Design for Environment by Waqas Ali Tunio

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Design for Environment by Waqas Ali Tunio

Presented by me in subject of Pollution Analysis & Control, in my 7th semester of Mechanical Engineering of 2007-Mechanical Batch in year 2010.

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science & Technology, Nawabshah - Pakistan

www.aliwaqas.tk

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Design for Environment by Waqas Ali Tunio

  1. 1. Design for Environment (DfE)<br />Pollution and Control Analysis<br />Let Air Be Air, Let Water Be Water, Let Land Be Land<br />By Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34)<br />Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science & Technology, Nawabshah - Pakistan<br />
  2. 2. Objective<br />Use design to reduce the overall environmental impacts of a product dramatically.<br />
  3. 3. Introduction<br />Design For Environment (DFE) is the idea of implementing certain aspects of environmentally friendly design to create a sustainable product . Although there is no actual DFE certification, following the Design For Environment guidelines helps to minimize waste and pollution, and saves money that is typically spent on product reprocessing.<br />
  4. 4. Introduction<br /><ul><li>The systematic consideration of design performance with respect to environmental, health, and safety objectives over the full product life cycle
  5. 5. The systemic integration of environmental performance throughout the product life cycle in the conceptualization and planning of a product.</li></li></ul><li>
  6. 6. Design for environmental manufacturing<br />Non-toxic processes & production materials <br />Minimum energy utilization <br />Minimize emissions <br />Minimize waste, scrap & by-products <br />
  7. 7. Design for environmental packaging<br />Minimum of packaging materials <br />Reusable pallets, totes and packaging  <br />Recyclable packaging materials <br />Bio-degradable packaging materials <br />
  8. 8. Design for disposal & recycleability<br />Re-use / refurbishment of components & assemblies <br />Material selection to enable re-use (e.g., thermoset plastics vs. thermoplastics) and minimize toxicity <br />Avoids filler material in plastics such as fiberglass and graphite <br />Minimum number of materials / colors to facilitate separating materials and re-use <br />Material identification to facilitate re-use <br />Design to enable materials to be easily separated <br />Design for disassembly (e.g., fracture points, fastening vs. bonding) <br />Avoid use of adhesives <br />Limit contaminants - additives, coatings, metal plating of plastics, etc. <br />Maximize use of recycled or ground material with virgin material <br />Design for serviceability to minimize disposal of non-working products <br />
  9. 9. Design for disassembly<br />To support design for recyclability, design for disassembly needs to be addressed. Design for disassembly enhances maintainability or serviceability of a product, and it enables recycling of materials, component parts, assemblies, and modules. There are a number of principles to facilitate disassembly:<br />Provide ready access to parts, fasteners, etc. to support disassembly. <br />Design modular products to enable modules to be disassembled for service or re-use. <br />Minimize weight of individual parts and modules to facilitate disassembly. <br />Use joining and fastening techniques to facilitate disassembly (e.g., fasteners instead of adhesives) <br />Minimize fragile parts and leads to enable re-use and re-assembly. <br />Use connectors instead of hard-wired connections. <br />Design to enable use of common hand tools for disassembly.<br />
  10. 10. BMW's 1991 Z1 Roadster, whose plastic side panels come apart like the halves of a walnut shell, is an example of a car designed for disassembly. One of the lessons learned, is that glue or solder in bumpers should be replaced with fasteners so that the bumpers can come apart more easily and the materials can be recycled. BMW is also changing instrument panels. In the past they were made of an assortment of synthetics glued together. Now BMW uses variations of polyurethane, foam, and rubber so the panel can be recycled. The portion of a car recycled is 80% by weight and BMW is aiming for 95%.<br />
  11. 11. Things to be Considered<br />Materials<br />Energy Consumption<br />Making A Product Recyclable<br />Reuse/Refurbishment<br />Increasing Product Lifetime<br />
  12. 12. Materials<br />When designing a product under DFE standards, the designer must first take into consideration what materials should be used. Using recycled or natural materials is a good thing, but these are not always the best choice(some recycled or natural materials cannot be easily recycled once they are made into a product). An example of this would be that “the production of 1 kg of wood causes less emissions than the production of 1 kg of plastic. But have you thought about the paint to preserve the wood, the energy needed to dry, the sawing losses? In some products, you would need about ten times as much wood as plastic. Plastics can often be recycled, wood cannot”. Also when thinking about materials designers want to limit the variety of materials used in a single product, this makes the product itself more easily recyclable. If less material is used the product itself will weigh less, meaning that when the product is being shipped the transportation vehicle carrying the item will burn less fuel.<br />
  13. 13. Materials<br />Standard Steels<br />High-Strength Steels<br />Higher-Strength Steels<br />Maximum-Strength Steels<br />Maximum-Strength Steels (hot treated)<br />
  14. 14. Energy Consumption<br />Designers and engineers must first consider how the production process of a product will be powered and then how the product itself will be powered once it is in use. Is it more beneficial to use batteries or electricity from an outlet to power a product? This is the type of question that a designer must answer when designing a product. Any sort of appliance with an automatic shut-off that is used to save energy would be an example of a product with Design For Environment compatible features.<br />
  15. 15. Making A Product Recyclable<br />Not only is it extremely important to use recyclable materials, but it is also beneficial to use as few pieces as possible and to make these pieces easy to disassemble. A limited number of fasteners should be used and many tools should not be required to take a product apart. If a product’s parts are easy to remove the greater the chance will be that the recyclable parts will actually be recycled.<br />
  16. 16. Reuse/Refurbishment<br />Some products are designed to be easily recycled and refurbished so that they can be used again. One example would be the ink cartridges for a printer. The cartridges can easily be removed from the printer by the user, recycled (in specific boxes located in many office supply stores), refilled with fresh ink, and put back on store shelves within a short period of time. Products like the one just mentioned meet many of the guidelines for Design For Environment products.<br />
  17. 17. Increasing Product Lifetime<br />When the concept of Design For Environment is applied the designers must carefully consider the best ways to increase the total amount of time that a product is in use. In order to keep a product in use longer, designers implement certain techniques including but not limited to the following: making the product itself more durable, making the product upgradeable (meaning that new programs, applications, or tools can easily be applied/added to a product once it has already been sold and in use), and making the customer in some way feel attached to the product. The longer a product is in use, the longer the production of similar products (that could be replacements) is stalled. This means that energy that would go into production of new products is saved.<br />
  18. 18. Conclusion<br />Quite simply, Design for environment (DfE) attempts to reduce the impact of product design upon the environment of a product or service. It takes into account the whole life cycle - going beyond just the use of recycled materials or proper packaging or disposal.<br />
  19. 19. Design for Environment (DfE)<br />Let Air Be Air, Let Water Be Water, Let Land Be Land<br />JazakALLAH-o-Khaira<br />By Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34)<br />Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science & Technology, Nawabshah - Pakistan<br />

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