  information you need   can’t read every word / skip many words  look for information as quickly as you can
  35. 35. What is Scanning?You can scanA table of contents in a book or magazineAn index in a textbookA timetableThe ads in a newspaperA list of movies in the newspaperA telephone book The page of a dictionaryA passage/text/article to quickly find the information mentioned in the question.
  36. 36. What is scanning? Scanning is a technique you often use when you are looking for key words or ideas. – In most cases, you know what youre looking for, so youre concentrating on finding a particular answer.
  37. 37. ScanningScanning is searching for a specific piece of information; your only purpose is to locate that information.
  38. 38. Scanning1. Check the Organization.2. Form Specific Questions.3. Anticipate Word Clues.4. Identify Likely Answer Locations.5. Use a Systematic Pattern.6. Confirm Your Answer.
  39. 39. Reading TechniquesScanning: quickly searching for some particular piece of information in the text. (Grellet, 1981)"The purpose of scanning is to extract certain specific information without reading through the whole text." (Brown, 1994)
  40. 40. How do you scan? Scanning involves moving your eyes quickly down the page looking for specific words and phrases. Scanning can be used when you first find a resource to determine whether it will answer your questions. Once youve scanned the document, you might go back and skim it. When scanning, look for the authors use of organizers such as numbers, letters, steps, or the words, first, second, or next. Look for words that are bold faced, italics, or in a different font size, style, or color. Sometimes the author will put key ideas in the margin.
  41. 41. So……………Skim, to understand the general idea of a passage and …Scan for specific words, numbers, details or answers.
  42. 42. READING AND STUDY SKILLS: NOTE TAKINGFirst Step - PREPARATIONUse a large, loose-leaf notebook. Use only one side of thepaper. (you then can lay your notes out to see the directionof a lecture.) Draw a vertical line 2 1/2 inches from the leftside of you paper. This is the recall column. Notes will betaken to the right of this margin. Later key words or phrasescan be written in the recall column.
  43. 43. READING AND STUDY SKILLS: NOTE TAKINGSecond Step - DURING THE READINGRecord notes in paragraph form. Capture General ideas, not illustrative ideas. Skip lines to show end of ideas or thoughts. Using abbreviations will save time. Write legibly.
  44. 44. READING AND STUDY SKILLS: NOTE TAKINGThird Step - AFTER THE READINGRead through your notes and make it more legible ifnecessary. Now use the column. Jot down ideas or keywords which give you the idea of the lecture. (REDUCE)You will have to reread the lecturers ideas and reflect inyour own words. Cover up the right-hand portion of yournotes and recite the general ideas and concepts of thelecture. Overlap your notes showing only recall columnsand you have your review.