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A centenary of the discovery of the nucleus: Ernest Rutherford
A centenary of the discovery of the nucleus: Ernest Rutherford
A centenary of the discovery of the nucleus: Ernest Rutherford
A centenary of the discovery of the nucleus: Ernest Rutherford
A centenary of the discovery of the nucleus: Ernest Rutherford
A centenary of the discovery of the nucleus: Ernest Rutherford
A centenary of the discovery of the nucleus: Ernest Rutherford
A centenary of the discovery of the nucleus: Ernest Rutherford
A centenary of the discovery of the nucleus: Ernest Rutherford
A centenary of the discovery of the nucleus: Ernest Rutherford
A centenary of the discovery of the nucleus: Ernest Rutherford
A centenary of the discovery of the nucleus: Ernest Rutherford
A centenary of the discovery of the nucleus: Ernest Rutherford
A centenary of the discovery of the nucleus: Ernest Rutherford
A centenary of the discovery of the nucleus: Ernest Rutherford
A centenary of the discovery of the nucleus: Ernest Rutherford
A centenary of the discovery of the nucleus: Ernest Rutherford
A centenary of the discovery of the nucleus: Ernest Rutherford
A centenary of the discovery of the nucleus: Ernest Rutherford
A centenary of the discovery of the nucleus: Ernest Rutherford
A centenary of the discovery of the nucleus: Ernest Rutherford
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A centenary of the discovery of the nucleus: Ernest Rutherford

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A presentation given at the HNPS2011

A presentation given at the HNPS2011

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  1. A centenary of the discovery of the nucleus Theo J. MertzimekisSaturday, June 4, 2011
  2. The life and works of Sir Ernest Rutherford ⚛ Some  Bio ⚛ The  Gold  Foil  experiment ⚛ The  nucleus  &  the  model  of  the  atom ⚛ Milestones  &  Major  AchievementsTheo  J.  MertzimekisUoAthens  /  HNPS2011Saturday, June 4, 2011
  3. Some Bio ⚛ Born  in  Spring  Grove,  NZ  on  Aug  30,   1871  to  James  and  Martha  Rutherford ⚛ 2nd  son,  4th  child  of  total  12  children ⚛ Father:  engineer;  Mother:  teacher ⚛ 1890:  Canterbury  College  in   Christchurch ⚛ Graduates  with  BA  in  1892  (Pure  Math,   Latin,  Physics)Theo  J.  MertzimekisUoAthens  /  HNPS2011Saturday, June 4, 2011
  4. College years ⚛ Due  to  his  math  skills  he  received  a  scholarship  to   continue  his  studies ⚛ MA  degree:  original  work  in  EM  /  inspired  by   Tesla  and  his  coil.  He  tries  to  determine  if  iron   stays  magnetized  under  high-­‐frequency  currents ⚛ For  that  purpose  he  constructed  two  separate   devices,  one  to  provide  10μs  pulses  and  a   magnetic  detectorTheo  J.  MertzimekisUoAthens  /  HNPS2011Saturday, June 4, 2011
  5. @ Cambridge ⚛ Conducts  second  degree  in  Geology  and   Chemistry  to  comply  with  a  Royal  Scholarship   requirements ⚛ He  gets  the  Scholarship  and  joins  J.J.  Thomson  at   Cambridge  as  the  first  non-­‐Cambridge  graduate   to  be  accepted  for  research. ⚛ He  improves  his  detector  to  measure  frequencies   and  study  the  dielectric  properties  of  insulators.Theo  J.  MertzimekisUoAthens  /  HNPS2011Saturday, June 4, 2011
  6. First Steps in Research ⚛ He  constructs  an  EM  detector  and  improves  it  to   apply  it  to  sea  navigation  (range  ~  200  m) ⚛ Thomson  invites  him  to  study  the  electrical   conduction  of  gases.  He  uses  high-­‐f  currents,  X-­‐ rays  and  radioactivity  to  initiate  electrical   conduction. ⚛ Radioactivity  itself  intrigued  him  and  soon  he   tries  to  understand  its  nature.Theo  J.  MertzimekisUoAthens  /  HNPS2011Saturday, June 4, 2011
  7. @ McGill ⚛ w/  Brookes:  Discovery  of  Radon  (inert,   radioactive  gas) ⚛ w/  Soddy:  Discovery  of  radioactive  decay  law.   Some  heavy  atoms  decay  to  lighter  species.  This   works  attracts  the  world’s  attention ⚛ Fellow  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Canada  (1900)  and   London  (1903).  He  publishes  “Radio-­‐activity”  in   1904  and  “Radioactive  transformations”  in  1906Theo  J.  MertzimekisUoAthens  /  HNPS2011Saturday, June 4, 2011
  8. The Nobel Prize ⚛ 1908  -­‐  Chemistry "for  his  investigations  into the  disintegration  of  the  elements,  and the  chemistry  of  radioactive  substances".Theo  J.  MertzimekisUoAthens  /  HNPS2011Saturday, June 4, 2011
  9. @ Manchester ⚛ Schuster  steps  down  and  Rutherford  becomes  a   Professor  at  Manchester ⚛ w/  Geiger:  Show  that  α  particles  are  He  atoms   stripped  of  their  electrons. ⚛ w/  Geiger:  Develop  the  Rutherford-­‐Geiger   detector  to  count  single  atoms  produced  in   radioactive  decays ⚛ focus  on  measuring  physical  constants,  e.g.   Avogadro’s  numberTheo  J.  MertzimekisUoAthens  /  HNPS2011Saturday, June 4, 2011
  10. Geiger & Marsden ⚛ They  were  instructed  to  study  reflection  of  α   particles  impinging  metals ⚛ In  1909,  G&M  reported  that  some  α  particles  kept   bouncing  back,  even  from  a  thin  sheet  of  Au   “It  is  as  if  someone  had  fired  a  15”  naval  shell    at  a   piece  of  tissue  and  that  bounced  straight  on  us” 10.1098/rspa.1909.0054Theo  J.  MertzimekisUoAthens  /  HNPS2011Saturday, June 4, 2011
  11. The experiment Zinc  SulfideTheo  J.  MertzimekisUoAthens  /  HNPS2011Saturday, June 4, 2011
  12. Rutherford’s atom model ⚛ Classical  picture  /  Planetary  configuration ⚛ Main  problems: ⚛ electrons  should  lose  energy  (spiral  orbits) ⚛ continuous  e-­‐  spectra  were  not  observedTheo  J.  MertzimekisUoAthens  /  HNPS2011Saturday, June 4, 2011
  13. Rutherford & Bohr ⚛ Niels  Bohr  came  to  work  with  Rutherford ⚛ In  1915,  Bohr  used  the  planetary  model  but   placed  the  electrons  in  specific  orbits  applying   the  principles  of  Quantum  MechanicsTheo  J.  MertzimekisUoAthens  /  HNPS2011Saturday, June 4, 2011
  14. Rutherford scattering ⚛ Rutherford  calculated  the  cross  section  of   the  scattering  using  classical  physics 2 2 1 Z1 Z2 e 1 σR (θ) = 4 2E sin4 (θ/2) doi: 10.1080/14786440508637080Theo  J.  MertzimekisUoAthens  /  HNPS2011Saturday, June 4, 2011
  15. Major achievements ⚛ Discovered  the  concept  of  half-­‐life ⚛ Discovered  radioactive  transmutation  via  the   reaction  α  +  14N  →  17O  +  p ⚛ Differentiated  α,β  radiation  (Nobel) ⚛ Postulated  the  existence  of  the  nucleus ⚛ Postulated  the  existence  of  the  neutronTheo  J.  MertzimekisUoAthens  /  HNPS2011Saturday, June 4, 2011
  16. Splitting the atom ⚛ Though  not  in  a  controlled  way,  Rutherford  was   the  first  to  split  the  atom ⚛ John  Cockroft  and  Ernest  Walton  finally  did  it  in   a  controlled  way  in  1932  using  their  high-­‐voltage   electrostatic  accelerator. ⚛ w/  Oliphant  built  a  lower-­‐V  with  improved  flux   and  used  it  to  bombard  2D  on  2D,  thus    ending   up  in  discovering     3H  and  3HeTheo  J.  MertzimekisUoAthens  /  HNPS2011Saturday, June 4, 2011
  17. Other work ⚛ During  WW1,  he  worked  on  hydrophones.  He   suggested  the  use  of  circus  sea  lions  to  detect   enemy  submarines ⚛ Dated  the  age  of  Earth ⚛ Developed  the  Rutherford-­‐Geiger  detector ⚛ Invented  the  first  smoke  detectorTheo  J.  MertzimekisUoAthens  /  HNPS2011Saturday, June 4, 2011
  18. Honors Awards ⚛ 1914  /  Knighted ⚛ 1925  /  Order  of  Merit   ⚛ 1931  /    Peerage ⚛ 1997/  Rutherfordium  (Z=104) ⚛ Several  other  medals  (Franklin,  Mateucci,   Copley,  Elliot  Cresson,    Rumford)Theo  J.  MertzimekisUoAthens  /  HNPS2011Saturday, June 4, 2011
  19. The legend his legacy ⚛ Died  in  1937  due  to  implications  of  a  delayed   operation ⚛ His  ashes  are  buried  next  to  Sir  Isaac  Newton ⚛ Rutherford  is  the  Father  of  Nuclear  Physics ⚛ He  is  to  Nuclear  Physics  what  Darwin  is  to   Evolution,  Einstein  to  Relativity,  Newton  to   MechanicsTheo  J.  MertzimekisUoAthens  /  HNPS2011Saturday, June 4, 2011
  20. “The Crocodile”Theo  J.  MertzimekisUoAthens  /  HNPS2011Saturday, June 4, 2011
  21. Outro... In  Science  there  is  only  Physics;  all  the   rest  is  stamp  collectingTheo  J.  MertzimekisUoAthens  /  HNPS2011Saturday, June 4, 2011

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