Service Marketing - Love Lock Chapter-14

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Christopher Love Lock
Services Marketing
Chapter Number Fourteen

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Service Marketing - Love Lock Chapter-14

  1. 1. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 1 Chapter 14: Improving Service Quality and Productivity
  2. 2. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 4 Integrating Service Quality and Productivity Strategies • Quality and productivity are twin paths to creating value for both customers and companies • Quality focuses on the benefits created for customers; productivity addresses financial costs incurred by firm • Importance of productivity: o Keeps costs down to improve profits and/or reduce prices o Enables firms to spend more on improving customer service and supplementary services o Secures firm’s future through increased spending on R&D o May impact service experience—marketers must work to minimize negative effects, promote positive effects
  3. 3. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 5 What Is Service Quality?
  4. 4. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 6 Different Perspectives of Service Quality Transcendent: Product-based: User-based: Manufacturing- based: Value-based: Quality = Excellence. Recognized only through experience Quality is precise and measurable.Diff in qualty = diff in the ingredient Quality lies in the eyes of the beholder Quality is in conformance to the firm’s developed specifications Quality is a trade-off between price and value
  5. 5. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 7 Components of Quality: Manufacturing-based Performance: Primary operating characteristics Features: Bells and whistles Reliability: Probability of malfunction or failure Conformance: Ability to meet specifications Durability: How long product continues to provide value to customer Serviceability: Speed, courtesy, competence Esthetics: How product appeals to users Perceived Quality: Associations such as brand name
  6. 6. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 8 Components of Quality: Service-based Tangibles: Appearance of physical elements Reliability: Dependable and accurate performance Responsiveness: Promptness; helpfulness Assurance: Competence, courtesy, credibility, security Empathy: Easy access, good communication, understanding of customer
  7. 7. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 9 Capturing the Customer’s Perspective of Service Quality: SERVQUAL (1) • Survey research instrument based on premise that customers evaluate firm’s service quality by comparing o Their 0 of service actually received o Their prior expectations of companies in a particular industry • Poor quality o Perceived performance ratings < expectations • Good quality o Perceived performance ratings > expectations
  8. 8. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 10 Capturing the Customer’s Perspective of Service Quality: SERVQUAL (2) • Developed primarily in context of face-to-face encounters • Scale contains 22 items reflecting five dimensions of service quality
  9. 9. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 11 How Customers Might Evaluate Online Businesses: Seven Dimensions of E-S-QUAL • Accessibility : Is site easily found? • Navigation: How easy is it to move around the site? • Design and presentation: Image projected from site? • Content and purpose: Substance and richness of site • Currency and accuracy • Responsiveness:Firm’s propensity to respond to e-mails • Interactivity, customization, and personalization • Reputation and security Source:Shohreh A. Kaynama (2000), “ A Conceptual Model to Measure Service Quality of Online Companies: E-qual, in Developments in Marketing Science,” Harlan E. Spotts and H. Lee Meadows, eds., Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 22, pp. 46–51. For more information pertaining to online service quality see A. Parasuraman, Vlerie A. Zeithaml, and Arvind Malhotra (2005), “E-S-QUAL: A Multiple-Item Scale for Assessing Electronic Service Quality.” Journal of Service Research, Vol. 7. issue 3. pp. 213–234.
  10. 10. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 13 The Gaps Model—A Conceptual Tool to Identify and Correct Service Quality Problems
  11. 11. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 14 Seven Service Quality Gaps (Fig 14.3) Customer experience relative to expectations 1. Knowledge Gap 2. Standards Gap 3. Delivery Gap 5. Perceptions Gap 7. Service Gap Customer needs and expectations 6. Interpretation Gap 4. Internal Communications Gap MANAGEMENT CUSTOMER 4. Customer perceptions of service execution Management definition of these needs Translation into design/delivery specs Execution of design/delivery specs Advertising and sales promises Customer interpretation of communications
  12. 12. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 15 Prescriptions for Closing the Seven Service Quality Gaps (1) (Table 14.3) 1. Knowledge gap: Learn what customers expect o Understand customer expectations o Improve communication between frontline staff and management o Turn information and insights into action 1. Standards gap: Specify SQ standards that reflect expectations o Set, communicate, and reinforce customer-oriented service standards for all work units o Measure performance and provide regular feedback o Reward managers and employees
  13. 13. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 16 Prescriptions for Closing the Seven Service Quality Gaps (2) (Table 14.3) 3.Delivery gap: Ensure service performance meets standards Clarify employee roles Train employees in priority setting and time management Eliminate role conflict among employees Develop good reward system 4.Internal communications gap: Ensure that communications promises are realistic o Seek comments from frontline employees and operations personnel about proposed advertising campaigns o Get sales staff to involve operations staff in meetings with customers o Ensure that communications sets realistic customer expectations
  14. 14. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 17 Prescriptions for Closing the Seven Service Quality Gaps (3) (Table 14.3) 5. Perceptions gap: Educate customers to see reality of service quality delivered o Keep customers informed during service delivery and debrief after delivery o Provide physical evidence 6.Interpretation gap: Pretest communications to make sure message is clear and unambiguous o Present communication materials to a sample of customers in advance of publication 7.Service gap: Close gaps 1 to 6 to meet customer expectations consistently
  15. 15. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 18 Measuring and Improving Service Quality
  16. 16. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 19 Soft and Hard Measures of Service Quality • Soft measures—not easily observed, must be collected by talking to customers, employees, or others o Provide direction, guidance, and feedback to employees on ways to achieve customer satisfaction o Can be quantified by measuring customer perceptions and beliefs  For example: SERVQUAL, surveys, and customer advisory panels • Hard measures—can be counted, timed, or measured through audits o Typically operational processes or outcomes o Standards often set with reference to percentage of occasions on which a particular measure is achieved o Control charts are useful for displaying performance over time against specific quality standards
  17. 17. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 20 Soft Measures of Service Quality • Key customer-centric SQ measures include: o Total market surveys, annual surveys, transactional surveys o Service feedback cards o Mystery shopping o Analysis of unsolicited feedback—complaints and compliments, focus group discussions, and service reviews • Ongoing surveys of account holders to determine satisfaction in terms of broader relationship issues • Customer advisory panels offer feedback/advice on performance • Employee surveys and panels to determine: o Perceptions of the quality of service delivered to customers on specific dimensions o Barriers to better service o Suggestions for improvement
  18. 18. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 21 Hard Measures of Service Quality • Control charts to monitor a single variable o Offer a simple method of displaying performance over time against specific quality standards o Are only good if data on which they are based is accurate o Enable easy identification of trends • Service quality indexes o Embrace key activities that have an impact on customers
  19. 19. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 22 Composition of FedEx’s Service Quality Index—SQI (Table 14.4) Late delivery—right day Late Delivery—wrong day Tracing request unanswered Complaints reopened Missing proofs of delivery Invoice adjustments Missed pickups Lost packages Damaged packages Aircraft delays (minutes) Overcharged (packages missing label) Abandoned calls 1 5 1 5 1 1 10 10 10 5 5 1 Failure Type Total Failure Points (SQI) = Weighting Factor XXX,XXX Daily Points X Number of Incidents =
  20. 20. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 24 Tools to Analyze and Address Service Quality Problems • Fishbone diagram o Cause-and-effect diagram to identify potential causes of problems • Pareto Chart o Separating the trivial from the important. Often, a majority of problems is caused by a minority of causes (i.e. the 80/20 rule) • Blueprinting o Visualization of service delivery, identifying points where failures are most likely to occur
  21. 21. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 25 Tools to Analyze and Address Service Quality Problems (Appendix) • Total Quality Management (TQM) • ISO 9000 o Comprises requirements, definitions, guidelines, and related standards to provide an independent assessment and certification of a firm’s quality management system • Malcolm Baldrige Model Applied to Services o To promote best practices in quality management, and recognizing, and publicizing quality achievements among U.S. firms • Six Sigma o Statistically, only 3.4 defects per million opportunities (1/294,000) o Has evolved from defect-reduction approach to an overall business- improvement approach
  22. 22. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 29 Six Sigma Methodology to Improve and Redesign Service Processes Process Improvement Process Design/Redesign Define • Identify the problem • Define requirements • Set goals • Identify specific or broad problems • Define goal/change vision • Clarify scope and customer requirements Measure • Validate problem/process • Refine problem/goal • Measure key steps/inputs • Measure performance to requirements • Gather process efficiency data Analyze • Develop causal hypothesis • Identify root causes • Validate hypothesis • Identify best practices • Assess process design • Refine requirements Improve • Develop ideas to measure root causes • Test solutions • Measure results • Design new process • Implement new process, structures, and systems Control • Establish measures to maintain performance • Correct problems as needed • Establish measures and reviews to maintain performance • Correct problems as needed
  23. 23. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 30 TQM in a Service Context: Twelve Critical Dimensions for Implementation • Top management commitment and visionary leadership • Human resource management • Technical system, including service process design and process management • Information and analysis system • Benchmarking • Continuous improvement • Customer focus • Employee satisfaction • Union intervention and employee relations • Social responsibility • Servicescapes • Service culture
  24. 24. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 31 Return On Quality (ROQ) • Assess costs and benefits of quality initiatives o ROQ approach is based on four assumptions:  Quality is an investment  Quality efforts must be financially accountable  It’s possible to spend too much on quality  Not all quality expenditures are equally valid • Determine optimal level of reliability o Diminishing returns set in as improvements require higher investments o Know when improving service reliability becomes uneconomical
  25. 25. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 33 Defining and Measuring Productivity
  26. 26. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 35 Service Efficiency, Productivity, and Effectiveness • Efficiency: Involves comparison to a standard, usually time-based (for example: how long employee takes to perform specific task) o Problem: Focus on inputs rather than outcomes o May ignore variations in service quality/value • Productivity: Involves financial valuation of outputs to inputs o Consistent delivery of outcomes desired by customers should command higher prices • Effectiveness: Degree to which firm meets goals o Cannot divorce productivity from quality and customer satisfaction
  27. 27. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 36 Measuring Service Productivity: Variability Is a Major Problem • Traditional measures of service output tend to ignore variations in quality or value of service o Focus on outputs rather than outcomes o Stress efficiency but not effectiveness • Measures with customers as denominator include: o Profitability by customer o Capital employed per customer o Shareholder equity per customer
  28. 28. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 37 Improving Service Productivity
  29. 29. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 39 Generic Productivity Improvement Strategies • Typical strategies to improve service productivity: o Careful control of costs at every step in process o Efforts to reduce wasteful use of materials or labor o Replacing workers by automated machines o Installing expert systems • Although improving productivity can be approached incrementally, major gains often require redesigning entire processes
  30. 30. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 41 Improving Service Productivity: (1) Operations-driven Strategies • Control costs, reduce waste • Set productive capacity to match average demand • Automate labor tasks • Upgrade equipment and systems • Train employees • Broadening array of tasks that a service worker can perform • Leverage less-skilled employees through expert systems • Service process redesign
  31. 31. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 42 Improving Service Productivity: (2) Customer-driven Strategies • Change timing of customer demand o By shifting demand away from peaks, managers can make better use of firm’s productive assets and provide better service • Involve customers more in production o Get customers to self-serve o Encourage customers to obtain information and buy from firm’s corporate websites • Ask customers to use third parties - Outsourcing o Delegate delivery of supplementary service elements to intermediary organizations
  32. 32. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 43 Backstage and Front-stage Productivity Changes: Implications for Customers • Backstage improvements can ripple to front and affect customers  For example: New printing peripherals may affect appearance of bank statements • Front-stage productivity enhancements are especially visible in high contact services o Some improvements only require passive acceptance, while others require customers to change behavior o Address customer resistance to changes o Conduct market research first if changes are substantial
  33. 33. Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter 14 - 44 A Caution on Cost Reduction Strategies • In absence of new technology, most attempts to improve service productivity seek to eliminate waste and reduce labor costs • Excessive pressure breeds discontent and frustration among customer contact personnel, who are caught between: • Better to search for service process redesign opportunities that lead to o Improvements in productivity o Simultaneous improvement in service quality
  34. 34. Now You are Perfect Service MarketersSmarter Effective Reliable Vibrant Intelligent Courteous Elegant Sharper Managers for the Future

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