Analysis and Design is: Organic Fluid Complex Design Analysis Synthesis Matrix Competency Overlapping Skill Expertise Common Capability Concept Planning Requirements Understanding Architecture Communications Progress Workload Systems Improvement Process Plan Portfolio Needs Wants Happy Customers Service Design User Experience Balance Symbiosis
Performance Improvement #1Because you want to work well. You probably are working well ... Photo: Steven Depolohttp://www.flickr.com/photos/stevendepolo/4294686346/
Performance Improvement #2But we can always ask ourselves how can we do even better? Tate: Ryan Gander on Fischli/Weisshttp://www.tate.org.uk/tateetc/issue8/fischliweiss_workingitout.htm“It's relatively easy to stumble around making a successful work now and again, sandwiched between disasters that never leave the studio, but it's hard to attain good practice.[This]isn't about making good artworks, but about how to mould the conditions for artworks to be made possible.”Photo: rytchttp://www.flickr.com/photos/rytc/387947202/
Performance Improvement #3And get a little bit better every time we doing something.Photo: British Cycling http://www.flickr.com/photos/britishcycling/4035125012/in/set-72157622639963060/“The GB cycling team's winning philosophy is "aggregation of marginal gains": get a lot of small things right, put them all together, and they add up to a significant gain. No stone is left unturned.”http://www.guardian.co.uk/sport/2008/aug/14/olympics2008.olympicscycling1“"We've got this saying, 'performance by the aggregation of marginal gains,'" Brailsford continued. "It means taking the 1% from everything you do; finding a 1% margin for improvement in everything you do. That's what we try to do from the mechanics upwards."If a mechanic sticks a tyre on, and someone comes along and says it could be done better, it's not an insult - it's because we are always striving for improvement, for those 1% gains, in absolutely every single thing we do.“”http://www.teamsky.com/article/0,27290,17547_5792058,00.html
Navigating Change #1Your stakeholders keep demanding more.
Navigating Change #2And the world outside will keep changing.Photo: Kevin Dooley (http://www.flickr.com/photos/pagedooley/3983181467/)
Navigating Change #3Your strategies involve exploring new opportunities and trying new directions and peering into uncertain futures.“It’s like a voyage of discovery. You have to set out before you really know where you are going. The discoveries come in the making and doing. Set fuzzy goals, test your assumptions and adjust as you go ... You never really get to the end. It’s the way of the world today. You’ve got to keep innovating”. From a notecard interview with Dave Grey founder of Xplane a Business Design Thinking Company and author of Gamestorming: A playbook for innovators, rule-breakers and changemakers that looks at how games can provide the continuous innovation to respond to business challenges at http://majoroneone.posterous.com/ux-week-2010-homePhoto Matt Dawsonhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/mattgdawson/3597463884/
Navigating Change #4STEEP: Social, Technological, Environmental, Economic, Political Analysis can help keep abreast of broader trends and help organisations understand the external forces that may require change.Photo: By Bill Saturnohttp://www.flickr.com/photos/billsaturno/170903424/
Navigating Change #5The Analysts Say …Looking at what some of the trends key analysts have identified in technology and application architecture in general.General Agreement on Some Key Trends:1. Location IndependenceMobilePersonalUbiquitousContext2. Cloud Utility ComputingCloud, SaaS, SOA all really add up to industrialisation, automation so IT can scale to a utility which is a better term than the semantically empty and suitably nebulous term ‘cloud’ computing. Digital data has never exactly been tangible…Dynamic, scalable provisioningSubscription pricing modelsBottom up purchasing3. Standards and InteroperabilityUncontrolled platforms/devicesMashups and intermediationsApp stores and modularisation4. Patterns and AnalyticsData explosion5. CollaborationVirtual, loosely coupled enterprises = federationSocialPresenceGartner Webinar: Top Technology Predictions for 2011 and Beyondhttp://my.gartner.com/portal/server.pt?open=512&objID=202&mode=2&PageID=5553&resId=1462334&ref=Webinar-Calendar1. Online sabotage of infrastructure2. CIO performance based on revenue generation by IT3. Increase IT spending per head by 60% for an information smart business4.Tools and automation will eliminate 25% or labour hours associated with IT services5.External assessment of enterprise value and viability includes IT assets and capabilities6. Cloud services accountability via independent certification7.20% of non0it global 500 will be cloud services computing8.50% of web sales via social presence and mobile applications9.90% of organisations will support corporate applications on personal devices10.80% of workforce using personal not enterprise devices11. 10% of your online ‘friends’ will be non-humanZapThink Vision for Enterprise IT in 20105 Super TrendsComplex Systems Engineering2. Location Independence3. Global Cubicle4. Democratization of Technology5. Deep Interoperability
Navigating Change #6Trends and Technology Map 2010http://nowandnext.com/PDF/trends_and_technology_timeline_2010.pdfRichard Watson has written this trend map for several years now that uses the paradigm of a tube map to track lines of innovation through zones of development. Again common themes: urbanisation, globalisation, localism, digitalisation and personalisation are at the hub of lots of trends and technologies.
Student Voices: Understanding Change in Higher Education #1 THE Journal 2020Visionhttp://thejournal.com/Articles/2010/11/01/Talkin-about-a-Revolution.aspx?Page=5“Projecting ahead to 2020, what will students’ experiences look like?Cator: We’re talking about the opportunity for students to wake up in the morning with a strong sense of purpose that they’re going to school because they are in the business of learning. They are empowered with their own device, their own learning record, their own feedback. They know what they’re going to do next without having to wait for someone to tell them. And they have access to the people around them—not just physically around them, but people who might be online, the experts, anyone who can help them get where they need to go. They will still go to a place and still have these people called teachers who are working with them and are connected with their work.”UCISA Top Concerns2008/92010/11 Expected in February 2011EDUCAUSENot sure if this is relevant but there are most topics in EDUCAUSE’s resource library on E-Learning (1051), 682 on Instructional Technologies, there are 512 on identity and Access Management, 443 on support services, 366 on collaboration, 312 on Teaching, 286 on libraries and technology, 240 on student engagement and interaction, 222 on Data Administration and Management, 144 on Student Information Systems. This is not very scientific (being guided by a taxonomy), and is not an indication of importance but can perhaps help inform in which areas practice and knowledge is more established, and which are still emerging and developing.Top-Ten IT Issues, 20101. Funding IT2. Administrative/ERP/Information Systems3. Security 4. Teaching and Learning with Technology 5. Identity/Access Management6. (tie). Disaster Recovery / Business Continuity6. (tie). Governance, Organization, and Leadership7. Agility, Adaptability, and Responsiveness8. Learning Management Systems9. Strategic Planning10. Infrastructure/CyberinfrastructureOther ReferencesXplana: Education and Technology Trends 2011http://blog.xplana.com/education-and-technology-trends-2011/Mintel: consumer Trends 2011http://www.mintel.com/press-centre/press-releases/617/mintel-reveals-consumer-trends-for-2011“No Degree, No Problem Economic uncertainty has changed the workplace and the meaning of job security for the foreseeable future. As a result consumers will continue to question higher education’s ROI and alternative channels for learning will gain credibility. In 2011 we may see more lifelong learning in the workplace, corporate sponsored degrees and companies investing in employees through education and training rather than salary or benefits. Meanwhile learning while doing, rather than learning in a lecture hall, may become a focus and with DIY education gaining steam, there’s an opportunity for brands to play host.”
Student Voices: Understanding Change in Higher Education #2If a decision quadrant can help with priorities I’ve been experimenting with displaying this as a continuum to help develop a sense of direction and movement and potential timelines. Using a strategy continuum to judge movement, momentum and resource coverage … where are themes, projects, requests, technologies etc on a continuum from established, through emergent to edge. May help focus on the ‘getting there, what’s next bit’. This will be relevant to a scope e.g. for an institution may be different to sector/marketplace in general as it depends on your institutional starting point. Where are we good, what do we have covered, where should we invest next to move us on.
Navigating Change #7You have to learn to love change
Navigating Change #7You have to learn to turn change to your advantage.Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/thelastminute/1973927918/OpportunityCreativityDesign Thinking + Engineering ExcellenceQuestion the UnquestionableThink Different
Navigating Change #7Not look for excuses to stay where you are ...From St Andrews Lean Team (http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/media/the_wall_of_excuses.pdf)
Navigating Change #7There are more questions than answers but good questions will help you find the right answer. Business analysts are morerpreared to ask the unthinkable questions.Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/dullhunk/202872717/
Navigating Change #8Staying where you are is rarely an option."If we are to achieve things never before accomplished we must employ methods never before attempted" — Francis BaconHe that gives good advice, builds with one hand; he that gives good counsel and example, builds with both; but he that gives good admonition and bad example, builds with one hand and pulls down with the other. Francis Bacon A wise man will make more opportunities than he finds. - Francis Bacon There is no comparison between that which is lost by not succeeding and that which is lost by not trying. - Francis Bacon If a man will begin with certainties, he shall end in doubts, but if he will content to begin with doubts, he shall end in certainties. - Francis Bacon He that will not apply new remedies must expect new evils; for time is the greatest innovator. - Francis Bacon Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, KC (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman and essayist but is best known for leading the scientific revolution with his new 'observation and experimentation' theory which is the way science has been conducted ever since
Navigating Change #9Business Analysts are human sat navs for organisational change.Photo by:José CuervoElorzahttp://www.flickr.com/photos/zcuervo/402403453/
Understanding Needs and Wants #1Defining Requirements: Business Analysts help find, identify and describe needs. This includes not just documenting what customers tell us they want, but uncovering new things that meet needs consumers never realised they had. Satisfying well documented unmet requirements is quality; satisfying unmet and unidentified requirements is transformative. It is important to unify business strategy and needs and technology strategy and needs when developing a useful, appropriate and effective service strategy.Steve Jobs “This is what customers pay us for–to sweat all these details so it’s easy and pleasant for them to use our computers. We’re supposed to be really good at this. That doesn’t mean we don’t listen to customers, but it’s hard for them to tell you what they want when they’ve never seen anything remotely like it. Take desktop video editing. I never got one request from someone who wanted to edit movies on his computer. Yet now that people see it, they say, ‘Oh my God, that’s great!’” [Fortune, January 24 2000]Photo: Danie van der Merwehttp://www.flickr.com/photos/dvdmerwe/3315349995/
Understanding Needs and Wants #2Analysts don’t join the argument they add something that changes they picture to help thepeople involved in a seemingly intractable problem to arrive at a solution themselves.I first heard the story of the 18th camel from a William UryTed Talk: http://www.ted.com/talks/william_ury.html but it is well known and well told over many variations and centuries and loses nothing of its value as a parable in the retelling.Here is it told by Scott Johnson, CEO of At Task, who applied it to project management and leadership:“There is a story about a villager who left his inheritance to his three sons. To the first he left one-half of his belongings. To the second, he left one-third of his belongings. To the third, he left one-ninth of his belongings. Given that the man had 17 camels, tempers started to flare among the sons. 17 is not divisible by 2, by 3, or by 9. How could the sons come to an agreement?They turned to a wise woman who told them, "I don't know that I can help you, but you can have my camel if you wish". Perfect. The first son got his nine camels, the second son got his six, and the third son got his two and they were all happy. That totalled 17 camels and so they gave the extra one back to the woman.”Johnson comments: “When I heard this story, I couldn't help but think about how effective leaders get the most out of their workers not by telling them what to do, but by figuratively finding that 18th camel... by finding ways to help their people think creatively and find solutions that were not obvious before. Often times people in the workplace are limited mainly by their own assumptions about their limitations. As an employer, I love it when people challenge the status quo or their own perceived resource constraints to bring about a great plan.”http://blogs.attask.com/blog/a-better-way-to-get-work-done/find-the-18th-camelThe brothers were able to reach consensus and find a way to satisfy their father’s requirement despite their resource constraints.The wise woman didn’t join in the debate and add to the problem she selflessly added something to the situation that would enable the problem to be seen in a different light yet still did not sacrifice anything.Photo: Bottle Void http://www.flickr.com/photos/22964099@N05/2973329568/
Understanding Needs and Wants #3Product Management (A System is for Life not Just for Projects)Help customers plan over product/service lifecycles not just project lifecycles.Photo: Nate Grigghttp://www.flickr.com/photos/nateone/4794181806/
Understanding Needs and Wants #4Solution evaluation and selection: Business Analysts help find appropriate ways to satisfy needs.Photo: Rev Stanhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/revstan/3547069586/
Understanding Needs and Wants #5Business Analysts define done.Spring photo by theaucitronhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/9190330@N06/5810155348/Summer photo by Julie Falkhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/piper/5936562589/in/photostream/
Making Connections #1Business Analysts work with people to help translate different languages and concerns.Photo David Weeklyhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/dweekly/64221580/
Making Connections #2Business Analysts bridge gaps.Between teams within the IT department.Between IT and the other professional services.Between IT and academic departments.Between IT and vendors.Between strategy and service operation.Between skills and knowledge.Photo: Alex Staninhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/44883420@N08/4117559154/
Making Connections #3Coaching: Help managers combine individual and functional expertise into a cutting edge collective.Photo: Bernie Zimmermannhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/bernzilla/3581368679/Photo Wonkerhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/wonker/3790259304/in/photostream/
Making Connections #4Business Synthesists– Alec SharpSteve Jobs: “Creativity is just connecting things. When you ask creative people how they did something, they feel a little guilty because they didn’t really do it, they just saw something. It seemed obvious to them after a while. That’s because they were able to connect experiences they’ve had and synthesize new things. And the reason they were able to do that was that they’ve had more experiences or they have thought more about their experiences than other people.Photo: fauxto_digithttp://www.flickr.com/photos/fauxto_dkp/2915425151/
Making Connections #5Finding PatternsSteve Jobs: “You can’t connect the dots looking forward; you can only connect them looking backwards. So you have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in your future. You have to trust in something — your gut, destiny, life, karma, whatever. This approach has never let me down, and it has made all the difference in my life.” [Stanford commencement speech, June 2005]
Organisational Systems #1Business Analysts think about organisations, not just technology, as complete systems.Photo: Scotthttp://www.flickr.com/photos/skippy/6853920/
Organisational Systems #2Maintaining EcosystemsSowing seeds by nurturing climates that sustain creative and innovative ecologies … a better model for architecture?Photo: Pierre Pocshttp://www.flickr.com/photos/pierrepocs/5480153734/
Innovation and Learning Organisations #1Using decision quadrants to explore priorities for business cases, project initiation documents and detailed planning. Decision Quadrant: How/Now/Wow by NityaWakhluhttp://www.gogamestorm.com/?p=427“When people want to develop new ideas, they most often think out of the box in the brainstorming or divergent phase. However, when it comes to convergence, people often end up picking ideas that are most familiar to them. This is called a ‘creative paradox’ or a ‘creadox’.The How-Now-Wow matrix is an idea selection tool that breaks the creadox by forcing people to weigh each idea on 2 parameters.”How/Now/Wow questions can also help with elicitation: you can ask users what helps/hinders them now, what they would like to know how to do and what would make them go wow ….
Innovation and Learning Organisations #2Where does failure and making mistakes sit with service innovation and service operation?3M and Innovationhttp://www.myprimetime.com/play/culture/content/postyourfailure/index.shtmlhttp://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=873276“It's safe to say that no 3M product will generate the buzz of, say, the next iPhone. But 3M has never been about inventing the Next Big Thing. It's about inventing hundreds and hundreds of Next Small Things, year after year.”http://money.cnn.com/2010/09/23/news/companies/3m_innovation_revival.fortune/index.htm
Innovation and Learning Organisations #3Realising business benefits from executing ideas well. TAKING CONCEPTS FROM IDEATION THROUGH TO IMPLEMENTATIONPhoto: Martin Ringlein (http://www.flickr.com/photos/mringlein/4109621758/)For some team work and discussion.
Further details on these in Analysis and Design Competencies slide deck.
Too often though a business solution only includes the technology.
We take requirements needed to support institutional services and capabilities and provide solutions.
To support the full solution between requirements and technology business analysis provides three pillars: information, policy and practice.Sometimes a new solution may only require changing or many and may or may not include technology.
There are also different layers within each pillar. These organisational and information layers combine with application and platform layers to provide a joined up enterprise architecture.
This is my working of an idea from business rules guru Ron Ross. Bodies and business can act without having a fully formed central nervous system – but this provides the control that allows not just for behaviour but for effective adaptive behaviour. Key points separation: independence and interdependence.Ross, Ron () Business Rules CoinceptsPhoto: http://www.flickr.com/photos/bea-258/4469658429/Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/lorelei-ranveig/2294885580/Photo: Robert Fornal (http://www.flickr.com/photos/fornal/363665579/)
About Analysis and Design
About Analysis and Design
About Analysis and DesignSO YOU ARE A BUSINESS ANALYST? WHAT DO YOU DO AND HOW CAN YOU HELP ME?
Navigating change and Improving PerformanceWHY WORK WITH BUSINESSANALYSTS?
WE CANALWAYS ASKOURSELVESHOW CANWE DO EVENBETTER?
CONTINUOUS PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT: SMALLINCREMENTAL GAINS MAKE A BIG DIFFERENCE OVER TIME
THE MICRO-ENVIRONMENT: STAKEHOLDERS AREALWAYS DEMANDING MORE FOR LESS.
THE MACRO-ENVIRONMENT: THE OUTSIDE WORLDWILL KEEP CHANGING
NAVIGATING FUZZY GOALS: MOVING FROM WHERE YOUARE INVOLVES CHOICES AND ADJUSTMENTS
STEEP: SOCIAL, TECHNOLOGICAL, ENVIRONMENTAL,ECONOMIC, POLITICAL ANALYSIS CAN HELP ORGANISATIONSUNDERSTAND CHANGE.
LIFELONG LEARNING IS THE NEW NORMAL• FLEXIBLE, ADAPTIVE CURRICULUM• JUST IN TIME LEARNING• MULTIPLE, DIVERSE PROVIDERS USERS TO CHOOSERS FROM DELIVERY TONANOCASTING DISCOVERY • PUSH TO PULL LEARNING• PERSONALISATION, • LEARNING WHILST DOING• SOCIALISATION• LOCATION INDEPENDENCE VALUE IN• NEW SUPPLY SERVICES NOT CHAIN MODELS CONTENT
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN: OUR ROLE IS TO HELPPROVIDE GUIDANCE ON THIS ONGOING JOURNEY
Find Out MoreWe’ve got a presentation about the Analysis and Design team, who our businessanalysts are, our values and approaches to working with others.
Understanding Problems and Finding SolutionsWHAT DO BUSINESS ANALYSTS DO?
REQUIREMENTS: HELP WORK OUT WHAT IS NEEDEDTO ACHIEVE GOALS
KNOWING THE PROBLEM: ADD SOMETHING THATCHANGES THE PICTURE TO MAKE A SOLUTION POSSIBLE
FULL LIFECYCLE VIEW: HELP CONSIDER BROADER SERVICEDEMANDS BEYOND PROJECT SCOPES.
SELECTION: HELP DETERMINE THE SOLUTIONAPPROACH THAT IS AS SATISFYING AS POSSIBLE.
DONE: HELP DEFINE WHEN A PIECE OF WORK IS FINISHED
COMMUNICATION: HELP TRANSLATE DIFFERENTLANGUAGES AND CONCERNS ACROSS FUNCTIONS
BRIDGING GAPS: IDENTIFY AND SPAN GAPS INUNDERSTANDING AND STRUCTURE
COACHING: DEVELOP TECHNIQUES THAT ALLOW SKILLS ANDEXPERTISE TO COMBINE IN CROSS-FUNCTIONAL TEAMS
SYNTHESIS: BRING TOGETHER DISPARATE IDEAS INTO ANAGREED SOLUTION.
PATTERNS: SPOT TRENDS IN PAST EXPERIENCE TO INFORMFUTURE CHOICES
COMPLETE SYSTEMS: HELP THINK ABOUT ORGANISATIONS ASSYSTEMS, NOT JUST THE TECHNOLOGY PARTS.
ECOSYSTEMS: HELP ORGANISATIONS CREATE THECONDITIONS FOR SYSTEM AND PROCESS IMPROVEMENT.
PRIORITISATION: THE HARD PART OF INNOVATION ISEXECUTION NOT IDEATION Innovative, Easy to Implement breakthrough ideas Possible to implement Low Risk High Acceptability Best Practice Examples Incremental Improvements Normal OriginalIDEATION Dreams, Challenges and Directions Not sure how to get there but when we can they will provide … WOW! Don’t Bother Impossible to Implement EXECUTION
LEARNING FROM MISTAKES: HELP ORGANISATIONS FINDAND EMBED THEIR “NEXT THING”. SUCCESS/FAILURE?
ANALYSIS DESIGN• Breaking Down • Putting Together• Why? • How?• Analysis • Synthesis• Priority • Creativity• Requirements • Prototypes• Now • Future• Problem • Solution• Defining Done • Getting to Done• Telling Stories • Building New Worlds
Requirements Information Policy BehaviourServices andCapabilities Technology
Requirements Information Policy Behaviour Facts Decisions ProcessesServices andCapabilities Data Rules Functions Technology
Adapted from Ron Ross, Business Rules Concepts Information Policy Process is about is about is about Knowing; Deciding; Doing; it provides it provides it provides Structure Guidance Movement
Coming SoonWe’re going to be building a presentation providing more information on analysis and designtechniques and competencies like process modelling, requirements, service design, userexperience design, workshops, rules and decisions and loads more.
About Analysis and DesignInformation Technology This slide deck is licensed under a Creative CommonsRoyal Holloway, University of London Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 UnportedIT Department LicenseFebruary 2012Contact: Alison PopeContributors: Alison Pope