CRANACH, Lucas (1472-1553) Cristo y la mujer adúltera6&9 6th & 9th Commandments 1532 Museo de Bellas Artes Budapest
Compendium of the Catechism 488. What is chastity? Chastity means the positive integration of sexuality within the person. Sexuality becomes truly human when it is integrated in a correct way into the relationship of one person to another. Chastity is a moral virtue, a gift of God, a grace, and a fruit of the Holy Spirit. 489. What is involved in the virtue of chastity? The virtue of chastity involves an apprenticeship in self-mastery as an expression of human freedom directed towards self-giving. An integral and continuing formation, which is brought about in stages, is necessary to achieve this goal.
Introduction St Paul writes to the Corinthians: Do you not know that your bodies are members of Christ? Shall I therefore take the members of Christ and make them members of a prostitute? Never! Do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit within you, which you have from God? You are not your own; you were bought with a price. So glorify God in your body (1 Cor. 6,15;19-20). Thus, not only the Christian but every man and woman ought to respect his/her body and that of neighbor, taking exquisite care of chastity in thoughts, words, works and desires, if he/she is to acdg to reason. DI GIORGIO MARTINI, Francesco Castidad con el unicornio 1463 Convento dellOsservanza, Siena, Italia
1. Sexuality is a gift from God Sacred Scriptures tell us that ‘God created man in his image & likeness, he made them male and female…’ (cfr. Gén. 1: 27). Thus, sex is not bad in itself, neither is it contrary to the law of God; it is good because it comes from God: it is a gift from God. But God established an order for its use: sexual pleasure –whether of thought, word or deed– is licit when sought within matrimony and if ordered toward the end for which God has given them: theBOSCH, HieronymusEl jardín de las delicias: Alegoría de la lujuria transmission of human LIFE,c.1500 along with mutual spousalMuseo del Prado, Madrid support.
2. The virtue of CHASTITY Compendium: 490. What are the means that aid the living of chastity? There are many means at ones disposal: the grace of God, the help of the sacraments, prayer, self- knowledge, the practice of an asceticism adapted to various situations, the MORELLI, Domenico , La tentación de San Antonio, 1878 exercise of the moral virtues, Galleria Nazionale dArte Moderna, Roma especially the virtue of temperance which seeks to 491. In what way is everyone called to live chastity? As followers of Christ, the model of all chastity, all the baptised have the passions guided by are called to live chastely in keeping with their particular states reason. of life. Some profess virginity or consecrated celibacy which enables them to give themselves to God alone with an undivided heart in a remarkable manner. Others, if they are married live in conjugal chastity, or if unmarried practise chastity in continence.
3. Impurity destroys us! 492. What are the principal sins against chastity? Grave sins against chastity differ according to their object: adultery, masturbation, fornication, pornography, prostitution, rape, and homosexual acts. These sins are expressions of the vice of lust. These kinds of acts committed against the physical and moral integrity of minors become even more grave. 493. Although it says only “you shall not commit adultery” why does the sixth commandment forbid all sins against chastity? Although the biblical text of the Decalogue reads “you shall not commit adultery” (Exodus 20:14), the Tradition of the Church comprehensively follows the moral teachings of the Old and New Testaments and CANO, Alonso; Inmaculada Concepción considers the sixth commandment as 1648, Museo Provincial, Vitoria encompassing all sins against chastity.
4. Chastity is for everyone All the baptized are called to chastity. the Christian has "put on Christ,"134 The model for all chastity. All Christs faithful are called to lead a chaste life in keeping with their particular states of life. At the moment of his Baptism, the Christian is pledged to lead his affective life in chastity. "People should cultivate [chastity] in the way that is suited to their state of life. Some profess virginity or consecrated celibacy which enables them to give themselves to God alone with an undivided heart in a remarkable manner. Others live in the way prescribed for all by the moral law, whether they are married or single."135 Married people are called to live conjugal chastity; others practice chastity in continence: (CCC 2348-2349) HOGARTH, William Enrique VIII Colección privada
5. Sins against chastity - 6th commandment 2351 Lust is disordered desire for or inordinate enjoyment of sexual pleasure. Sexual pleasure is morally disordered when sought for itself, isolated from its procreative and unitive purposes. 2352 By masturbation is to be understood the deliberate stimulation of the genital organs in order to derive sexual pleasure. 2353 Fornication is carnal unionARMITAGE, Edward between an unmarried man and anFiesta del cumpleaños de Herodes1868 unmarried woman. It is gravelyGhildhall Art Gallery. Londres contrary to the dignity of persons and of human sexuality which is naturally ordered to the good of spouses and the generation and education of children. Moreover, it is a grave scandal when there is corruption of the young.
5. Sins against chastity - 6th commandment 2354 Pornography consists in removing real or simulated sexual acts from the intimacy of the partners, in order to display them deliberately to third parties. It offends against chastity because it perverts the conjugal act, the intimate giving of spouses to each other. It does grave injury to the dignity of its participants (actors, vendors, the public), since each one becomes an object of base pleasure and illicit profit for others. It immerses all who are involved in the illusion of a fantasy world. It is a grave offense. Civil authorities should prevent the production and distribution of pornographic materials. 2355 Prostitution does injury to the dignity of the person who engages in it, reducing the person to an instrument of sexual pleasure. the one who pays sins gravely against himself: he violates the chastity to which his Baptism pledged him and defiles his body, the temple of the Holy Spirit.139 Prostitution is a social scourge. It usually involves women, but also men, children, and adolescents 2356 Rape is the forcible violation of the sexual intimacy of another person. It does injury to justice and charity. Rape deeply wounds the respect, freedom, and physical and moral integrity to which every person has a right. It causes grave damage that can mark the victim for life. It is always an intrinsically evil act. Graver still is the rape of children committed by parents (incest) or those responsible for the education of the children entrusted to them.
6. The struggle to live chastity 494. What is the responsibility of civil authority in regard to chastity? Insofar as it is bound to promote respect for the dignity of the person, civil authority should seek to create an environment conducive to the practice of chastity. It should also enact suitable legislation to prevent the spread of the grave offenses against chastity mentioned above, especially in order to protect minors and those who are the weakest members of society. LEIGHTON, Frederic Fatidica (c. 1893-94) Lady Lever Art Gallery
ANGELICO, Fra Anunciación c. 1430 S. Maria delle Grazie, S. Giovanni Valdarno THE NINTH COMMANDMENT You shall not covet your neighbors house; you shall not covet your neighbors wife, or his manservant, or his maidservant, or his ox, or his ass, or anything that is your neighbors.298
Compendium of the Catechism 495. What are the goods of conjugal love to which sexuality is ordered? The goods of conjugal love, which for those who are baptized is sanctified by the sacrament of Matrimony, are unity, fidelity, indissolubility, and an openness to the procreation of life. 496. What is the meaning of the conjugal act? The conjugal act has a twofold meaning: unitive (the mutual self-giving of the spouses) and procreative (an openness to the transmission of life). No one may break the inseparable connection which God has established between these two meanings of the conjugal act by excluding one or the other of them. 497. When is it moral to regulate births? The regulation of births, which is an aspect of responsible fatherhood and motherhood, is objectively morally acceptable when it is pursued by the spouses without external pressure; when it is practiced not out of selfishness but for serious reasons; and with methods that conform to the objective criteria of morality, that is, periodic continence and use of the infertile periods.
Compendium of the Catechism 498. What are immoral means of birth control? Every action - for example, direct sterilization or contraception - is intrinsically immoral which (either in anticipation of the conjugal act, in its accomplishment or in the development of its natural consequences) proposes, as an end or as a means, to hinder procreation. 500. How should children be considered? A child is a gift of God, the supreme gift of marriage. There is no such thing as a right to have children (e.g. “a child at any cost”). But a child does have the right to be the fruit of the conjugal act of its parents as well as the right to be respected as a person from the moment of conception.
KEY IDEAS Because man is a composite being, spirit and body, there already exists a certain tension in him; a certain struggle of tendencies between "spirit" and "flesh" develops. But in fact this struggle belongs to the heritage of sin. It is a consequence of sin and at the same time a confirmation of it. It is part of the daily experience of the spiritual battle… (CCC 2516). REMBRANDT (1606-1669), David & Urías, 1665 Hermitage, St Petersburg
1. Concupiscence (CCC 2515) Etymologically, "concupiscence" can refer to any intense form of human desire. Christian theology has given it a particular meaning: the movement of the sensitive appetite contrary to the operation of the human reason. the apostle St. Paul identifies it with the rebellion of the "flesh" against the "spirit."301 Concupiscence stems from thePATENIER, Joaquín disobedience of the first sin. ItTentación de San Antonioc. 1515 unsettles mans moral facultiesMuseo del Prado, Madrid and, without being in itself an offense, inclines man to commit sins.302
2. Purifying one’s heart CCC 2517 The heart is the seat of moral personality: "Out of the heart come evil thoughts, murder, adultery, fornication....” The struggle against carnal covetousness entails purifying the heart and practicing temperance: Remain simple and innocent, and you will be like little children who do not know the evil that destroys mans life.305 MAESTRO DESCONOCIDO, Flamenco La ofrenda del corazón, c. 1410 Musée de Cluny, París
3. The struggle against temptations… 2847 The Holy Spirit makes us discern between trials, which are necessary for the growth of the inner man,152 and temptation, which leads to sin and death.153 We must also discern between being tempted and consenting to temptation. Discernment unmasks the lie of temptation, whose object appears to be good, a "delight to the eyes" and desirable,154 when in reality its fruit is death. God does not want to impose the good, but wants free beings.... There is a certain usefulness to temptation. No one but God knows what our soul has received from him, not even we ourselves. But temptation reveals it in order to teach us to know ourselves, and in this way we discover our evil inclinations and are obliged to give thanks for the goods that temptation has revealed to us. CRANACH, Lucas el Mayor, La lucha de Sansón con el león, 1520-25, Kunstsammlungen, Weimar
4. Prudence, Modesty, temperance… 2521 Purity requires modesty, an integral part of temperance. Modesty protects the intimate center of the person. It means refusing to unveil what should remain hidden. It is ordered to chastity to whose sensitivity it bears witness. It guides how one looks at others and behaves toward them in conformity with the dignity of persons and their solidarity. 2522 Modesty protects the mystery of persons and their love. It encourages patience and moderation in loving relationships; it requires that the conditions for the definitive giving and commitment of man and woman to one another be fulfilled. Modesty is decency. It inspires ones choice of clothing. It keeps silence or reserve where there is evident risk of unhealthy curiosity. It is discreet. BOUGUEREAU, William (1825-1905) Modesty, 1902 Private Collection
5. Chastity campaign 2520 Baptism confers on its recipient the grace of purification from all sins. But the baptized must continue to struggle against concupiscence of the flesh and disordered desires. With Gods grace he will prevail - by the virtue and gift of chastity, for chastity lets us love with upright and undivided heart; - by purity of intention which consists in seeking the true end of man: with simplicity of vision, the baptized person seeks to find and to fulfill Gods will in everything;312 - by purity of vision, external and internal; by discipline of feelings and imagination; by refusing all complicity in impure thoughts that incline us to turn aside from the path of Gods commandments; - by prayer. Leah Darrow & Chris Stefanick, PH, Aug. 2012
6. The battle for purity Compendium: 529. How does one reach purity of heart? In the battle against disordered desires the baptised person is able, by the grace of God, to achieve purity of heart through the virtue and gift of chastity, through purity of intention, purity of vision (both exterior and interior), discipline of the imagination and of feelings and by prayer. 530. What are the other requirements for purity? Purity requires modesty which, while protecting the intimate center of the person, expresses the sensitivity of chastity. It guides how one looks at others and behaves toward them in conformity with the dignity of persons and their communion. Purity frees one from wide-spread eroticism and avoids those things which foster morbid curiosity. Purity also requires a purification of the social climate by means of a constant struggle against moral permissiveness which is founded on an erroneous conception of human freedom. EL GRECO (1541-1614) La Inmaculada Concepción y San Juan 1585 Museo de Santa Cruz, Toledo
Some Resolutions… CCC: 2530 The struggle against carnal lust involves purifying the heart and practicing temperance. 2531 Purity of heart will enable us to see God: it enables us even now to see things according to God. 2532 Purification of the heart demands prayer, the practice of chastity, purity of intention and of vision. 2533 Purity of heart requires modesty which is patience, decency, and discretion. Modesty protects the intimate center of the person.