What is a project?
• “A Project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to
create a unique product, service, or result.”
The definition of the Project contains two things:
• a project is temporary in nature
• a project is undertaken to produce a unique output.
Some of the examples of the projects are:
• Developing a new product or service.
• Designing a new transportation vehicle.
• Developing or acquiring a new or modified
• Constructing a building.
• Building a water system for a community in a
Why are the projects Implemented?
• Projects are often implemented as a mean of
achieving an Organization’s strategic plan.
• For many Organization’s, projects are the means to
respond to those requests that can not be addressed
with in the Organization’s normal operational limits.
Similarities between Projects and Operation
Performed by people.
Constrained by limited resources.
Planned, executed, and controlled.
Difference between Projects and Operations are:
• Output :unique
• Output: Repetitive
Attain its objective and then
Sustain the business
• Concludes when its specific
objectives have been attained
• Adopts a new set of objectives
and the work continues
• One of the properties of the project
• Every project has a definite beginning and a
• End is when the objectives are achieved or
• Duration of project is finite
• It does not apply to the services made by the
projects (some projects may create a lasting
• The objective of projects and operations are
• The objective of a project is to attain the
objective and close the project
• The objective of operation is to sustain the
• Temporary nature may also affect other aspects:
The opportunity is temporary:
Most projects have limited time frame to produce
their desired product
The project team rarely survives the project:
Most projects are performed by the team created
for performing the project but it is broken up at
the end of the project
Unique product, service or result
• A project involves doing something that has
not been done before which is ‘unique’.
• A product or service may be unique even if
the category to which they belong is
large.(e.g. each individual facility in the office
Unique product, service or result
• The presence of repetitive elements does not
change the uniqueness of the project. Examples
Project to develop new commercial
airliner(requires many prototypes)
Project to build new drug market(thousands of
doses of drugs are requires)
Real estate development project(includes many
Development project(can be implemented in
• Progressive :“ proceeding in step, continuing steadily
• Elaboration : “ worked out with care and detail
• A characteristic of project
• Means to development in increments as the project
• Is planned
• Not considered scope creep
• Progressive Elaboration is not considered to be Scope
Creep as it is done with coordinated and planned intent.
• additional scope added to the project after the project's
objectives has been defined.
• It affects the project's
• This is one of the top reasons that the projects frequently
are over budgeted.
Examples of Progressive Elaboration:
• Projects where research plays important role in
determining the project scope
• A project affected my research findings
• Defining characteristic of a process
• Elaborated based on testing results
• Project management is the discipline of planning,
organizing, securing, managing, leading, and controlling
resources to achieve specific goals.
we can also define as :
• Project management is the science (and art) of
organizing the components of a project, whether the
project is development of a new product, the launch of a
new service, a marketing campaign, or a wedding.