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History of the study of child development
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History of the study of child development


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  • 1. Prepared by Alison Topper
  • 2.  Is complicated! Parent needs to know when to back off and let child do for himself… Needs to avoid pushing children to do things they aren‟t ready for Need to let child fail as they learn And skills change…
  • 3.  Authoritarian: • Children should obey their parents  Without question • Parent tells the child what to do, and the child‟s duty is to do it • When rules are broken, the authoritarian parent acts quickly and firmly
  • 4.  Authoritative or Democratic: • Parents are still in charge  Children have more input into rules and limits • Children are given more independence and choice within the less structured rules.
  • 5.  Permissive: • Children are free to set their own rules. • Parents grant a wide range of freedom
  • 6.  The styles overlap! A parent is usually not always in one style all the time.
  • 7. 1. Parent must meet the basic needs of a child • Provide food, clothing and shelter • Monitor safety and health • Teach language skills • Provide opportunity for learning through school • Teach the children to get along in social groups • Provide opportunity for the child to feel love and give love
  • 8. 2. Provide Nurturing: • Give children opportunities for encouragement and enrichment (the extras!)  Not necessarily $$ • Parent needs to be a teacher • Allow children to learn and explore • Lack of nurturing leads to deprivation  Deprivation is NOT lack of $  Deprivation IS lack of an enriching environment
  • 9. 3. Guiding Children to Learn Appropriate Behavior • Consistent environment • Effective techniques to encourage appropriate behavior • Setting limits • Effective ways of dealing with misbehavior
  • 10.  Children used to be viewed as “miniature adults” Totally under the control of their parents Examples:
  • 11.  Male head of household had absolute power over the children He could kill them He could sell them into slavery Unwanted children were simply left outside to die
  • 12.  Children wore a bag of charms Girls married at 13 Boys at 14
  • 13.  As in Ancient Rome,and other ancient civilizations, unwanted infants were left outside to die Children were often nursed by slaves Girls lived at home until their marriage Boys did receive education Children were often given toys at sacred festivals, such as balls, miniature chariots, or dolls made from clay and rags.
  • 14.  Unwanted infants, especially girls, were left to die of exposure Seldom sold into slavery Mothers sang lullabies to their children, fearing that the noise of their crying would irritate the gods. Children played with miniature weapons and household implements as they role- played adult activities.
  • 15.  Prodigal Son: • Children, especially sons, who did not adhere to rules of the family and society were outcast from their family
  • 16.  Unwanted or disabled infants were left to die of exposure, but this was not as acceptable as in other societies. Baptism with water originated, originally not as a Christian ritual Girls learned about housekeeping Boys learned about farming and war Children were sent to live with kin to strengthen relationships
  • 17.  Children were highly valued Raised mostly by mothers Females ran the household Households were typically large and filled with many relatives Children were taught to read and write Males and females raised together until abut 7 or 8, then separated
  • 18.  Childhood was seen as separate from adulthood Children remained with their parents, but were strictly controlled, to the point of abuse One thirteenth century article of law begins with: „If one beats a child until it bleeds, then it will remember...„ These methods common among all classes
  • 19.  Puritans believed children were naturally evil Children were “swaddled” wrapped tightly in blankets as infants, restricting movement • An effort to manage the child Parent‟s responsibility to train, manage the child Some saw the child as a “blank slate” totally under parental control
  • 20.  Life was very hard….no conveniences All food, clothing, etc. had to be grown or made Children did the work of adults Boys married at 16, girls also In the North, more education Not a priority in the South
  • 21.  Childhood ended around age 7 Children worked in factories, mines, farms As the Industrial Revolution continued, children left the home to work in factories owned by strangers Children of slaves were considered property and could be sold away from their parents. Slave owners generally provided only as much education as the slave needed for their job.
  • 22.  Indian children were taken from their tribes and families to attend schools to “Americanize” them In 1700‟s and up to late 1800s, parents schooled their own children at home. Boys received more schooling than girls. Tutors, clergy, one room school houses were some methods
  • 23.  We have gradually become more “child centered” Children are seen as unique individuals. Parent‟s job is to nurture and provide opportunity for development. Fads in Child Rearing are common, Dr. Spock, Dr. Brazleton, and many others have written on child rearing.
  • 24.  2010/07/26/parenting-through-history-a- look-at-childrearing-in-five-historic- societies/ labour-in-the-19th-century/