FINLAND Finland or the Republic of Finland (in Finnish Suomen Tasavalta) Is a country of thousand lakes, which is located in Northern Europe. After the collapse of tsarist rule in Russia, which had a busyplace in 1917,Finladnia became an independent state.
SYMBOLSBLUE – the numerous likesWHITE – the snow country Coat of arms approved in 1978
SYMBOLS NATIONAL ANTHEM LANGUAGE Maamme (Fín. our country) Official language(s): Finnish The national anthem Swedishof Finland. The original text of the hymn was written in Swedish by JL Runeberg, considered by the Finnish national poet. Recognised regional languages: Saamihttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xkbS_X-mVSs
SYMBOLS National symbol of Finnish Sauna Sauna plays a special role in the life of Finns. Usually resides in it with family or friends, but also a more casual work may be there. The country is more than 2 million saunas, while the Finns themselves are about 5.2 million.
GEOGRAPHYA country in Northern Europe, Member of the EuropeanUnion.It is bordered:• To the west of Sweden,• To the north of Norway• To the east with Russia. From the west, also has access to the Baltic Sea.
GEOGRAPHYArea of the Finland 338 145 km²Capital: HELSINKI
GEOGRAPHY LAPLANDRovaniemi - the main seat of "Santa Claus".
THE NORTHEN LIGHTS The northern lights (lat. aurora borealis )in Finland called Northern Light or Revontulet. This phenomenon ispresent in areas above theArctic Circle, which is also in northern Finland
HISTORY INDEPENDENCE OF FINLAND The explosion in 1914, World War I, Finland came under German occupation, but as early as 6 December 1917 the Finnish parliament proclaimed independence. A yearlater, the country took a civil war, and the Finnish government was created under the patronage of Soviet Russia. July 17, 1919 was signed the Constitution of Finland, which consequently became a republic, and its first president was Kaarlo JuhoStahlberg. In 1920 Finland became a member of the League of Nations, which granted the Aland Islands. In 1922 he concluded a deal With Polish, Estonia and Latvia.
HISTORY WARS IN XX CENTURYIn the years 1938-1940 inFinland lasted ”Winter War”, brought by the Soviet Union. In1940, the country Released forthe price of the land of peaceand maintain independence.June 25, 1941 once again brokeoutwar between the USSR andFinland, and at the end of theyear Britain declared waron Finland. September 19, 1944 atruce was concluded with theSoviet Union and Great Britain.
HISTORY Road Raat - the place greatestFinnish soldier with erkaemem victory Finns, in whomLahti-Saloranta M-26 the 44 Divisionwas broken
SOCIOLOGICAL OVERVIEWFinlands population is currently 5,350,156 people. The average population density is 17 inhabitants per square kilometer –the least populated country in Europe after Norway and Iceland.
SOCIOLOGICAL OVERVIEW• The southern part of the country has always been more densely populated than the northern. This disparity increased with the urbanization of Finland in the twentieth century.• The biggest cities of Finland is Helsinki, Espoo and Vantaa. Other large cities are significant Tampere, Turku and Oulu.• The percentage of foreigners in Finland reaches 2.5% and the lowest in the European Union. Foreigners are mostly citizens of Russia, Estonia and Sweden.
SOCIOLOGICAL OVERVIEW Ethnic groups (2006) • Finn 93.4%, • Sweede 5.6% • Russian 0.5% • Estonian 0.3% • Romani 0.1% • Sami 0.1%
RELIGIONFrom 1923 the Finnish constitution guaranteesreligious freedom. Finnish Evangelical LutheranChurch and the Finnish Orthodox Church have thestatus of national churches. Thanks to specialprivileges, the people pay their taxes in the amountof 1% or 2% of revenue, of which these churchesthen fund charitable activities.
ECONOMY• Welfare state and private property, but high taxes, which funds the research, education, health.• Finland is in second place (behind Luxembourg) among euro area countries, as a country with the lowest GDP deficit in 2009. Finland deficit amounted to 2.2% of GDP. At the same time limit is 3%. Thus, only two euro area countries - Luxembourg and Finland - met one of the main criteria for membership of monetary union.
POLITICS Parliamentary republic- President: Sauli Niinistö (NCP)- Prime Minister: Jyrki Katainen (NCP)- Speaker of the Parliament: Eero Heinäluoma (SDP)
EDUCATIONIn Finland, illiteracy doesnot actually exist, a numberof published papers andbooks per capita amongthe highest in the world.Students in Finland seem to be the only ones in the world who not onlyachieve excellent results in science, but also love to walk to school. A particularphenomenon is unprecedented momentum reading elsewhere. Are also highinvestment in education, constituting 7% of gross national income.
EDUCATION In recent studies, PISA (Project for International Student Assessment), conducted by the OECD, Finnish students in all areas except mathematics, where the others were, took first place in the world.Finnish education system was reformed in the early seventies with the German model, which wasdeemed inefficient. Almost all schools in Finland are state schools, and for non-state schools do not pay because they state finances.Also, all universities are public, some of the existinguniversities are nationalized universities, which had been in private hands.
EDUCATION Universities in Finland areHelsinki, Turku, Tampere, Kuopio, Oulu, Jyväskylä, J oensuu, Rovaniemi and Vaasa.The first university in Finland was founded in 1640 in Turku, in 1828 years it was moved to Helsinki. http://finlandia.2taj.net/Edukacja
EDUCATIONIn Finland, there is also widely developed system of adult education, active and learning in the evenings. This is a very popular activity. Every year in courses for adults involved 1.4 million from five million Finns.
CULTURA• Joik a kind of Scandinavian folk music, and actually a type of folk singing Sami, the Nordic Saami.• HIM - one of the most popular in the last and this century bands• MUMINKI - Tove Jansson
INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT FINLAND• In Finland, there is a long tradition of maintaining gender equality. Participation of women in politics and public life is always well seen here. Finland was the first country that granted women the right to vote (1906). A year later, 9% of the parliament were women. Currently there are about one-third.• While women work alongside men in business, industry and government, their wages amount to only 81% of male earnings in the same positions. Despite the professional duties, must often also the same care of the house and children.
INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT FINLAND• The Finns are important scientific and professional titles, which should be used in more formal circumstances. It is also important to return to the caller in the second person plural. Speaking on behalf of itself is seen as a sign of great intimacy.• The customary greeting is made up of a handshake and direct gaze into the eyes, but rarely with the kissing and cuddling. Condescending treatment of women is frowned upon.
INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT FINLAND• Finnish national character is often described as a combination of Germanic diligence with Slavic melancholy. Finns are known for their directness and stubbornness (in Finnish, such an attitude is the sisu)• In today Finland there is a respect for equality, liberalism and commitment to the welfare state, which is alien to the division of social classes. Important factor is the Protestant work ethic and belief in the importance of universal education.