The American South during the
1950’s and 1960’s
The African-American civil rights
• During the 1950’s-1960’s, the people wanted to end racial segregation and
discrimination against black Americans.
• They wanted voting rights.
• Between 1955 and 1968 acts of nonviolent protest and civil disobedience
made crisis situations between activists and government authorities.
• On May 17, 1954 a ruling was made that its unconstitutional to have
segregation in public schools.
• In August 1955, a 14 year old Chicago boy was brutally killed by two white
men for being accused of whistling at a white woman, an all white jury
acquitted them, they were late praised in a magazine.
• On December 1st 1955, when Rosa Parks denied giving up her seat to a
white passenger. The Montgomery Black community started a boycott
against riding the bus after Rosa Parks was arrested.
• On September 1957, Governor Orval Faubus blocked 9 black students
from entering an all white high school. The president sent in troops and
the national guard to help with the situation in favor of the 9 boys.
• In March 1963, about 250,000 people walked down the constitution
avenue demanding jobs and freedom, 80% of them were AfricanAmericans.
• Sit ins: People would ask for services that were not allowed to them due
to racial profiling.
• Freedom rides: People who rode interstate buses to the segregated south.
• Freedom summer: A combination of multiple drives to help for blacks to
be able to vote
• In 1965, black people were allowed to vote
• Martin Luther King Jr : He gave speeches about his beliefs and how he
thought things should be handled.
• Rosa Parks: She was an African- American seamstress rode on a bus to go
home, the bus later became crowded, she was ordered to give up her seat
for a white man. She refused then got herself arrested. That lead to
Martin Luther King starting a boycott the Montgomery buses. After about
a year the supreme court stated that desegregation on buses was
• Thurgood Marshall presented 30 civil rights cases to the supreme court
and won 29 of them. He was the first African- American supreme court
justice in American history.
Discrimination and injustice created the civil rights movement, and in the
south it bought great changes. During the 1950’s and the 1960’s actions
were made by many people that affected the movement, including many
powerful leaders. People were taking action to do something about the
inequality in the South that African-Americans had to deal with. By rising
up and working together, people were changing the ways of the South.
• Starting in the 1890’s, states throughout the South passed laws to prevent
black citizens from improving their status or achieving qualities. These
laws were called the Jim Crow Laws. They were in place until the 1950’s
• Florida: The schools for white children and the schools for black children
shall be conducted separately.
• Kentucky: The children of white and colored aces committed to reform
schools shall be kept entirely separate from each other.
• Mississippi: Separate schools shall be maintained for the children of white
and colored races.
• Mississippi: Separate free schools shall be established for the education of
children of African descent; and it shall be unlawful for any colored child
to attend any white school, or any white to attend a colored school.
• New Mexico: Separate rooms shall be provided by the teaching of pupils
of African descent, and such pupils may not be admitted to the school
rooms occupied by other descents.
• New Carolina: School textbooks shall not be exchanged between the white
and colored schools, but shall continue to be used by the race first using
• Alabama: It shall be unlawful to conduct a place for the serving of food in
the city, in which white and colored people be served in the same room,
unless they are separated by a solid partition, and unless a separate door
from the street is provided.
• Alabama: It shall be unlawful for a negro and a white person to play
together or in company with each other at any game of pool.
• Alabama: Every employer of white or negro males to provide for such
white or negro males reasonably accessible and separate toilet facilities.
• Georgia: All persons licensed to conduct a restaurant shall serve either
white people exclusively or colored people exclusively and shall not sell to
both or should not be in the same license.
• Alabama: No person or incorporation shall acquire any white female nurse
in wards or rooms in hospitals, either private or public in which negro men
• Louisiana: The board of trustees shall be maintained on a separate
building or separate grounds for the admission care, instruction ,and
support of all blind persons of the colored race.
• Mississippi: There shall be maintained by the governing authorities of
every hospital maintained by the state for treatment of white or colored
races separate entrances for visitors.
• Louisiana: Any person who shall rent any part of any such building to a
negro person, or family, when any white person is already living there, the
person shall be guilty of misdemeanor.
• Mississippi: The prison warden shall see that the white convicts shall have
separate apartments for eating and sleeping from the negro convicts.
• Arizona: The marriage of a Caucasian blood with a negro shall be null and
• Florida: All marriages between a white person and negro are prohibited.
• Georgia: No colored barber shall serve as a barber to white women or
• Georgia: No officer in charge shall not bury any colored persons upon
ground used for the burial of white persons.
• Wyoming: All marriages of white persons with negroes, Mulattos,
Mongolians, or Malaya are illegal.