She was new at the firm, & 8 months pregnant. Staying late one night, she looked up from her work & was startled to see her boss standing outside her door. He asked how she was doing, sat down, and started to talk with her. He wanted to know all about her life. How did she like her job? Where did she want to go in her career? Would she come back to work after she had the baby?
(cont’d) These conversations continued daily over the next month, until the woman had her baby. The boss was David Ogilvy, the legendary advertising executive. The pregnant newcomer was Shelley Lazarus, now CEO of Ogilvy & Mather, the huge ad agency that Ogilvy founded. One of the main reasons Lazarus says she's still there, decades later, is the bonds she forged with her mentor Ogilvy in those first after-hours conversations. (Shelley Lazarus & David Ogilvy, "A Job and a Life Intertwined," The New York Times , 23 May 2001, C3.)
Drucker: "Leadership is something scientific but has artistic expression"
Dowd (1936) : History and social institutions shaped by the leadership of great men and women (e.g., Moses, Mohammed, Jeanne d’Arc, Washington, Gandhi, Churchill, etc.). Dowd (1936) maintained that “there is no such thing as leadership by the masses. The individuals in every society possess different degrees of intelligence, energy and moral force, and in whatever direction the masses may be influenced to go, they are always led by the superior few.”
The leader is endowed with superior traits and characteristics that differentiate him from his followers. Research of trait theories addressed the following two questions: What traits distinguish leaders from other people? What is the extent of those differences?
Argyris (1957, 1962, 1694); Blake & Mouton (1964, 1965); Hersey & Blanchard (1969, 1972); Likert (1961, 1967); Maslow (1965); McGregor (1960, 1966) Humanistic theories deal with the development of the individual in effective and cohesive organizations. Those holding this theoretical perspective assume that human beings are by nature motivated beings, and that organizations are by nature structured and controlled. According to them, leadership is to modify organizational constraints to provide freedom for individuals in order to realize their full potential and contribute to the organization.
Characteristics of the individual and the demands of the situation interact in a way to allow one or a few individuals to emerge as leaders. Groups are structured based upon the interactions of the members of the group, and the group becomes organized according to different roles and positions. Leadership is one of the differentiated roles, and the person in that position is expected to behave in a way that differs from others in the group. Leaders behave according to how they perceive their role and what others expect them to do. Mintzberg articulated the following leadership roles: figurehead, leader, liaison, monitor, disseminator, spokesman, entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator.
M.G. Evans (1970); Georgopoulos, Mahoney, & Jones (1957): House (1971); House & Dessler (1974)
Leaders reinforce change in followers by showing followers the behaviors (paths) through which rewards may be obtained. Leaders also clarify followers’ goals and encourage them to perform well. Situational factors will determine the way leaders will achieve these path-goal purposes.
Bogardus (1918); Hersey & Blanchard (1972); Hocking (1924); Person (1928); H. Spencer
Leadership is the product of situational demands: Situational factors determine who will emerge as a leader rather than a person’s heritage. The emergence of a great leader is the result of time, place and circumstance.
The effectiveness of a task- or relations-oriented leader is contingent upon the situation. Leadership-training programs modeled after this theory help a leader identify his or her orientation and to adjust better to the favorability or unfavorability of the situation.
Coch & French (1948); J. Gardner (1990); Lewin, Lippitt, & White (1939); Vroom & Yetton (1974)
The power-influence approach to leadership includes participative leadership. Power-influence research examines how much power the leader possesses and exerts. The approach also assumes uni-directional causality. Participative leadership deals with power sharing and empowerment of followers.
(cont’d) Vroom & Yetton (1974) proposed a prescriptive theory of leadership that assumes leaders are directive and subordinates are passive followers. When subordinates possess more knowledge, however, their role should be more participative. Gardner believes that “leadership is the process of persuasion or example by which an individual (or leadership team) induces a group to pursue objectives held by the leader and his or her followers.” He indicates that leadership is a role to be filled and, therefore, leaders play an integral role in the system over which they preside.
“ the ability to get someone to do something you want done or to make things happen the way you want them to.”
(1) Position Power (reward power, coercive power, legitimate power),
(2) Personal Power (expert power, rational persuasion, referent power)
(Leadership = a key power mechanism)
Sources of Power Reward Power Legitimate Power Coercive Power Expert Power Referent Power Enable managers to be leaders & influence subordinates to achieve goals
Consideration vs. Initiating Structure Consideration Initiating Structure Is friendly, approachable Do little things to make it fun to be a member of group Give advance notice of changes Willing to make changes Treats group members as equals Tries out ideas in the group Lets group members know what is expected Assigns workers to tasks Schedules work to be done Maintains standards of performance Rate manager from 1 (never does) to 5 (always does) Employee-oriented Job-oriented
Leaders are teachers. Leaders establish the “teachable point of view”. Leadership is about motivating others by teaching stories. Tichy contends that effective leadership equates with effective teaching.
According to Burns, transformational leadership is a process wherein “leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of morality and motivation.” Followers are assumed to transcend self-interest for the good of the group, consider long-term objectives, and develop awareness of what is important.
(cont’d) According to Bennis, effective leaders perform three functions: align, create, and empower. Leaders transform organizations by aligning human and other resources, creating an organizational culture that fosters the free expression of ideas, and empowering others to contribute to the organization. Bennis is known for the distinction he makes between management and leadership; his view, summarized best in his own words, is: “Leaders are people who do the right thing; managers are people who do things right.”
Climbing the ladder fast “ Is the ladder against the right wall?” In the systems On the systems Practices Principles Methods Purposes Bottom line Top line Speed Direction Doing things right Doing the right things Measurement Discernment Utility Principle-centered power Transaction Transformation Techniques Principles Expense Investment Program Programmer Efficiency Effectiveness Control Release, empowerment Structure Spontaneity, serendipity Things People MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP
Strategic Leadership : Drucker (1999); Jacobs & Jaques (1990); Jaques & Clement (1991); Kotter (1998, 1999); Buckingham & Coffman (1999); Buckingham & Clifton (2001) Leadership represents integration between external and internal partnerships. Drucker highlights three components of that integration: financial , performance and personal . He believes leaders are responsible for performance of their organizations and for the community as a whole. Leaders fill roles and possess special characteristics.
Strategic Leadership (cont’d) : According to Kotter, leaders communicate vision and direction, align people, motivate, inspire, and energize followers. In addition, leaders are change agents and empowerers of their people. Leadership is the process of giving purpose (meaningful direction) to collective effort, and causing willing effort to be expended to achieve purpose. Further, effective managerial leadership spawns effective managerial work. These authors favor requisite leadership that is dependent upon time and place, and the individual and situations.
Primal Leadership = Leadership based on Competencies drawn from Emotional Intelligence:
1) SELF-AWARENESS a) Emotional Self-awareness b) Accurate self-assessment c) Self-confidence
2) SELF-MANAGEMENT a) Self-control b) Transparency c) Adaptability d) Achievement e) Initiative f) Optimism
3) SOCIAL AWARENESS a) Empathy b) Organizational Awareness c) Service
4) RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT a) Inspiration b) Influence c) Developing others d) Change catalyst e) Conflict management f) Teamwork & collaboration
THE LEADERSHIP REPERTOIRE: (Leadership Styles in a Nutshell)
1) VISIONARY - How it builds resonance: Moves people toward shared dreams. Impact on Climate: Most strongly positive. When appropriate: When changes require a new vision, or when a clear direction is needed.
2) COACHING: How it builds resonance: Connects what a person wants with the organization's goals. Impact on Climate: Highly positive. When appropriate: To help an employee improve performance by building long-term capabilities.
3) AFFILIATIVE: How it builds resonance: Creates harmony by connecting people to each other. Impact on Climate: Positive. When appropriate: To heal rifts in a team, motivate during stressful times, or strengthen connections.
4) DEMOCRATlC: How it builds resonance: Values people's input & gets commitment through participation. Impact on Climate: Positive. When appropriate: To build buy-in or consensus, or to get valuable input from employees.
5) PACESETTING How it builds resonance: Meets challenging & exciting goals. Impact on Climate: Because too frequently poorly executed, often highly Negative. When appropriate: To get high-quality results from a motivated & competent team.
6) COMMANDING: How it builds resonance: Soothes fears by giving clear direction in an emergency. Impact on Climate: Because often misused, highly Negative. When appropriate: In a crisis, to kick-start a turnaround, or with problem employees.
A trade association of U.S. insurance companies commissioned a study of the leadership qualities of CEOs and the business performance of the companies they led. A research team tracked the financial results achieved by 19 CEOs of major insurance companies and split them into 2 groups -"outstanding" and "good"- on the basis of measures such as their company's profit and growth (cf. Daniel Williams, 'Leadership for the 21st Century: Life Insurance Leadership Study', 1995). Then the team conducted intensive interviews to assess the capabilities that distinguished the outstanding CEOs from those who merely did a good enough job. The team evaluated each CEO, and also sought candid (confidential) evaluations from their direct reports.
(cont’d) The singular talent that set the most successful CEOs apart from others turned out to be a critical mass of emotional intelligence competencies. The most successful CEOs spent more time COACHING their senior executives, DEVELOPING them as COLLABORATORS, and cultivating PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS with them. Of the abilities conspicuously ABSENT in the SOB-style leader, of course, high on the list are EMPATHY , artful collaboration , and caring about developing the best in people. Moreover, when the company's CEO exhibited EI strengths, profits & sustained growth were highest --significantly higher than for companies where CEOs lacked those strengths.
Epilogue: From effectiveness to Greatness! (Covey, Collins…)
The research of Collins ( “Good to Great” ) concludes that the difference between organizations that produce sustained great results and those that don’t are that the great organizations are led by what he calls Level 5 Leaders – those with a paradoxical combination of humility and fierce resolve .