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Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
Global economic env.
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Global economic env.

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  • 1. © 2005 Prentice Hall 2-1
  • 2. © 2005 Prentice Hall Market definition – People or organizations with needs and wants; both have the willingness and ability to buy or sell The global economic environment plays a large role in the development of new markets for organizations 2-2
  • 3. © 2005 Prentice Hall  The new realities: • Capital movements have replaced trade as the driving force of the world economy • Production has become uncoupled from employment • The world economy, not individual countries, is the dominating factor • 75-year struggle between capitalism and socialism has almost ended • E-Commerce diminishes the importance of national barriers and forces companies to re- evaluate business models 2-3
  • 4. © 2005 Prentice Hall 4 main types of economic systems • Market Capitalism • Centrally planned socialism • Centrally planned capitalism • Market socialism 2-4
  • 5. © 2005 Prentice Hall 2-5 Market Command Market Capitalism Centrally Planned Capitalism Market Socialism Centrally Planned Socialism Private Resource Ownership State Resource Allocation
  • 6. © 2005 Prentice Hall Individuals and firms allocate resources Production resources are privately owned Driven by consumers Government should promote competition among firms and ensure consumer protection 2-6
  • 7. © 2005 Prentice Hall  Opposite of market capitalism  State holds broad powers to serve the public interest; decides what goods and services are produced and in what quantities  Consumers can spend on what is available  Government owns entire industries  Demand typically exceeds supply  Little reliance on product differentiation, advertising, pricing strategy 2-7
  • 8. © 2005 Prentice Hall Economic system in which command resource allocation is used extensively in an environment of private resource ownership Examples: • Sweden • Japan 2-8
  • 9. © 2005 Prentice Hall Economic system in which market allocation policies are permitted within an overall environment of state ownership Examples: • China • India 2-9
  • 10. © 2005 Prentice Hall  Rankings of economic freedom among countries • Ranges from “free” to “repressed”  Variables considered include such things as: • Trade policy • Taxation policy • Banking policy • Wage and price controls • Property rights 2- 10
  • 11. © 2005 Prentice Hall  Free • Hong Kong • Singapore • Ireland • New Zealand • United States • United Kingdom • Netherlands • Australia • Switzerland  Repressed • Bosnia • Vietnam • Laos • Iran • Cuba • Iraq • Libya • North Korea • Congo 2- 11
  • 12. © 2005 Prentice Hall  World Bank has defined four categories of development-Based upon Gross National Product (GNP) • High-income countries • Upper-middle income countries • Lower-middle income countries • Low-income countries 2- 12
  • 13. © 2005 Prentice Hall GNP per capita of $785 or less Characteristics • Limited industrialization • High percentage of population involved in farming • High birth rates • Low literacy rates • Heavy reliance on foreign aid • Political instability and unrest Of these, only China and India are BEMs 2- 13
  • 14. © 2005 Prentice Hall  GNP per capita between $786 and $3,125  Sometimes called less-developed countries (LDCs)  Characteristics • Early stages of industrialization • Cheap labor markets • Factories supply items such as clothing, tires, building materials, and packaged foods  3 BEMs: Poland,Turkey, Indonesia 2- 14
  • 15. © 2005 Prentice Hall  GNP per capita between $3,126 to $9,655  Characteristics • Rapidly industrializing • Rising wages • High rates of literacy and advanced education • Lower wage costs than advanced countries  Sometimes called newly industrializing economies (NIEs)  3 BEMs: Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, South Africa 2- 15
  • 16. © 2005 Prentice Hall  GNP per capita above $9,656  Sometimes referred to as post-industrial countries  Characteristics • Importance of service sector, information processing and exchange, and intellectual technology • Knowledge as key strategic resource • Orientation toward the future 2- 16
  • 17. © 2005 Prentice Hall  China  India  Indonesia  South Korea  Brazil  Mexico  Argentina  South Africa  Poland  Turkey 2-17
  • 18. © 2005 Prentice Hall Characterized by a shortage of goods and services Long-term opportunities must be nurtured in these countries • Look beyond per capita GNP • Consider the LDCs collectively rather than individually • Consider first mover advantage • Set realistic Deadlines 2- 18
  • 19. © 2005 Prentice Hall Group of Seven (G-7) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development The Triad 2- 19
  • 20. © 2005 Prentice Hall  Leaders from these high income countries work to establish prosperity and ensure monetary stability • United States • Japan • Germany • France • Britain • Canada • Italy 2- 20
  • 21. © 2005 Prentice Hall 30 nations each with market-allocation economic systems Mission: to enable its members to achieve the highest sustainable economic growth and improve the economic and social well-being of their populations www.oecd.org 2- 21
  • 22. © 2005 Prentice Hall Dominant economic centers of the world • Japan • Western Europe • United States Expanded Triad • Pacific Region • North America • European Union 2- 22
  • 23. © 2005 Prentice Hall  Product Saturation Levels • The percentage of potential buyers or households that own a particular product • Graph shows that in India a private phone is owned by 1% of the population 2-23
  • 24. © 2005 Prentice Hall Record of all economic transactions between the residents of a country and the rest of the world • Current account – record of all recurring trade in merchandise and services, private gifts, and public aid between countries  trade deficit  trade surplus • Capital account – record of all long-term direct investment, portfolio investment, and capital flows 2- 24
  • 25. © 2005 Prentice Hall  U.S. balance of payments statistics for the period 1999 to 2003 2-25
  • 26. © 2005 Prentice Hall Foreign exchange makes it possible to do business across the boundary of a national currency Currency of various countries are traded for both immediate (spot) and future (forward) delivery Increases the risk to organizations that are involved in global marketing 2- 26
  • 27. © 2005 Prentice Hall  Definitions • Float refers to the system of fluctuating exchange rates • Managed refers to the specific use of fiscal and monetary policy by governments to influence exchange rates  Devaluation is a reduction in the value of the local currency against other currencies - Dirty refers to the fact that central banks, as well as currency traders, buy and sell currency to influence exchange rates 2- 27
  • 28. © 2005 Prentice Hall Supply and Demand interaction • Country sells more goods/services than it buys • There is a greater demand for the currency • The currency will appreciate in value 2- 28
  • 29. © 2005 Prentice Hall  Is a certain currency over/under- valued compared to another?  Assumption is that the Big Mac in any country should equal the price of the Big Mac in the US after being converted to a dollar price 2-29
  • 30. © 2005 Prentice Hall Economic exposure refers to the impact of currency fluctuations on the present value of the company’s future cash flows • Transaction exposure is from sales/purchases • Real operating exposure arises when currency fluctuations, together with price changes, alter a company’s future revenues and costs 2- 30
  • 31. © 2005 Prentice Hall Numerous techniques and strategies have been developed to reduce exchange rate risk • Hedging involves balancing the risk of loss in one currency with a corresponding gain in another currency • Forward Contracts set the price of the exchange rate at some point in the future to eliminate some risk 2- 31
  • 32. © 2005 Prentice Hall THANKYOU! 2- 32

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