DDP test notes / PLTW test notes
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DDP test notes / PLTW test notes

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These are some notes that might be useful for you if you're taking a DDP class or a PLTW / Pre engineering class

These are some notes that might be useful for you if you're taking a DDP class or a PLTW / Pre engineering class

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  • 1. TD1-DDP / Mr. FungTest #1 Notes[001] Technology and Science  Portfolio – A set of creative work intended to demonstrate a person’s ability  Technology – Technology deals with human-made world and development of our surroundings  Engineer – A person who is trained in and uses technological and scientific knowledge to solve practical problems  Innovation – An improvement of an existing technological product, system, or method  Product – A tangible artifact produced by means of either human or mechanical work, or by biological or chemical process.  Solution – A method or process for solving a problem  Technology can have negative impacts, such as pollution, medical problems, usage of resources and unemployment  Trade-off – An exchange of one thing in return for another: especially the relinquishment of one benefit or advantage for another regarded as more desirable  Evolution – A gradual development; in engineering, technology evolves to minimize the negative impacts of a particular design, i.e. improve trade-offs of a technology  Brainstorming – A group technique for solving problems, generating ideas, stimulating creative thinking  Rules of Brainstorming – 1) No criticism allowed, 2) Work for quantity, 3) Welcome piling-on, 4) Allow free-for-all  Time Line Chart – A one-axis chart used to display past and/or future events, activities, etc. in the order they occurred or are expected to occur for the purposes of analysis and communication[002] Design Brief  Design – An iterative decision-making process that produces plans by which resources are converted or systems that meet human needs and wants or solves problems  Designer – A person who designs any of a variety of things  Iterative – Describing a procedure or process that repeatedly executes a series of operations until some condition is satisfied  Design Brief – A written plan that identifies a problem to be solved, its criteria, and its constraints. The design brief is used to encourage thinking of all aspects of a problem before attempting a solution.  Problem Identification – The recognition of an unwelcome or harmful matter needing to be dealt with  Design Statement – A part of the design brief that challenges the designer, describes what design solution should do without describing how to solve the problem, and identifies the degree to which the solution must be executed  Client – A person using the services of a professional person or organization  Target Consumer – A person or group for which product or service design efforts are intended  Product – A tangible artifact produced by means of either human or mechanical work, or by biological or chemical process  Constraint – A limit to a design process. Constraints may be such things as appearance, funding, space, materials and human capabilities. (A limitation or restriction)
  • 2.  Numeric Constraint – a number value or algebraic equation that is used to control the size or location of a geometric figure  Geometric Constraint – Constant, non-numerical relationships between parts of a geometric figure. Examples: parallelism, perpendicularity, concentricity o Parallel – two or more straight lines that do not intersect o Perpendicular – intersecting lines which form right angles o Concentric – two or more circular features which share the same center point o Coincident – having the same position in space (usually used for points) o Collinear – passing through the same straight line o Equal – congruent shapes or lines of the same length / angles of same measure o Fixed – maintaining a set position in space o Tangent – A line or curve that meets another line or curve at one common point  Criteria – Principles or standards by which something may be judged or decided  Fillet – A rounded interior blend between two surfaces.  Chamfer – A small angled surface formed between two surfaces.[003] Design Process  Model - A visual, mathematical, or three-dimensional representation in detail of an object or design, often smaller than the original. A model is often used to test ideas, make changes to a design, and to learn more about what would happen to a similar, real object.  Prototype - A full-scale working model used to test a design concept by making actual observations and necessary adjustments  Mockup - Also referred to as an Appearance Model. A model or replica of a machine or structure for instructional or experimental purposes Design Process 1. Define a Problem  Receive a problem to solve from the client.  Be inspired through media exposure of a current problem and take action. 2. Brainstorm  A group problem-solving process in which each person in the group presents ideas in an open forum.  Develop preliminary ideas. 3. Research and Generate Ideas  Research solutions that may already exist; identify shortcomings and reasons why they aren’t appropriate to a given situation.  Compile ideas and report findings to the team. 4. Identify Criteria and Specify Constraints  Identify constraints (i.e., budget and time are typical considerations).  Draft the Design Brief. 5. Explore Possibilities  Explore alternative ideas based on further knowledge and technologies. 6. Select an Approach  Decide on final idea, usually through group consensus. 7. Develop a Design Proposal  Explore the idea in greater detail with annotated sketches.  Make critical decisions such as material types and manufacturing methods. 8. Make a Model or Prototype
  • 3.  Make models to help communicate the idea, and study aspects such as shape, form, fit, or texture. 9. Test and Evaluate the Design using Specifications  Design experiments and test the prototype in controlled and working environments. 10. Refine the Design  Make design changes; modify or rebuild the prototype. 11. Create or Make Solution  Determine custom/mass production. 12. Communicate Processes and Results  Communicate the designer’s final solution through media such as PowerPoint, poster session, technical report.[004] Principles and Elements of Design  Aesthetic – 1) Concerned with beauty or the appreciation of beauty, 2) Of pleasing appearance.  Elements of Design – Components used in the creation of a design. [6 elements – line, form, color, value (a.k.a. tone), space and texture]  Gestalt - The principle that maintains that the human eye sees objects in their entirety before perceiving their individual parts  Juxtapose - To place close together  Contrast – 1) The state of being noticeably different from something else when put or considered together, 2) Enhancement of appearance provided by juxtaposing different colors or textures  Variety - A thing which differs in some way from others of the same general class  Principles of Design – The components that encompass a design [5 principles – balance, rhythm, emphasis, proportion, unity (a.k.a. harmony)]  Balance - A condition in which different elements are equal or in the correct proportions. There are three types of visual balance: symmetry (a.k.a. formal balance), asymmetry (a.k.a. informal balance), and radial.  Horizontal Balance – Left and right side of a design is in similar proportion  Vertical Balance – Top and bottom of a design is in similar proportion  Radial Balance – Design is in similar proportion in a circular manner around an axis  Rhythm - A regularly recurring sequence of events or actions, usually to represent movement  Emphasis - Special importance, value, or prominence given to something  Proportion - The relationship of one thing to another in size, amount, etc.  Unity/Harmony - The state of being united or forming a whole[005] Statistics and Design  Statistics - Collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions based on data  Assessment – An evaluation technique for technology that requires analyzing benefits and risks, understand the trade-offs and them determining the best action to that in order to ensure that the desired positive outcomes outweigh the negative consequences.  Process – A systematic sequence of actions that combines resources to produce an output.  Sequential – Forming or following a logical order or sequence.  Research – The systematic study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.  Data – Facts and statistics used for reference or analysis
  • 4.  Data Set – A group of individual values or bits of information that are related in some way or have some common characteristic or attribute Mean – The average or central value of a set of quantities Median – Referring to the middle term or mean of the middle two terms of a series of values arranged in order of magnitude Mode – The value that occurs most frequently in a given data set Histogram – A graph of vertical bars representing the frequency distribution of a set of data Class Interval – A group of values that is used to analyze the distribution of data Frequency – The rate at which something occurs over a particular period or in a given sample Normal Distribution - A function that represents the distribution of variables as a symmetrical bell-shaped graph
  • 5. [006] Engineer’ Notebook  Engineer’s Notebook – Also referred to as an Engineer’s Logbook. A record of design ideas generated in the course of an engineer’s employment that others may not claim as their own.  Standard – Something considered by an authority or by general consent as a basis of comparison.  American Nation Standards Institute (ANSI) - A private, non-profit organization that coordinates the development and use of voluntary consensus standards in the United States  International Organization for Standardization (ISO) - A non-governmental global organization whose principal activity is the development of technical standards through consensus  Variation – A change or slight difference in condition, amount or level.  Unit – A standard quantity in terms of which other quantities may be expressed.  English System – The measuring system based on the inch/foot, seconds and pound as units of length, time and weight or mass.  Inch – A unit of linear measure equal to 1/12 of a foot.  Metric System – The decimal measuring system based on the meter, liter, and gram as units of length, capacity and weight or mass.  Millimeter – A metric unit of linear measure equal to 1/1000 of a meter.  Conversion rate from English System to Metric System: 1 inch = 25.4 mm  Engineer’s Notebook Standards o Pages are sequentially numbered in ink on the top outside edge. o All figures and calculations are clearly labeled. o Entries start at the top of the page, working left-to-right and top-to-bottom. o Each page is signed and dated before the next page is begun. o Inserted items are permanently attached. o Mistakes are crossed off, initialed, with correction. Never erase anything.  Annotate – To add explanatory notes to.[007] One Point Perspective  Perspective Drawing: A form of pictorial drawing in which vanishing points are used to provide the depth and distortion that is seen with the human eye. Perspective drawings can be drawn using one, two, and three vanishing points.  Vanishing Point: A vanishing point is a point in space, usually located on the horizon, where parallel edges of an object appear to converge.  In a one point perspective drawing, there are only 3 types of lines: o Horizontal o Vertical o Diagonal to Vanishing Point  The purpose of these lines is as follows: o Horizontal/Vertical lines represent width and height o Diagonal lines represent the depth of the object (getting farther away from the viewer)
  • 6. [008] Computer Aided Design  Computer Aided Design (CAD) – For design, the use of a computer to assist in the process of designing a part, circuit, building, etc. or for drafting, the use of a computer to assist in the process of communicating a technical drawing.  Solid modeling – Solid Modeling is a type of 3D CAD process that represents the volume of an object, not just its lines and surfaces.  Wireframe Modeling – Wireframe Modeling is a 3D CAD process that represents the lines and surfaces of a design.  Additive Modeling – A method of modeling in which each component is created individually and subsequent components are created as needed. This method is represented by construction processes such as welding, gluing, mechanical fastening, joinery.
  • 7.  Subtractive Modeling – A method of modeling in which a design is created by removing different geometric shapes from a solid block larger than the final design. This method is represented by milling, drilling, turning, grinding, and other manufacturing processes.[009] Isometric View  Pictorial Sketch: A sketch that shows an object’s height, width, and depth in a single view, i.e. shows a design in 3D  Isometric Drawing: A form of pictorial drawing in which all three drawing axes form equal angles of 120 degrees with the plane of projection.  In an isometric drawing, there are only 3 types of lines that are to be drawn on each of the 3 different isometric axes: o Line along the (30°/-150° axis) to represent depth o Line along the (150°/-30° axis) to represent width o Line along the (90°/-90° axis) to represent height
  • 8. [010] Two Point Perspective  Two Point Perspective - A pictorial drawing in which receding lines converge at vanishing points on the horizon; the most natural of all pictorial drawings.  In a two point perspective drawing, there are only 2 types of lines: o Vertical o Diagonal to either left or right vanishing point  The purpose of these lines is as follows: o Vertical lines represent height o Diagonal lines represent the width/depth of the object
  • 9. [011] Orthographic Projection  Orthographic Projection/Multiview Drawing - A method of representing three-dimensional objects on a plane having only length and breadth (ie. 2D) The most commonly used technical drawing for production purposes  Technical Working Drawing - A drawing that is used to show the material, size, and shape of a product for manufacturing purposes  Manufacture - To make something, especially on a large scale using machinery
  • 10. [011] Orthographic Projection  Orthographic Projection/Multiview Drawing - A method of representing three-dimensional objects on a plane having only length and breadth (ie. 2D)  Technical Working Drawing - A drawing that is used to show the material, size, and shape of a product for manufacturing purposes.  Manufacture - To make something, especially on a large scale using machinery
  • 11. [012] Orthographic Projection II  Object Line: Represents outline of object (solid line)  Hidden Line: Represents an edge that is not directly visible (dotted line)  Center Mark: Denotes center of circular shapes  Centerline Bisector: Denotes axis of cylindrical shapes  Leader Line: Used to dimension radius/diameter of circles  Dimension Line: Lines with arrowheads used to show dimensions  Extension Line: Used to identify the extent of a dimension  Miter Line: 45-degree line from corner from front view used to project lines  Line Convention - Standardization of lines used on technical drawings by line weight and style  Line Weight - Also called line width. The thickness of a line, characterized as thick or thin[013] Oblique Projection  Oblique Pictorial - A type of drawing involving a combination of a flat, orthographic front with depth lines receding at a selected angle, usually 45 degrees  Cavalier Oblique - A form of oblique drawing in which the receding lines are drawn true size, and usually at a 45 degree angle from horizontal  Cabinet Oblique - A form of oblique drawing in which the receding lines are drawn at half scale, and usually at a 45 degree angle from horizontal  General Oblique - A general oblique is a type of oblique pictorial that represents an object’s width and height, but the depth can be any size and drawn at any angle.  Projection Plane - An imaginary surface on which the view of the object is projected and drawn. This surface is imagined to exist between the object and the observer.
  • 12.  Construction Line - Thin lines that serve as guides while sketching or drawing.  Tonal Shading – A method of shading used to enhance the appearance of a pictorial drawing014-Basic Assembly Constraints  Assembly - A group of machine or handmade parts that fit together to form a self-contained unit.  Mate – An assembly process used to constrain a surface, line or point to another surface, line or point such that they remain in contract with one another.  Flush – An assembly process used to align two surfaces at the same height/level.
  • 13.  Angle – An assembly process used to set the angle between two surfaces. Insert – An assembly process used to place a cylindrical object into a cylindrical slot. Tangent – An assembly process used to force a curved object to touch a flat surface at only one point (spherical shapes) or on an edge (cylindrical objects). Can also be used constrain two curved surfaces together. Base Component – The first part placed into an assembly (this component is also grounded) Grounded Component – A component that has 0 degrees of freedom (cannot move).
  • 14. 017-Dimensioning Rules  American National Standards Institute (ANSI) - A private, non-profit organization that coordinates the development and use of voluntary consensus standards in the United States.  American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) - A professional engineering organization that is known for setting codes and standards for mechanical devices in the United States. ASME drawing standards are found in the Y-14M publications.  The front view of an orthographic projection should be the view of the object that has the least amount of hidden lines, largest width and shows the shape of the object most clearly.  Location Dimension – A dimension that shows the distance between features  Size Dimension- A dimension that shows the length of a feature  Baseline/Datum Dimensioning – A method of dimensioning in which all dimensions originate from a common point (called the baseline or datum)
  • 15.  Chain Dimensioning – A method of dimensioning in where each dimension starts from the end of the previous dimension  Rules of Dimensioning – A set of standards which must be followed in a technical working drawing for specifying the dimensions of a design. Key Dimensioning Rules1. Dimensions should NOT be duplicated, or the same information given in two different ways.2. No unnecessary dimensions should be used – only those needed to produce or inspect the part.3. Whenever possible, avoid dimensioning to hidden lines and features.4. Avoid dimensioning over or through the object.5. Whenever possible, locate dimensions between adjacent views.6. In general, a circle is dimensioned by its diameter and an arc by its radius.7. Holes are located by their centerlines, which may be extended and used as extension lines.8. Holes should be located and sized in the view that shows the feature as a circle.9. Do not cross a dimension line with an extension line, avoid crossing dimensions with leader lines.10. Leader lines should not occur horizontally or vertically.018-Title Block (Parts List/Balloons) and Exploded Assembly  Balloons - A circled number identifying each part shown in an assembly drawing. Also called a ball tag or bubble number.  Documentation - 1. The documents that are required for something, or that give evidence or proof of something. 2. Drawings or printed information that contains instructions for assembling, installing, operating, and servicing.  Exploded Assembly - An assembly drawing in which parts are moved out of position along an axis so that each individual part is visible.  Parts List - A list of materials or parts specified for a project. Also referred to as a bill of materials or BOM.  Title Block - A table located in the bottom right-hand corner of an engineering drawing that identifies, in an organized way, all of the necessary information (designer, title, date, scale, company or school, logo, material) that is not given on the drawing itself. Also referred to as a title strip.  Local Note (Annotation) - Connected to specific features on the views of the drawing. Also known as annotations.  General Note - Notes placed separate from the views; relate to the entire drawing.
  • 16. 021-Engineering Design Teams / Decision Matrix  Arbitration - The hearing and determination of a dispute or the settling of differences between parties by a person or persons chosen or agreed to by them.  Consensus – A general agreement by a group or team  Critique - A detailed analysis and assessment.  Decision Matrix - A tool for systematically ranking alternatives according to a set of criteria.  Evaluate - To form an idea of the amount or value of; assess.  Gantt Chart - A time and activity bar chart that is used for planning, managing, and controlling major programs that have a distinct beginning and end.  Mediation - The act or process of using an intermediary to effect an agreement or reconciliation.  Negotiation - Mutual discussion and arrangement of the terms of a transaction or agreement.  Norms - Principles of right action, binding upon the members of a group and serving to guide, control, or regulate proper and acceptable behavior.  Open-Ended - Not having fixed limits; unrestricted; broad.  Protocol - The accepted code of behavior in a particular situation.  Storming - A phase of team development that is marked by conflict.  Synergy - When the unit or team becomes stronger than the sum of the individual members.
  • 17.  Virtual Team - A group of people that rely primarily or exclusively on electronic forms of communication to work together in accomplishing goals.022-Advance Modeling Tools  Axis – 1. An imaginary line through a body, about which it rotates. 2. An imaginary line about which a regular figure is symmetrically arranged.  Coil - A modeling command which combines a profile and an axis to form a solid model  Profile – An outline of an object as seen from one side  Sweep - A modeling command which combines a profile and a path to form a solid model  Revolve – A modeling command which combines a profile and an axis to form a solid model.  Fillet - A rounded interior blend between two surfaces. Some uses are to strengthen joining surfaces or to allow a part to be removed from a mold.  Chamfer - A small angled surface formed between two surfaces.  Work Plane – A plane used to help model additional features in a CAD drawing.