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Chapter 11 - Marketing Research



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  • 1. Marketing Research Aaker, Kumar, Day Eighth EditionInstructor’s Presentation Slides Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day
  • 2. Chapter ElevenAttitude Measurement Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day
  • 3. Attitude Measurement Majority of questions in marketing research are designed to measure attitudes Attitudes include  Information possessed  Feelings of like and/or dislike  Intentions to behave Management wants to understand and influence behavior Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 4. Reasons for Measuring Attitudes Attitudes lead to behavior More feasible to ask questions on attitudes than to observe and interpret behavior Large capacity for diagnosis and explanation Learn which features of a new product concept are acceptable or unacceptable Measure the perceived strengths and weaknesses of competitive alternatives Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 5. What Are Attitudes? Mental states used by individuals to structure the way they perceive their environment and guide the way they respond to it Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 6. Components of AttitudeCognitive or Knowledge Component  Represents a person’s information about an object  Awareness of existence on the object  Beliefs about the characteristics or attributes of the object  Judgments about the relative importance of each of the attributes Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 7. Components of Attitude (Cont.)Affective or Liking Component  Summarizes a person’s overall feelings toward an object, situation, or person  On a scale of like-dislike or favorable-unfavorable  When there are several alternatives, liking is expressed in terms of preference  Measured by asking which alternative is “most preferred” or “first choice,” which is the “second choice,” and so on Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 8. Components of Attitude (Cont.)Intention or Action Component  Refers to a person’s expectations of future behavior toward an object  Intentions are usually limited to a distinct time period that depends on buying habits and planning horizons Advantage  Incorporates information about a respondent’s ability or willingness to pay for the object, or other taken action Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 9. Measurement and ScalingMeasurement Standardized process of assigning numbers or other symbols to certain characteristics of objects of interests according to pre-specified rulesCharacteristics for Standardization One-to-one correspondence between the symbol and the characteristic in the object that is being measured Rules for assignment should be invariant over time and the objects being measured Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 10. Measurement and Scaling (Contd.)Scaling Process of creating a continuum on which objects are located according to the amount of the measured characteristic that the object possesses Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 11. Measurement ScalesNominal Scale Objects are assigned to mutually exclusive, labeled categories No necessary relationships among categories No ordering or spacing are implied Only possible arithmetic operation is a count of each category Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 12. Measurement Scales (Contd.)Ordinal Scale Rank objects or arrange them in order by some common variable Does each object have more or less of a variable than some other object? Does not provide information on how much difference between objects Arithmetic operations are limited to statistics such as median or mode Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 13. Measurement Scales (Contd.)Interval Scale Numbers are assigned to objects that represent categories, rank orders, as well as how much the object is preferred on the attribute being measured Differences can be compared Entire range of statistical operations can be employed Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 14. Measurement Scales (Contd.)Ratio Scale Type of interval scale with meaningful zero point Possible to say how many times greater or smaller one object is than another Magnitude scaling of attitudes has been calibrated through numeric estimation Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 15. Attitude Rating Scales Present a respondent with a continuum of numbered categories that represent the range of possible attitude adjustments Single item or multiple item scales Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 16. Classification of Attitude Attitude ScalesScales Single-Item Continuous Multi-Item Scales Scales Scales Itemized Category Comparative Scales Scales Semantic Associative Differential Scales Scale Q-sort Paired Scales Comparison Scales Rank Order Constant Pictorial Likert Thurstone Stapel Scales Sum Scales Scales Scales Scales Scales Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 17. Single Item Scales Only have one item to measure a construct Itemized-category scale most widely used by marketing researchers Other single item scales  Comparative  Rank-order  Q-sort  Pictorial  Constant sum Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 18. Single Item Scales (Contd.)Itemized-category Scales Scales in which the respondent selects from a limited number of categoriesComparative Scale A judgment comparing one object, concept, or person against one another Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 19. Single Item Scales (Contd.)Rank-order Scales Scale in which the respondent compares one item with another or a group of items against each other and ranks themQ-sort Scaling Respondents sort comparative characteristics into normally distributed groups Ten or more groups increases accuracy of results Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 20. Single Item Scales (Contd.)Constant-sum scale Respondents allocate a fixed number of rating points among serial objects to reflect relative preferencePictorial scales Various categories of the scale are depicted pictorially  Thermometer Scale  Funny faces scale Format must be comprehensible to respond and allow accurate response Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 21. Single Item Scales (Contd.)Paired-Comparison Scales The brands to be rated are presented two at a time, so each brand in the category was compared once to every other brand Brands are rated on a given 10 pts. that are then divided between the two brandsAdvantages Performs well on the criteriaLimitations Cumbersome to administer Frame of reference is always the other brand being tested; these brands may change over time Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 22. Designing Single Item Scales Number of Scale Categories Types of Poles Used in the Scale Strength of the Anchors Labeling of the Categories Balance of a Scale Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 23. Multiple-item Scales Developed to measure a sample of beliefs toward the attitude objects and combine the set of answers into an average score Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 24. Multiple-item Scales (Contd.)Likert Scale Requires respondent to indicate degree of agreement or disagreement with a variety of statements related to the attitude object Summated Scale  Scores on individual items are summed to give total score for respondents Likert Scale Is Uni-dimensional Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 25. Multiple-item Scales (Contd.)Thurstone Scales Also known as the method of equal-appearing intervals; objective is to obtain a unidimensional scale with interval propertiesStep 1:  Generate a large number of statements or adjectives reflecting all degrees of favorableness toward the attitude of objectsStep 2:  A group of judges is given this set of items and asked to classify them according to their degree of favorableness or unfavorableness Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 26. Multiple-item Scales (Contd.)Thurstone Scales (Cont.)Advantages  Easy to administer  Requires minimum instructionsLimitations  Time consuming  Expensive to construct  Not as much diagnostic value as a Likert scale  Values depend on the attitudes of the original judges Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 27. Multiple-item Scales (Contd.)Semantic-differential Scale Respondents rate each attribute object on a number of five or seven-point rating scales bounded by polar adjectives or phrases With bipolar scale, the midpoint is a neutral point Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 28. Characteristics of Semantic DifferentialScales in Semantic Marketing Applications : Pairs of objects or phrases must be meaningful in market being studied and often correspond to product/service attributes Avoid "halo" effect by placing negative pole on either side Category increments are treated as interval scales so group mean values can be computed for each object on each scale May also be analyzed as a summated rating scale Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 29. Characteristics of Semantic Differential (Contd.)Profile Analysis Application of semantic differential scale Plot mean ratings of each object on each scale for visual comparison Overall comparison of brands hard to grasp with many brands and attributes Not all attributes are independent Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 30. Multiple-item Scales (Contd.)Stapel Scales Uses one pole rather than two opposite poles Respondents select a numerical response category High positive score reflects good fit between adjective and object Easy to administer and construct No need to assure bipolarity Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 31. Multiple-item Scales (Contd.)Associative Scaling Most effective for markets where respondent is knowledgeable only about a small subset of a large number of choices Appropriate to choice situations that involve a sequential decision process Best suited to market tracking where the emphasis is on understanding shifts in relative competitive positions Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 32. Multiple-item Scales (Contd.)Continuous Rating Scales Respondents rate objects by placing a mark at appropriate position on a line running from one extreme of the criterion variable to the other Values can be interpreted as interval or ratio scaled data It is easy to construct Scoring is cumbersome and unreliable Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 33. General Guidelines For Developing A Multiple-Item Scale Determine clearly what you are going to measure Generate as many items as possible Ask experts in the field to evaluate the initial pool of items Determine the type of attitudinal scale to be used Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 34. Include some items that will help in the validation of the scaleAdminister the items to an initial sample Evaluate and refine the items Finally, optimize the scale length Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 35. Choosing An Attitudinal ScaleProblems in choosing  There are many different techniques, each with its own strengths and weaknesses  Virtually any technique can be adapted to the measurement of any one of the attitude componentsResearchers choice shaped by:  The specific information required  Adabtability of the scale to the data collection method and budget constraints  Compatibility of the scale with the structure of the respondent’s attitude Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 36. Accuracy of Attitude MeasurementsValidity  An attitude measure has validity if it measures what it is supposed to measureFace Validity  The extent to which the content of a measurement scale appears to tap all relevant facets of the constructCriterion Validity  Based on empirical evidence that the attitude measure correlates with other “criterion” variables Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 37. Accuracy of Attitude Measurements (Cont.)Concurrent validity  Two variables are measured at the same timePredictive validity  The attitude measure can predict some future eventConvergent validity  A form of construct validity that represents the association between the measured construct and measures of other constructs with which the construct is related on theoretical grounds Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 38. Accuracy of Attitude Measurements (Cont.)Discriminant validity  A form of construct validity that represents the extent to which the measured construct is not associated with which the construct is related on theoretical groundsConstruct Validity  A scale evaluation criterion that relates to the underlying question "what is the nature of the underlying variable or construct measured by the scale?" Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 39. Accuracy of Attitude Measurements (Contd.)Reliability  The consistency with which the measure produces the same results with the same or comparable populationSensitivity  Extent to which ratings provided by a scale are able to discriminate between the respondents who differ with respect to the construct being measured Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 40. Accuracy of Attitude Measurements (Contd.)Generalizability  Refers to the ease of scale administration and interpretation in different research settings and situationsRelevancy  Relevance = reliability * validity Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©
  • 41. Scales in Cross-national ResearchResponses Can Be Affected by: Low literacy and educational levels Culture in a country Semantic differential scale is closest to pan cultural scale Adapting response formats, particularly their calibration, for specific countries and cultures Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker ©