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Westchester Library-Alice Robison-October 2007

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An invited talk given to the Westchester Library community, Westchester, New York, 10/25/07.

An invited talk given to the Westchester Library community, Westchester, New York, 10/25/07.

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Westchester Library-Alice Robison-October 2007 Westchester Library-Alice Robison-October 2007 Presentation Transcript

  • Videogames at the Library?! Using Games as Learning Tools Alice J. Robison Massachusetts Institute of Technology alicerobison.org ajr@mit.edu Thursday, November 8, 2007 1
  • How many of you are gamers? Thursday, November 8, 2007 2
  • Define “Gamer” Thursday, November 8, 2007 3 View slide
  • Define “Gamer” • Teenage boys in the basement? Nope! Thursday, November 8, 2007 3 View slide
  • Define “Gamer” • Teenage boys in the basement? Nope! • 90 million gamers up to age 35 Thursday, November 8, 2007 3
  • Define “Gamer” • Teenage boys in the basement? Nope! • 90 million gamers up to age 35 • 77 million baby boomers--retirees largest growing segment of gamers Thursday, November 8, 2007 3
  • Define “Gamer” • Teenage boys in the basement? Nope! • 90 million gamers up to age 35 • 77 million baby boomers--retirees largest growing segment of gamers • 2003 Pew Internet study of college student gamers--70% play once in a while, 65% play regularly Thursday, November 8, 2007 3
  • Define “Gamer” • Teenage boys in the basement? Nope! • 90 million gamers up to age 35 • 77 million baby boomers--retirees largest growing segment of gamers • 2003 Pew Internet study of college student gamers--70% play once in a while, 65% play regularly • Average gamer age is 31-33 Thursday, November 8, 2007 3
  • Games are Changing Guitar Hero, Rock Band Wii Sports, Wii Play Casual Games Sports Games Strategy Games Literature-themed Thursday, November 8, 2007 4
  • Where do Gamers Play? • Home • Hospitals • School • Online • Offline • Libraries! Thursday, November 8, 2007 5
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  • More than half of all American teens--and 57% of teens who could use the internet--could be considered media creators. Thursday, November 8, 2007 6
  • More than half of all American teens--and 57% of teens who could use the internet--could be considered media creators. 22% have their own homepages Thursday, November 8, 2007 6
  • More than half of all American teens--and 57% of teens who could use the internet--could be considered media creators. 22% have their own homepages 32% report they’ve experienced “cyberbullying” Thursday, November 8, 2007 6
  • More than half of all American teens--and 57% of teens who could use the internet--could be considered media creators. 22% have their own homepages 55% protect their personal information online 32% report they’ve experienced “cyberbullying” Thursday, November 8, 2007 6
  • More than half of all American teens--and 57% of teens who could use the internet--could be considered media creators. 22% have their own homepages 55% protect their personal information online 32% report they’ve 85% use Facebook experienced “cyberbullying” Thursday, November 8, 2007 6
  • More than half of all American teens--and 57% of teens who could use the internet--could be considered media creators. 22% have their own homepages 55% protect their personal information online 32% report they’ve 85% use Facebook experienced if available on their campus “cyberbullying” Thursday, November 8, 2007 6
  • More than half of all American teens--and 57% of teens who could use the internet--could be considered media creators. 22% have their own homepages 55% protect their personal information online 33% share what they create online with others 32% report they’ve 85% use Facebook experienced if available on their campus “cyberbullying” Thursday, November 8, 2007 6
  • More than half of all American teens--and 57% of teens who could use the internet--could be considered media creators. 22% have their own homepages 55% protect their personal information online 33% share what they create online with others 32% report they’ve 85% use Facebook experienced if available on their campus “cyberbullying” 19% blog and 19% remix content they find online Thursday, November 8, 2007 6
  • More than half of all American teens--and 57% of teens who could use the internet--could be considered media creators. 22% have their own homepages 55% protect their personal information online 33% share what they create online with others 32% report they’ve 85% use Facebook experienced if available on their campus “cyberbullying” 19% blog and 19% remix content they find online 55% use online social networking regularly Thursday, November 8, 2007 6
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  • This isn’t Just About Technology Lankshear & Knobel, 2006; Jenkins, et. al, 2006 Thursday, November 8, 2007 8
  • This isn’t Just About Technology technical stuff: we can now use cool stuff to do the same kinds of things we have previously known; a “physical-industrial” mindset--individualized, enclosed, product-centered, hierarchical Lankshear & Knobel, 2006; Jenkins, et. al, 2006 Thursday, November 8, 2007 8
  • This isn’t Just About Technology technical stuff: we can now use cool stuff to do the same kinds of things we have previously known; a “physical-industrial” mindset--individualized, enclosed, product-centered, hierarchical Lankshear & Knobel, 2006; Jenkins, et. al, 2006 Thursday, November 8, 2007 8
  • This isn’t Just About Technology technical stuff: we can now use cool stuff to do the same kinds of things we have previously known; a “physical-industrial” mindset--individualized, enclosed, product-centered, hierarchical ethos stuff: co-existence of physical space and cyberspace; a “cyberspatial, post-industrial” mindset--collective, distributed, decentered, process- focused, change-based Lankshear & Knobel, 2006; Jenkins, et. al, 2006 Thursday, November 8, 2007 8
  • What are Gamers Good At? Thursday, November 8, 2007 9
  • What are Gamers Good At? • See themselves as heroes on quests Thursday, November 8, 2007 9
  • What are Gamers Good At? • See themselves as heroes on quests • Willing to experiment and keep trying--like to fix things, not afraid to low-penalty risks Thursday, November 8, 2007 9
  • What are Gamers Good At? • See themselves as heroes on quests • Willing to experiment and keep trying--like to fix things, not afraid to low-penalty risks • Are “systems thinkers;” see the world as a designed space Thursday, November 8, 2007 9
  • What are Gamers Good At? • See themselves as heroes on quests • Willing to experiment and keep trying--like to fix things, not afraid to low-penalty risks • Are “systems thinkers;” see the world as a designed space • Willing to seek expertise and ask for help--also willing to share expertise, tutor others Thursday, November 8, 2007 9
  • What are Gamers Good At? • See themselves as heroes on quests • Willing to experiment and keep trying--like to fix things, not afraid to low-penalty risks • Are “systems thinkers;” see the world as a designed space • Willing to seek expertise and ask for help--also willing to share expertise, tutor others • Collaboration is crucial with both problem-solving and execution Thursday, November 8, 2007 9
  • What are Gamers Good At? • See themselves as heroes on quests • Willing to experiment and keep trying--like to fix things, not afraid to low-penalty risks • Are “systems thinkers;” see the world as a designed space • Willing to seek expertise and ask for help--also willing to share expertise, tutor others • Collaboration is crucial with both problem-solving and execution • Thrive at fast decision-making and know how to prioritize Thursday, November 8, 2007 9
  • What are Gamers Good At? • See themselves as heroes on quests • Willing to experiment and keep trying--like to fix things, not afraid to low-penalty risks • Are “systems thinkers;” see the world as a designed space • Willing to seek expertise and ask for help--also willing to share expertise, tutor others • Collaboration is crucial with both problem-solving and execution • Thrive at fast decision-making and know how to prioritize • Are good at multitasking and continuous partial attention Thursday, November 8, 2007 9
  • What are Gamers Good At? • See themselves as heroes on quests • Willing to experiment and keep trying--like to fix things, not afraid to low-penalty risks • Are “systems thinkers;” see the world as a designed space • Willing to seek expertise and ask for help--also willing to share expertise, tutor others • Collaboration is crucial with both problem-solving and execution • Thrive at fast decision-making and know how to prioritize • Are good at multitasking and continuous partial attention Thursday, November 8, 2007 9
  • What are Games Good At? Thursday, November 8, 2007 10
  • What are Games Good At? • Recruit collaborative problem-solving and execution--many games deliberately designed for social strategies Thursday, November 8, 2007 10
  • What are Games Good At? • Recruit collaborative problem-solving and execution--many games deliberately designed for social strategies • Invite players to take risks and experiment in low-risk settings before giving high-stakes challenges: failure is part of the puzzle Thursday, November 8, 2007 10
  • What are Games Good At? • Recruit collaborative problem-solving and execution--many games deliberately designed for social strategies • Invite players to take risks and experiment in low-risk settings before giving high-stakes challenges: failure is part of the puzzle • Help players view the world as a designed space, which enables players to unpack hidden systems, underlying themes Thursday, November 8, 2007 10
  • What are Games Good At? • Recruit collaborative problem-solving and execution--many games deliberately designed for social strategies • Invite players to take risks and experiment in low-risk settings before giving high-stakes challenges: failure is part of the puzzle • Help players view the world as a designed space, which enables players to unpack hidden systems, underlying themes • Invite players to take on multiple identities in situated contexts and then reflect on those choices Thursday, November 8, 2007 10
  • What are Games Good At? • Recruit collaborative problem-solving and execution--many games deliberately designed for social strategies • Invite players to take risks and experiment in low-risk settings before giving high-stakes challenges: failure is part of the puzzle • Help players view the world as a designed space, which enables players to unpack hidden systems, underlying themes • Invite players to take on multiple identities in situated contexts and then reflect on those choices • Instant, frequent feedback on behaviors, choices, execution-- often communicated in a variety of modes (cutscenes, graphs) Thursday, November 8, 2007 10
  • What are Games Good At? • Recruit collaborative problem-solving and execution--many games deliberately designed for social strategies • Invite players to take risks and experiment in low-risk settings before giving high-stakes challenges: failure is part of the puzzle • Help players view the world as a designed space, which enables players to unpack hidden systems, underlying themes • Invite players to take on multiple identities in situated contexts and then reflect on those choices • Instant, frequent feedback on behaviors, choices, execution-- often communicated in a variety of modes (cutscenes, graphs) • Encourage production, participation, affinity, data circulation & display Thursday, November 8, 2007 10
  • What are Games Good At? • Recruit collaborative problem-solving and execution--many games deliberately designed for social strategies • Invite players to take risks and experiment in low-risk settings before giving high-stakes challenges: failure is part of the puzzle • Help players view the world as a designed space, which enables players to unpack hidden systems, underlying themes • Invite players to take on multiple identities in situated contexts and then reflect on those choices • Instant, frequent feedback on behaviors, choices, execution-- often communicated in a variety of modes (cutscenes, graphs) • Encourage production, participation, affinity, data circulation & display Thursday, November 8, 2007 10
  • information literacy-> gaming literacy identity play affiliations affinity spaces collaborative problem-solving circulating information & data surfing with others Thursday, November 8, 2007 11
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  • What do we mean by “literacies?” encoded texts that can be retrieved, worked with, and made available independent of the physical presence of another person (Lankshear & Knobel, 2006) Thursday, November 8, 2007 12
  • Thursday, November 8, 2007 13
  • What do we mean by “new literacies?” blogging, fanfic writing, manga-producing, meme-ing, photoshopping, podcasting, vodcasting, gaming, html-ing (Lankshear & Knobel, 2006) Thursday, November 8, 2007 13
  • it’s not a big truck “The internet isn’t just something you dump something on. It’s not a big truck. It’s...it’s a series of tubes.” --Senator Ted Stevens (R-Alaska) John Hodgman’s Reply Ted Stevens Remix Thursday, November 8, 2007 14
  • newest gamer cultures Thursday, November 8, 2007 15
  • online social networks Thursday, November 8, 2007 16
  • alternate reality games Thursday, November 8, 2007 17
  • passive gaming Thursday, November 8, 2007 18
  • passive gaming PMOG “adds an element of score-keeping, gentle competition, cooperation and self-reflection through scorekeeping and game dynamics added to web- browsing” (Justin Hall, 2007) Thursday, November 8, 2007 18
  • passive gaming PMOG “adds an element of score-keeping, gentle competition, cooperation and self-reflection through scorekeeping and game dynamics added to web- browsing” (Justin Hall, 2007) It opens our eyes to what the web really holds, to expand our grasp of meaning-making experiences with the web Thursday, November 8, 2007 18
  • “Gamers...in the Library?” --Eli Neiburger “WHY?! For the love of dear old Melvil Dewey, why would we take our hallowed houses of learning and sully them with these vile, prurient, mind-rotting entertainments? Well, it’s a fair question, so long as you remember that they were saying exactly the same thing about Pride and Prejudice not that long ago. Minus the Dewey part, of course.” Thursday, November 8, 2007 19
  • “Gamers...in the Library?” --Eli Neiburger “We’ve also learned that content is not just about text, and that media doesn’t have to be socially redeeming, or even any good, for our patrons to want to consume it.... ...If we were supposed to restrict ourselves to offering materials with purely redeeming social qualities and educational value, we’d have to throw out half the collection.” Thursday, November 8, 2007 20
  • A Zero-Sum Game? • Content • Knitting clubs, romance novels, large-print books, movies, discussion groups, storytime • Connections, community • Instruction Thursday, November 8, 2007 21
  • digitallearning.macfound.org Thursday, November 8, 2007 22
  • New Media Literacies Play Performance Simulation Appropriation Participation Gap Multitasking Distributed Cognition Transparency Collective Intelligence Problem Judgment Transmedia Ethics Problem Navigation Networking Negotiation Thursday, November 8, 2007 23
  • NML Framework http://projectnml.org Play: involves experimenting with Collective intelligence: pooling one’s surroundings as problem-solving knowledge toward a common goal Performance: involves adopting Judgment: evaluating the reliability alternative identities and credibility of different sources Simulation: involves interpreting Transmedia navigation: following and constructing dynamic models narratives across multiple modes Appropriation: meaningfully Networking: searching for, sampling and remixing media content synthesizing, and disseminating information Multitasking: scanning one’s environment and shifting focus as Negotiation: traveling across needed communities, discerning perspectives, norms Distributed cognition: interacting with tools to expand mental capacities Thursday, November 8, 2007 24
  • NML Thinking • Kodak Picture Gallery --> • stickiness--> syndication Flickr • demographics--> identity • Britannica Online --> play Wikipedia • developer-written--> • personal websites --> players co-writing blogging • individual competencies • evite -->upcoming.org --> collaborative questing • publishing--> • value dependent on participation scarcity of products--> • content management value dependent on systems --> wikis behavior choices • directories (taxonomy)--> • surfing alone--> surfing tagging (quot;folksonomyquot;) with others Thursday, November 8, 2007 25
  • What Does it Mean if... Thursday, November 8, 2007 26
  • What Does it Mean if... • Gaming is the new golf? Thursday, November 8, 2007 26
  • What Does it Mean if... • Gaming is the new golf? • You’re not making connections in WoW, etc., or you have no reference for it? Thursday, November 8, 2007 26
  • What Does it Mean if... • Gaming is the new golf? • You’re not making connections in WoW, etc., or you have no reference for it? • You don’t know how to visualize data, problem- solve with others, know how to think with systems Thursday, November 8, 2007 26
  • What Does it Mean if... • Gaming is the new golf? • You’re not making connections in WoW, etc., or you have no reference for it? • You don’t know how to visualize data, problem- solve with others, know how to think with systems • You don’t know how to interact online and socialize in games, virtual worlds, or interactive sites? Thursday, November 8, 2007 26
  • What Does it Mean if... • Gaming is the new golf? • You’re not making connections in WoW, etc., or you have no reference for it? • You don’t know how to visualize data, problem- solve with others, know how to think with systems • You don’t know how to interact online and socialize in games, virtual worlds, or interactive sites? • You don’t know how to present yourself online? Thursday, November 8, 2007 26
  • Adopt the new literacies ethos Thursday, November 8, 2007 27
  • Adopt the new literacies ethos • Use design principles of good games Thursday, November 8, 2007 27
  • Adopt the new literacies ethos • Use design principles of good games • Low-risk opportunities for failure Thursday, November 8, 2007 27
  • Adopt the new literacies ethos • Use design principles of good games • Low-risk opportunities for failure • Encourage design-system thinking Thursday, November 8, 2007 27
  • Adopt the new literacies ethos • Use design principles of good games • Low-risk opportunities for failure • Encourage design-system thinking • Reappropriate, circulate, visualize data Thursday, November 8, 2007 27
  • Adopt the new literacies ethos • Use design principles of good games • Low-risk opportunities for failure • Encourage design-system thinking • Reappropriate, circulate, visualize data • Legitimate peripheral participation Thursday, November 8, 2007 27
  • Adopt the new literacies ethos • Use design principles of good games • Low-risk opportunities for failure • Encourage design-system thinking • Reappropriate, circulate, visualize data • Legitimate peripheral participation • Don’t erase judgment, ethical decision-making Thursday, November 8, 2007 27
  • Adopt the new literacies ethos • Use design principles of good games • Low-risk opportunities for failure • Encourage design-system thinking • Reappropriate, circulate, visualize data • Legitimate peripheral participation • Don’t erase judgment, ethical decision-making • Problem-based learning Thursday, November 8, 2007 27
  • Adopt the new literacies ethos • Use design principles of good games • Low-risk opportunities for failure • Encourage design-system thinking • Reappropriate, circulate, visualize data • Legitimate peripheral participation • Don’t erase judgment, ethical decision-making • Problem-based learning • Information literacy Thursday, November 8, 2007 27
  • Adopt the new literacies ethos • Use design principles of good games • Low-risk opportunities for failure • Encourage design-system thinking • Reappropriate, circulate, visualize data • Legitimate peripheral participation • Don’t erase judgment, ethical decision-making • Problem-based learning • Information literacy • Go outside the game: transmedia, fan cultures Thursday, November 8, 2007 27
  • Adopt the new literacies ethos • Use design principles of good games • Low-risk opportunities for failure • Encourage design-system thinking • Reappropriate, circulate, visualize data • Legitimate peripheral participation • Don’t erase judgment, ethical decision-making • Problem-based learning • Information literacy • Go outside the game: transmedia, fan cultures • Identity play Thursday, November 8, 2007 27
  • Adopt the new literacies ethos • Use design principles of good games • Low-risk opportunities for failure • Encourage design-system thinking • Reappropriate, circulate, visualize data • Legitimate peripheral participation • Don’t erase judgment, ethical decision-making • Problem-based learning • Information literacy • Go outside the game: transmedia, fan cultures • Identity play • Affinity spaces Thursday, November 8, 2007 27
  • Adopt the new literacies ethos • Use design principles of good games • Low-risk opportunities for failure • Encourage design-system thinking • Reappropriate, circulate, visualize data • Legitimate peripheral participation • Don’t erase judgment, ethical decision-making • Problem-based learning • Information literacy • Go outside the game: transmedia, fan cultures • Identity play • Affinity spaces • PLAY GAMES--failure is part of the game, remember? Thursday, November 8, 2007 27
  • References, Further Reading Thursday, November 8, 2007 28
  • References, Further Reading • “Meet the Gamers” -- Squire & Steinkuehler, Libraryjournal.com, 2005 Thursday, November 8, 2007 28
  • References, Further Reading • “Meet the Gamers” -- Squire & Steinkuehler, Libraryjournal.com, 2005 • Gaming and Libraries: Intersection of Services-- Jenny Levine, ALA (theshiftedlibrarian.com) Thursday, November 8, 2007 28
  • References, Further Reading • “Meet the Gamers” -- Squire & Steinkuehler, Libraryjournal.com, 2005 • Gaming and Libraries: Intersection of Services-- Jenny Levine, ALA (theshiftedlibrarian.com) • Henry Jenkins’ ALA Keynote (TechSource, Gaming, Learning, and Libraries Symposium), 2007 Thursday, November 8, 2007 28
  • References, Further Reading • “Meet the Gamers” -- Squire & Steinkuehler, Libraryjournal.com, 2005 • Gaming and Libraries: Intersection of Services-- Jenny Levine, ALA (theshiftedlibrarian.com) • Henry Jenkins’ ALA Keynote (TechSource, Gaming, Learning, and Libraries Symposium), 2007 • What Video Games Have to Teach Us about Learning and Literacy-- James Paul Gee (2003) Thursday, November 8, 2007 28
  • References, Further Reading • “Meet the Gamers” -- Squire & Steinkuehler, Libraryjournal.com, 2005 • Gaming and Libraries: Intersection of Services-- Jenny Levine, ALA (theshiftedlibrarian.com) • Henry Jenkins’ ALA Keynote (TechSource, Gaming, Learning, and Libraries Symposium), 2007 • What Video Games Have to Teach Us about Learning and Literacy-- James Paul Gee (2003) • Got Game: How the Gamer Generation is Reshaping Business Forever-- Beck & Wade (2005) Thursday, November 8, 2007 28
  • References, Further Reading Thursday, November 8, 2007 29
  • References, Further Reading • Bibliographic Gaming-- bibliogaming.blogspot.com Thursday, November 8, 2007 29
  • References, Further Reading • Bibliographic Gaming-- bibliogaming.blogspot.com • Game On: Games in Libraries-- libgaming.blogspot.com Thursday, November 8, 2007 29
  • References, Further Reading • Bibliographic Gaming-- bibliogaming.blogspot.com • Game On: Games in Libraries-- libgaming.blogspot.com • Pop Goes the Library--popgoesthelibrary.com Thursday, November 8, 2007 29
  • References, Further Reading • Bibliographic Gaming-- bibliogaming.blogspot.com • Game On: Games in Libraries-- libgaming.blogspot.com • Pop Goes the Library--popgoesthelibrary.com • http://www.eye4youalliance.youthtech.info/ Thursday, November 8, 2007 29
  • References, Further Reading • Bibliographic Gaming-- bibliogaming.blogspot.com • Game On: Games in Libraries-- libgaming.blogspot.com • Pop Goes the Library--popgoesthelibrary.com • http://www.eye4youalliance.youthtech.info/ • Global Kids Digital Media Initiative (NYC)-- holymeatballs.org Thursday, November 8, 2007 29
  • References, Further Reading • Bibliographic Gaming-- bibliogaming.blogspot.com • Game On: Games in Libraries-- libgaming.blogspot.com • Pop Goes the Library--popgoesthelibrary.com • http://www.eye4youalliance.youthtech.info/ • Global Kids Digital Media Initiative (NYC)-- holymeatballs.org • Project New Media Literacies (MIT): projectnml.org Thursday, November 8, 2007 29
  • References, Further Reading • Bibliographic Gaming-- bibliogaming.blogspot.com • Game On: Games in Libraries-- libgaming.blogspot.com • Pop Goes the Library--popgoesthelibrary.com • http://www.eye4youalliance.youthtech.info/ • Global Kids Digital Media Initiative (NYC)-- holymeatballs.org • Project New Media Literacies (MIT): projectnml.org • Goodplay Project (Harvard): goodworkproject.org/ research/digital.htm Thursday, November 8, 2007 29