Chapter 8(training & development of employees) HRM GArry Desslar

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Chapter 8(training & development of employees) HRM GArry Desslar

  1. 1. Human Resource Management TWELFTH EDITION GARY DESSLER BIJU VARKKEY Part 3 | Training and Development Chapter 8 Training and Developing EmployeesCopyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e
  2. 2. Purpose of Orientation Orientation Helps New Employees Know What Feel Understand Begin the Is Expected Welcome the Socialization in Work and and At Ease Organization Process BehaviorCopyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–2
  3. 3. The Orientation Process Company Employee Benefit Organization and Information Operations Personnel Employee Safety Measures Policies Orientation and Regulations Daily Facilities Routine TourCopyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–3
  4. 4. The Training Process • Training  The process of teaching new employees the basic skills they need to perform their jobs. • Training’s Strategic Context  The firm’s training programs must make sense in terms of the company’s strategic goals. • Performance Management  Taking an integrated, goal-oriented approach to assigning, training, assessing, and rewarding employees’ performance.Copyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–4
  5. 5. The Training Process (continued) The Five-Step Training and Development Process 1 Needs analysis 2 Instructional design 3 Validation 4 Implement the program 5 EvaluationCopyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–5
  6. 6. Training, Learning, and Motivation Make the Learning Meaningful 1. At the start of training, provide a bird’s-eye view of the material to be presented to facilitate learning. 2. Use a variety of familiar examples. 3. Organize the information so you can present it logically, and in meaningful units. 4. Use terms and concepts that are already familiar to trainees. 5. Use as many visual aids as possible. 6. Create a perceived need for training in the minds of the trainees.Copyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–6
  7. 7. Training, Learning, and Motivation (continued) Make Skills Transfer Easy 1. Maximize the similarity between the training situation and the work situation. 2. Provide adequate practice. 3. Label or identify each feature of the machine and/or step in the process. 4. Direct the trainees’ attention to important aspects of the job. 5. Provide “heads-up,” preparatory information that lets trainees know what might happen back on the job. 6. Trainees learn best at their own pace. If possible, let them pace themselves.Copyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–7
  8. 8. Training, Learning, and Motivation • Trainees learn best when the trainers immediately reinforce correct responses. • Trainees learn best at their own pace. • The schedule is important—the learning curve goes down late in the day; less than full day training is most effective.Copyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–8
  9. 9. Analyzing Training Needs Training Needs Analysis Task Analysis: Performance Analysis: Assessing New Employees’ Assessing Current Employees’ Training Needs Training NeedsCopyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–9
  10. 10. TABLE 8–1 Task Analysis Record FormNote: Task analysis recordform showing some of thetasks and subtasksperformed by a printingpress operator.Copyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–10
  11. 11. Assessing Current Employees’ Training Needs Assessment Center Results Performance Appraisals Methods for Job-Related Individual Diaries Identifying Performance Data Training Needs Attitude Surveys Observations Tests InterviewsCopyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–11
  12. 12. Training Methods • On-the-Job Training • Apprenticeship Training • Informal Learning • Job Instruction Training • Lectures • Programmed Learning • Audiovisual Training • Simulated Training (also Vestibule Training) • Computer-Based Training (CBT) • Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS) • Distance and Internet-Based TrainingCopyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–12
  13. 13. Training Methods (continued) • On-the-Job Training (OJT)  Having a person learn a job by actually doing the job. • Types of On-the-Job Training  Coaching or understudy  Job rotation  Special assignments • Advantages  Inexpensive  Learn by doing  Immediate feedbackCopyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–13
  14. 14. On-the-Job Training Steps to Help Ensure OJT Success 1 Prepare the Learner 2 Present the Operation 3 Do a Tryout 4 Follow UpCopyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–14
  15. 15. Training Methods (continued) • Effective Lectures  Don’t start out on the wrong foot.  Give listeners signals.  Be alert to your audience.  Maintain eye contact with audience.  Make sure everyone in the room can hear.  Control your hands.  Talk from notes rather than from a script.  Break a long talk into a series of five-minute talks.  Practice and rehearse your presentation.Copyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–15
  16. 16. Programmed Learning Presenting Providing Allowing the questions, facts, feedback on the person to or problems to accuracy of respond the learner answers • Advantages  Reduced training time  Self-paced learning  Immediate feedback  Reduced risk of error for learnerCopyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–16
  17. 17. Computer-Based Training (CBT) • Advantages  Reduced learning time  Cost-effectiveness  Instructional consistency • Types of CBT  Interactive multimedia training  Virtual reality trainingCopyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–17
  18. 18. Distance and Internet-Based Training Teletraining Videoconferencing Distance Learning Methods Internet-Based Training E-Learning and Learning PortalsCopyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–18
  19. 19. Management Development Long-Term Focus of Management Development Assessing the Appraising Developing the company’s managers’ managers and strategic current future needs performance managersCopyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–19
  20. 20. Management Development (continued) Managerial On-the-Job Training Coaching/ Job Action Understudy Rotation Learning ApproachCopyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–20
  21. 21. Management Development (continued) Off-the-Job Management Training and Development Techniques The Case Study Method Role Playing Management Games Behavior Modeling Outside Seminars Corporate Universities University-Related Programs Executive CoachesCopyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–21
  22. 22. Managing Organizational Change and Development What to Change Strategy Culture Structure Technologies EmployeesCopyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–22
  23. 23. Managing Organizational Change and Development (continued) The Human Resource Manager’s Role Effectively Organizing Overcoming using and leading resistance to organizational organizational change development change practicesCopyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–23
  24. 24. Managing Organizational Change and Development (continued) Overcoming Resistance to Change: Lewin’s Change Process 1 Unfreezing 2 Moving 3 RefreezingCopyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–24
  25. 25. How to Lead the Change • Unfreezing Phase  Establish a sense of urgency (need for change).  Mobilize commitment to solving problems. • Moving Phase  Create a guiding coalition.  Develop and communicate a shared vision.  Help employees to make the change.  Consolidate gains and produce more change. • Refreezing Phase  Reinforce new ways of doing things.  Monitor and assess progress.Copyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–25
  26. 26. Using Organizational Development Organizational Development (OD) 1 Usually involves action research. 2 Applies behavioral science knowledge. 3 Changes the organization in a particular direction.Copyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–26
  27. 27. TABLE 8–3 Examples of OD Interventions Human Process Applications HRM Applications T-groups (Sensitivity Training) Goal setting Process consultation Performance appraisal Third-party intervention Reward systems Team building Career planning and development Organizational confrontation meeting Managing workforce diversity Survey research Employee wellness Technostructural Interventions Strategic OD Applications Formal structural change Integrated strategic management Differentiation and integration Culture change Cooperative union–management Strategic change projects Self-designing organizations Quality circles Total quality management Work designCopyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–27
  28. 28. Evaluating the Training Effort • Designing the Study  Time series design  Controlled experimentation • Training Effects to Measure  Reaction of trainees to the program  Learning that actually took place  Behavior that changed on the job  Results achieved as a result of the trainingCopyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–28
  29. 29. FIGURE 8–6 Using a Time Series Graph to Assess a Training Program’s EffectsCopyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–29
  30. 30. FIGURE 8–7 A Sample Training Evaluation FormSource:www.opm.gov/employment_and_benefits/worklife/.Copyright © 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of HumanResource Management, 12/e 8–30

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