Attitude and change - Consumer Behaviour

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  • These are models that breakdown overall attitude into the attributes or beliefs which form an overall opinion.
  • According to the attitude-toward-object model, consumers will like a brand or product that has an adequate level of attributes that the consumer thinks are positive. For example, if you are buying a home, there is a list of attributes that the home must have – 2 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms, air conditioning, and a back yard. With this model, an attitude is positive for the house that has the most of these attributes.
  • Instead of asking people what product they like and have positive attitudes toward, the attitude-toward-behavior model is based on how positive someone's attitude is toward acting a certain way, for instance purchasing a certain brand. The question is now how likely are you to purchase brand X rather than how highly do you rate brand X.
  • This is a model that looks at people’s attitudes toward purchasing online. On the lefthand side are the consumer characteristics that tend to impact a person’s attitude toward purchasing online. Their attitude was broken down further by how they view nine benefits of online shopping, including effectiveness, convenience, information, safety, service, delivery speed, web design, selection, and familiarity with company name. In addition, the attitude leads to how a consumer will rate an online shopping experience.
  • Like other models, the theory of reasoned action has the three components, cognitive (think), affective (feel), and conative (do). In this model, we also need to understand subjective norms or how a consumer is influenced by others.
  • This is a figure of the theory of reasoned action. The subjective norms that are distinctive to this model are the two lower blocks on the right. A consumer has beliefs about what others think they should do and also have differing levels of how likely they will follow those beliefs, also known as their motivation to comply with the referents. This subjective norm is now combined with the consumer’s personal attitude toward a behavior to form an intention to perform a behavior. This intention may or may not lead to the actual behavior.Certain groups are very influenced by the motivation to comply with people in their group. This web link brings you to This site for younger female teens is loaded with information to supply motivation – see if you can identify three on the homepage alone.
  • The theory of trying to consume addresses the fact that many people may want to purchase but in many cases they cannot. This may occur for personal reasons, such as not having enough money, or environmental reasons, such as not being able to go to a particular store.
  • The attitude-toward-the-ad model helps us understand how advertising impacts attitudes.
  • Here we see that everything begins with exposure to the ad. After this exposure, the consumer has feelings (affect) and thoughts (cognition) regarding the ad. This forms an attitude which works with beliefs about the brand to help form an attitude toward the brand.
  • Attitudes are formed through learning. Recalling the concepts of classical and operant conditioning from earlier chapters, we recall that two stimuli can be paired or linked together to form a learned response. In addition, consumers can learn attitudes from rewards or outcomes from behavior.If attitudes are learned, then it is through experiences that this learning occurs. This can be from personal experience or from experiences with friends or exposure to marketing influences. Another topic studied in an earlier chapter comes into play with attitude formation. This is the consumer’s need for cognition. People will form attitudes based on the information that best suits them, information for the high need for cognition consumer, and images and spokespeople for the low need for cognition.
  • Here are five strategies for attitude change. If you think about it, attitude change and formation are not all that different. They are both learned, they are both influenced by personal experience, and personality affects both of them.
  • Changing the basic motivational function means to change the basic need that a consumer is trying to fulfill. Utilitarian function is how the product is useful to us. A marketer might want to create a more positive attitude toward a brand by showing all it can do. An ego-defensive function would show how the product would make them feel more secure and confident. A value-expressive function would more positively reflect the consumer’s values, lifestyle, and outlook. Finally, the knowledge function would satisfy the consumer’s “need to know” and help them understand more about the world around them.It is important for marketers to realize that they might have to combine functions because different customers are motivated to purchase their products for different reasons. Someone might buy a product because it tastes good and fills them up (utilitarian), while another thinks it is low fat and will make them healthy and therefore look better (ego-defensive).
  • Perhaps the consumer thinks inexpensive is fine for a product, but a marketer might be able to point out that it is often worth paying a bit more for better quality. A marketer can also change the way consumers believe a brand rates on a certain attribute. Maybe a consumer thinks a brand is very expensive when in fact it is less expensive then several other brands. There may be an attribute that does not even exist. Who thought chewiness was an attribute that could even exist for a vitamin until Gummy Vites came along?Finally, we can step away from looking individually at the attribute and attempt to change the consumer’s overall assessment of the brand. We can do any of these attitude change strategies by changing beliefs of our own product or our competitor's product.


  • 1. Consumer AttitudeFormation andChange
  • 2. AttitudeA learnedpredisposition tobehave in aconsistently favorableor unfavorable mannerwith respect to a givenobject.We have attitudes toward manythings – to people, products,advertisements, ideas, and more.2
  • 3. What Are Attitudes?• The attitude “object”• Attitudes are a learned predisposition-either through direct experience or from others• Attitudes may not be consistent overtime• Attitudes occur within a situation3
  • 4. Structural Models of Attitudes• Tricomponent Attitude Model• Multiattribute Attitude Model• The Trying-to-Consume Model• Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model4
  • 5. CognitionA Simple Representation of the TricomponentAttitude Model5
  • 6. The Tricomponent Model• Cognitive• Affective• ConativeThe knowledge andperceptions that areacquired by acombination of directexperience with theattitude object andrelated informationfrom various sourcesComponents6
  • 7. The Tricomponent Model• Cognitive• Affective• ConativeA consumer’semotions or feelingsabout a particularproduct or brandComponents7
  • 8. The Tricomponent Model• Cognitive• Affective• ConativeThe likelihood ortendency that anindividual willundertake a specificaction or behave in aparticular way withregard to the attitudeobjectComponents8
  • 9. MultiattributeAttitudeModelsAttitude models thatexamine thecomposition ofconsumer attitudesin terms of selectedproduct attributes orbeliefs.9
  • 10. Multiattribute Attitude Models• The attitude-toward-object model• The attitude-toward-behavior model• Theory-of-reasoned-action model• Attitude is function ofthe presence of certainbeliefs or attributes.• Useful to measureattitudes towardproduct and servicecategories or specificbrands.Types10
  • 11. Multiattribute Attitude Models• The attitude-toward-object model• The attitude-toward-behavior model• Theory-of-reasoned-action model• Is the attitude towardbehaving or acting withrespect to an object,rather than the attitudetoward the object itself• Corresponds closely toactual behaviorTypes11
  • 12. Consumer Characteristics, Attitude,and Online Shopping12
  • 13. Multiattribute Attitude Models• The attitude-toward-object model• The attitude-toward-behavior model• Theory-of-reasoned-action model• Includes cognitive,affective, and conativecomponents• Includes subjectivenorms in addition toattitudeTypes13
  • 14. A Simplified Version of the Theory ofReasoned Action14
  • 15. Theory ofTrying toConsumeAn attitude theorydesigned to accountfor the many caseswhere the action oroutcome is not certainbut instead reflectsthe consumer’sattempt to consume(or purchase).15
  • 16. Attitude-Toward-the-Ad ModelA model that proposesthat a consumer formsvarious feelings (affects)and judgments(cognitions) as the resultof exposure to anadvertisement, which, inturn, affect theconsumer’s attitudetoward the ad andattitude toward thebrand.16
  • 17. A Conception of the Relationship AmongElements in an Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model17
  • 18. Issues in Attitude Formation• How attitudes are learned– Conditioning and experience– Knowledge and beliefs18
  • 19. Issues in Attitude Formation• Sources of influence on attitude formation– Personal experience– Influence of family– Direct marketing and mass media• Personality factors19
  • 20. Strategies of Attitude ChangeChanging the Basic Motivational FunctionAssociating the Product with an Admired Group or EventResolving Two Conflicting AttitudesAltering Components of the Multiattribute ModelChanging Beliefs about Competitors’ Brands20
  • 21. Changing the Basic Motivational FunctionUtilitarianEgo-defensiveValue-expressiveKnowledge21
  • 22. Attitude Change• Altering Components of the MultiattributeModel– Changing relative evaluation of attributes– Changing brand beliefs– Adding an attribute– Changing the overall brand rating• Changing Beliefs about Competitors’Brands22
  • 23. Behavior Can Precede or FollowAttitude FormationCognitive DissonanceTheory• Holds that discomfortor dissonance occurswhen a consumer holdsconflicting thoughtsabout a belief or anattitude object.Attribution Theory• A theory concernedwith how people assigncausality to events andform or alter theirattitudes as an outcomeof assessing their ownor other people’sbehavior.23
  • 24. Issues in Attribution Theory• Self-Perception Theory– Foot-in-the-Door Technique• Attributions toward Others• Attributions toward Things• How We Test Our Attributions– Distinctiveness; action occurs when the product is present, anddoes not occur when the product is absent.– Consistency over time; whenever product is present-reaction isthe same.– Consistency over modality; reaction is the same- even whensituation varies.– Consensus; action is perceived in the same way by others.24
  • 25. THANK YOU!25