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  • ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012GUILBAULT FlorianLIOTARD AdrienTOURNEUX Julien
  • BIBLIOGRAPHIE : LES ECRANS SOUPLESTECHNOLOGIESAndrew Johnson. « ASU developing flexible-display screens », 14 février 2009. …………p6 http://www.azcentral.com/news/articles/2009/02/13/20090213biz-flex0214.html.Didier Sanz. « Le Figaro - Sciences et Technologies : Sony présente l‘écran souple à enrouler », 7 juin 2010. ………………………………………………………………p8 http://www.lefigaro.fr/sciences-technologies/2010/06/07/01030- 20100607ARTFIG00453-sony-presente-l-ecran-souple-a-enrouler.php.« Flexible display screens: Bend me, shape me, anyway you want me | The Economist », 22 janvier 2010. ………………………………………………………………………….p9 http://www.economist.com/node/12971020.Jim Krane. « A Bright Future For Roll-Up Video Screens », 6 juin 2003. ………………...p12 http://www.newsday.com/a-bright-future-for-roll-up-video-screens-1.458227.Larry Greenemeier. « New Glasses-Free 3-D Approach Could Work on Thin, Flexible Displays: Scientific American », 30 août 2011. ……………………………………p14 http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=no-glasses-3d-oled.« Le Figaro - Flash Eco : Un écran Sony souple qui se roule », 26 mai 2010. ……………..p16 http://www.lefigaro.fr/flash-eco/2010/05/26/97002-20100526FILWWW00451-un- ecran-sony-souple-qui-se-roule.php.« OLED Flexible Display Technology Could Be Used in Smart Product Packaging », 20 janvier 2012. ………………………………………………………………………...p17 http://www.vegasledscreens.com/articles/96-oled-flexible-display-technology-could- be-used-in-smart-product-packaging.html.Rick Callahan. « Nation & World | Thin, flexible computer screen a peek into future | Seattle Times Newspaper », 8 mai 2003. …………………………………………………...p19 http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=20030508&slug=screen08 .Sarah Graham. « Scientists Fabricate Pliable Electronic Display: Scientific American », 8 mai 2003. ………………………………………………………………………………...p21 http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=scientists-fabricate-plia.Simon Perry. « Innovations: Flexible screen | Technology | The Guardian », 13 octobre 2005. http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2005/oct/13/innovations.mobilephones2?INTC MP=SRCH. …………………………………………………………………………p22« Sony met au point un écran souple qui s‘enroule - LeMonde.fr », 26 mai 2010. ………...p23 http://www.lemonde.fr/technologies/article/2010/05/26/sony-met-au-point-un-ecran- souple-qui-s-enroule_1363217_651865.html.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 1
  • « Un prototype de tablette souple et translucide », 6 décembre 2011. ……………………..p24 http://www.leparisien.fr/high-tech/un-prototype-de-tablette-souple-et-translucide-06- 12-2011-1756834.php.William D‘Urso. « Flexible screens nearer to commercialization », 10 avril 2011. ………..p25 http://www.azcentral.com/business/articles/2011/04/10/20110410asu-army-tech- manufacturers-flexible-plastic-screens.html.Yuri Kageyama. « Sony develops flexible, razor-thin display | The San Diego Union- Tribune », 26 mai 2007. …………………………………………………………….p27 http://www.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20070526/news_1b26sony.html.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 2
  • APPLICATIONSBobbie Johnson. « Flexible LED screens on the way | Technology | guardian.co.uk », 21 août 2009. ………………………………………………………………………………...p28 http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/blog/2009/aug/21/research- gadgets?INTCMP=SRCH.Brandon Bailey. « Flexible electronic display will get Army field test - Los Angeles Times », 21 février 2011. ……………………………………………………………………..p28 http://articles.latimes.com/2011/feb/21/business/la-fi-flexscreen-20110127.Brian X. Chen. « Flexible Computers Make Smarter Credit Cards - NYTimes.com », 11 janvier 2012. ………………………………………………………………………...p30 http://gadgetwise.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/01/11/smarter-credit- cards/?scp=1&sq=flexible%20screen&st=cse.Dattatreya Mandal. « Flexible screens and secret future of Tablets », décembre 2011. ……p31 http://www.gizmowatch.com/flexible-screens-secret-future-tablets.html.Gianluca Mezzofiore. « Flexible Samsung phone ―to be issued in 2012‖ - Telegraph », 27 septembre 2011. …………………………………………………………………….p34 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/news/8790189/Flexible-Samsung-phone-to- be-issued-in-2012.html.Guillaume Deleurence. « PaperPhone : et si l‘iPhone demain devenait souple  ? », 9 mai 2011. ………………………………………………………………………………...p35 http://www.01net.com/editorial/532478/et-si-demain-liphone-devenait-flexible/.Jean-Luc Goudet. « Actualité > Paperphone, ou comment un écran souple sert d‘interface à un mobile », 9 mai 2011. ……………………………………………………………….p36 http://www.futura-sciences.com/fr/news/t/informatique/d/paperphone-ou-comment- un-ecran-souple-sert-dinterface-a-un-mobile_30036/.Jean-Sébastien Zanchi. « Vers des téléphones à écrans souples en 2012 », 2 novembre 2011. http://www.tomsguide.fr/actualite/ecran-souple,1478.html. ………………………..p39Jesse Bauer. « Futuristic Samsung Flexible Displays Coming In 2012 - Technorati Technology », 5 décembre 2011. …………………………………………………...p40 http://technorati.com/technology/article/futuristic-samsung-flexible-displays-coming- in.« L‘écran flexible est-il l‘avenir du smartphone? - 20minutes.fr », 27 octobre 2011. ……...p41 http://www.20minutes.fr/high-tech/813944-ecran-flexible-est-il-avenir-smartphone.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 3
  • Mat Smith. « Nokia‘s kinetic future: flexible screens and a twisted interface (video) -- Engadget », 26 octobre 2011. ……………………………………………………….p42 http://www.engadget.com/2011/10/26/nokias-kinetic-future-flexible-screens-and-a- twisted-interface.« Nokia a déposé un brevet pour un téléphone souple avec plein de fonctions | Gizmodo », 19 janvier 2010. ………………………………………………………………………...p43 http://www.gizmodo.fr/2010/01/19/nokia-a-depose-un-brevet-pour-un-telephone- souple-avec-plein-de-fonctions.html#more-58223.« Nokia demonstrates a phone with a flexible OLED display - GSMArena.com news », 27 octobre 2011. ………………………………………………………………………..p44 http://www.gsmarena.com/nokia_demonstrates_flexible_oled_display_at_nokia_worl d-news-3318.php.« Nokia et le concept Morph de téléphone pliable et auto-nettoyant | Gizmodo », 25 février 2008. ………………………………………………………………………………...p46 http://www.gizmodo.fr/2008/02/25/nokia_et_le_concept_morph_de_telephone_pliable _et_autonettoyant.html.« Pliez-le », 26 novembre 2009. ……………………………………………………………p47 http://www.leparisien.fr/societe/pliez-le-26-11-2009-724925.php.Richard Waters. « Taking the paper out of work | FT Tech Hub | FTtechhub - Industry analysis – FT.com », 7 janvier 2010. ……………………………………………….p48 http://blogs.ft.com/fttechhub/2010/01/taking-the-paper-out-of-work/#axzz1jGFOz9zh.« Samsung‘s transparent, flexible screen with 3D so real it looks like you can touch it | Mail Online », 7 décembre 2011. ………………………………………………………...p50 http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2070741/Samsungs-transparent- flexible-screen-3D-real-looks-like-touch-it.html.« Sony annonce un prototype d‘écran souple en couleurs », 26 mai 2010. ………………...p53 http://www.easybourse.com/bourse/high-tech/article/16293/sony-annonce-un- prototype-decran-souple-en-couleurs.html.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 4
  • ENTREPRISESAnthony Myers. « Samsung Future is Now: Flexible Screen Device to Launch in 2012 [VIDEO] - International Business Times », 30 octobre 2011. ……………………...p54 http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/240088/20111030/samsung-future-flexible-screen- device-launch-2012.htm.« Beautiful Flexible Screens Samsung New Phones | Art, Concepts, Design, Gadgets », 7 janvier 2012. ………………………………………………………………………...p55 http://designskings.com/beautiful-flexible-screens-samsung-new-phones/.Ed Oswald. « Samsung plans to make flexible screens a reality in 2012 », octobre 2011. ...p57 http://betanews.com/2011/11/01/samsung-plans-to-make-flexible-screens-a-reality-in- 2012/.Jay Alabaster. « Samsung to Sell Phones With Flexible Screens Next Year | PCWorld », 28 octobre 2011. ………………………………………………………………………..p58 http://www.pcworld.com/article/242770/samsung_to_sell_phones_with_flexible_scree ns_next_year.html.Josh Wolford. « Phones With Flexible Screens Coming Next Year, Says Samsung | WebProNews », 28 octobre 2011. ………………………………………………….p59 http://www.webpronews.com/phones-with-flexible-screens-coming-next-year-says- samsung-2011-10.Mike Perlman. « Samsung Challenges Nokia in Flexible Display Wars | TechnoBuffalo », 30 octobre 2011. ………………………………………………………………………..p61 http://www.technobuffalo.com/mobile-devices/phones/samsung-challenges-nokia-in- flexible-display-wars/.Rick Henderson. « Samsung promises flexible OLED screen phones for 2012 - Pocket-lint », 28 octobre 2011. …………………………………………………………………….p62 http://www.pocket-lint.com/news/42782/samsung-promises-flexible-screen-phones- 2012.« Samsung et Nokia dans la course - 04/11/2011 - leParisien.fr », 4 novembre 2011. …….p64 http://www.leparisien.fr/espace-premium/air-du-temps/samsung-et-nokia-dans-la- course-04-11-2011-1701229.php.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 5
  • TECHNOLOGIESASU developing flexible-display screensASU teaming with the U.S. Army and manufacturersBy Andrew Johnson - Feb. 14, 2009 12:00 AMThe Arizona RepublicMobile phones, laptops and televisions of the future will have display screens that can bend, fold androll up.The military, high-tech manufacturers and academia have made Arizona ground zero for bringing thetechnology into mainstream use.They are pinpointing key materials and testing manufacturing techniques needed to make thesophisticated screens at Arizona State Universitys Flexible Display Center. The goal is to incorporatethe flexible material in everything from entertainment devices to tools that aid soldiers.Based at the ASU Research Park at Loop 101 and Elliot Road in Tempe, the center recently renewed acooperative agreement with the Army, which is providing $50 million over the next five years tooperate the facility.The Army signed an initial agreement with ASU in 2004 worth $43.7 million to establish the center.Since then, ASU and Army researchers have worked with Honeywell International, Boeing, HP,General Dynamics, DuPont Teijin Films and several startup companies to lay the groundwork formass-producing flexible displays."Were poised to do more on the development side to show, demonstrate and scale the process," saidShawn ORourke, director of engineering at the Flexible Display Center.The Army has been a major force behind private industrys willingness to invest in the technology.Soldiers would benefit by reducing the weight of electronics they carry. Military vehicles with flexibledisplays inside them also would emit less heat and consume less power."Our electronic devices that are in our combat vehicles . . . are power-hungry," said Thomas Killion,the Armys deputy assistant secretary for research and technology and chief scientist."The less energy they demand, the less demands you place on engines, and you extend the batterylife."Scottsdale-based General Dynamics C4 Systems, a center partner, has experimented with flexibledisplays for potential mission-planning devices that soldiers could wear on their wrists or carry in theirhands.Manufacturers see potential for consumer applications.Polymer Vision Ltd. expects to begin selling an electronic-book device called the Readius later thisyear. It will have a rollout screen.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 6
  • Experts say future versions of Amazon.coms Kindle likely will include a flexible display, making thee-book device more rugged and power-efficient.Sales of flexible displays are expected to reach $2.8 billion by 2013, up from $80 million in 2007,according to technology-research firm iSuppli Corp. in El Segundo, Calif.Although the term "flexible display" is typically associated with screens that can bend and roll up, thephrase applies to broad characteristics that generally allow for less power consumption and greaterportability.Most panels used in electronic devices today are made with glass. Flexible displays are made withplastic, which is more durable.The technology is considered a financial gamble because the materials needed to manufacture thepanels are scarce.Through collaboration, the center aims to encourage companies to invest in the technology bylowering the "business and technical risks" of manufacturing, said Nick Colaneri, center director.Key characteristics of flexible displays include the ability to view the screens in a variety of lightingconditions, outside or at an angle, said Carl Taussig, director of the information surfaces at HP Labs,the research arm of computer seller HP.The devices also are lighter and thinner because they require fewer battery components.A major challenge for HP and other companies is figuring out how to avoid damaging the plasticduring manufacturing because existing equipment is made to handle glass.Researchers tried gluing sheets of plastic to glass plates and other hard surfaces and running the platesthrough traditional machines. But temperature variances caused the plastic to stretch.The center now uses glue made by Henkel that overcomes those challenges, Colaneri said.Using discoveries learned by center researchers, Palo Alto, Calif.-based HP developed a flexible-display prototype last year.HP also designed a process for running rolls of plastic through a device that cuts individual panelssimilarly to the way newsprint is processed by a printing press.Such roll-to-roll manufacturing is significant because it drives down production costs, Taussig said.Honeywell sees potential for using flexible displays in cockpit tools that could result in lighter, morefuel-efficient aircraft, said Bob Witwer, an advanced-technology director at the companys Aerospacebusiness in Phoenix.The center has a staff of 35 researchers funded by the Army, Colaneri said. In addition, about a half-dozen ASU faculty members work at the center, which is in a 250,000-square-foot building formerlypart of Motorola.The centers industry partners pay annual dues of $50,000 to $500,000, depending on their size andinvolvement, Colaneri said.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 7
  • Sony présente lécran souple à enroulerPar Didier SanzCe prototype promet de nouvelles applications pour diffuser les vidéos et les journauxélectroniques.Après lécran flexible qui peut se courber, voici lécran ultrasouple qui senroule. Cest Sony qui vientde présenter cette nouvelle technologie : un minuscule écran en couleurs qui résiste à plusieurs cyclesdenroulement et détirement. Pour linstant, la taille de lécran se limite à 10,4 centimètres dediagonale, mais les images diffusées par Sony montrent une qualité daffichage étonnante en 432×240pixels avec 16,7 millions de couleurs et des animations très fluides. Le géant japonais a adapté pourloccasion la technologie décrans plats Oled représentée sur un de ses minitéléviseurs. Lécran secompose dun film ultrafin en polymère souple, recouvert dune couche de matériaux organiquesélectroluminescents qui assurent la reproduction des images. Dépourvu de circuits électroniques, ilpeut facilement être enroulé et déroulé.Comme les autres fabricants décrans souples, Sony compte attirer lattention des constructeursdappareils mobiles ultrafins, notamment pour la diffusion de journaux sous forme électronique. Cemodèle permettrait ainsi denrouler le support pour le glisser dans la poche comme un stylo ou encorede plaquer lécran sur un bracelet. La mise à jour des éditions sopérerait par Internet.Journaux actualisés Les observateurs imaginent également dautres applications liées à la diffusion démissions téléviséesou à la visioconférence. Au Japon, la chaîne de télévision publique NHK planche sur ces technologiesdepuis de nombreuses années et le ministère de lIndustrie a lancé un programme en partenariat avecdes entreprises privées pour mettre au point un procédé de fabrication en série des écrans souplescomparable à limpression de journaux.Pourtant, la recherche sur les écrans flexibles semble suivre un parcours chaotique. Après avoirmobilisé plusieurs industriels au début des années 2000, elle na pas connu de débouchés commerciauxà la hauteur des espoirs quelle avait suscités. Outre les contraintes techniques, le développement de cetype de produit se heurte à des problèmes de brevets. Linnovation de Sony inaugure peut-être unenouvelle direction plus concrète dans ce domaine.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 8
  • Flexible display screensBend me, shape me, anyway you want meElectronic screens as thin as paper are coming soonJan 22nd 2009 | from the print editionOVER the years, the screens on laptops, televisions, mobile phones and so on have got sharper, widerand thinner. They are about to get thinner still, but with a new twist. By using flexible components,these screens will also become bendy. Some could even be rolled up and slipped into your pocket likea piece of electronic paper. These thin sheets of plastic will be able to display words and images; abook, perhaps, or a newspaper or a magazine. And now it looks as if they might be mass produced inmuch the same way as the printed paper they are emulating.The crucial technological development happened recently at the Flexible Display Centre at ArizonaState University. Using a novel lithographic process invented by HP Labs, the research arm ofHewlett-Packard, and an electronic ink produced by E Ink, a company spun out of the MassachusettsInstitute of Technology, the centre‘s researchers succeeded in printing flexible displays onto long rollsof a special plastic film made by DuPont. To make individual screens, the printed film is sliced up intosections rather as folios for magazines or newspapers would be cut from a printed web of paper.The resulting ―electrophoretic‖ screens are lightweight and consume only a fraction of the power of atypical liquid-crystal display (LCD). Their first use is likely to be by the American army, which helpedpay for the project. It hopes its soldiers will be able to use the screens as electronic maps and toreceive information. The idea is that the flexible screens will replace some of the bulky devices thatsoldiers now have to lug around. If that works, the retail market beckons. The first trials of consumerversions could begin within a few years.Flickering beginningsAlthough printing flexible screens in this way will help to make them affordable, they still have a longway to go to catch LCDs. For that, two things need to happen. One is that the displays must turn fromblack-and-white to colour. The other is that they must be able to refresh their images at a rate fastenough to show moving pictures. Researchers at the Flexible Display Centre and elsewhere areworking on ways to do that, and there seems little doubt it will happen. Yet even with their presentlimitations, flexible screens have some important advantages over LCDs.For a start, LCDs are difficult and costly to make. Most are produced in huge, ultra-clean factoriesusing batch processes similar to those for making silicon chips. Layers of material which work asfilters, electrodes, transistors and the liquid crystal itself are deposited onto a thin glass plate to form asandwich that is covered with another pane of glass. At each stage the layers are etched to makeelectrical connections. This is a fractious, finicky process and tiny defects in the materials, or failuresin the alignment of the different layers, can result in 20% or more of a batch being scrapped.Moreover, the glass means LCDs are heavy and easily broken, as anyone who has dropped a laptopknows to his cost.Another drawback is that LCDs consume a lot of power because they are lit from behind. An LCDworks because, when an electrical field is applied to the transparent liquid crystals that form eachpicture element, or ―pixel‖, within the screen, the crystals become opaque. Red, green and blue filtersthen allow different colours to show within each pixel, but light has to be shone through them for thisto happen. That, plus the fact that the liquid crystals will revert to transparency if the power goes off,mean an LCD eats batteries. It also means that the image can be hard to see in bright sunlight.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 9
  • Electrophoretic displays work in a different way, using a form of electronic ink that has been underdevelopment since the 1970s. E Ink‘s version employs tiny capsules filled with a clear fluid containingpositively charged white particles and negatively charged black ones. The capsules are arranged aspixels and electric charges applied to each pixel pull either the black or the white particles towards thetop of the capsule (and the opposite colour to the bottom). Unlike an LCD‘s, this image does notrequire backlighting. Instead, the user relies on reflected light, as he would if he were reading a sheetof printed paper. Moreover, once the particles in the capsules have settled down they stay put. Thatmeans the image remains on the screen without drawing power. A further dose of electricity isrequired only when the image changes; when a user ―turns‖ to the next page, for example. Not onlydoes this mean that electrophoretic displays are cheaper to run, the lack of constant refreshment makesthem more comfortable to read—as comfortable, it is claimed, as printed paper.Kindling the fireIn fact, electrophoretic displays are already available, but they are built on glass in a similar way to anLCD. One such device is the Kindle, launched by Amazon, an American online retailer, in November2007. Thanks in part to a ringing endorsement by Oprah Winfrey on her television show, it is now abig hit and prospective purchasers face long delays getting their hands on one. The Kindle, whichcosts $359, is about the size of a slim paperback (see picture below). It can download books and otherpublications directly using a built-in wireless connection, and offers electronic editions of somenewspapers.It is not alone, though. Its rivals include Sony‘s Reader, and a device with a larger screen launched latelast year by iRex, a Dutch company. And, later this year, an electrophoretic reader that is built theLCD way, but on plastic, rather than on glass, will also be launched to take them on.Plastic Logic, the firm that makes this reader, was founded by researchers at the University ofCambridge, has its headquarters in Silicon Valley and does its manufacturing in Germany. The firmuses an adapted version of LCD manufacturing which employs electronic ink and plastic substrates tomake its screens. Plastic Logic‘s prototype reader, which has a screen about the size of a magazine, isa mere 7mm thick and weighs less than 450 grams. It should run for a week in normal use before itsbattery needs recharging.Plastic Logic says its reader will be aimed at businessmen who might want to store, on a singlemachine capable of being slipped into their briefcase, all the paper documents and spreadsheets that atpresent they normally print out. Books and periodicals can be read too. And for those who think theywould miss the ability to scribble comments and underline things that paper provides, the reader‘sscreen will be touch-sensitive, allowing such annotations to be made.Even Plastic Logic‘s approach, though, is likely to be transitional. If Hewlett-Packard‘s ―self-alignedimprint lithography‖, as it describes its new technology, can be commercialised, it will take themanufacture of screens through what has proved a crucial transition in every industry in which it hashappened—from batch processing to continuous manufacture.The breakthrough here was to work out a way to simplify the process by which the electronic circuitthat controls the pixels is carved out of layers of conducting, semiconducting and insulating materials.In standard silicon-based electronics, this involves the repeated application of resistive materials toprotect those parts of the layer being etched that need to be preserved. Hewlett-Packard‘s scientists,however, have worked out how to print a layer of resistive material of variable height on top of all theother layers. After each stage of the etching process a fixed depth of this is dissolved away, exposing adifferent part of the circuit to the etching chemicals.The result is a continuous process, much like a printing press. This promises to become a cost-effective mass-production method which Hewlett-Packard will license to other producers, says PrithISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 10
  • Banerjee, the company‘s research director. Once that happens, he hopes, flexible screens could beused in all sorts of devices.Colour sectionThe one feature these screens do not yet offer is colour and, though colour versions will surely cometo market, no one is yet sure which version will succeed. Electrophoretic displays can use colouredparticles and filters to produce red, green and blue subpixels, but as each colour occupies only onethird of a pixel‘s area, the brightness of the image is correspondingly reduced. Liquavista, a spin-offfrom Philips, a big Dutch electronics company, is trying something called ―electrowetting‖. This usesan electrical field to modify the surface tension of coloured oils and water within pixels that aremounted on a flexible Teflon base. As each pixel is activated, the wetting properties of the oil andwater change, making colours visible.Another approach is to use materials that emit light. Some firms, such as Sony, are looking at organiclight-emitting diodes composed of thin films of organic molecules which generate light in response toan electric current. This approach is reckoned to have potential for use in ultra-thin, wall-mountedtelevision sets.Photonic crystals are a further alternative. These are tiny particles that have a crystal structure whichinfluences the flow of photons, the particles of light. By changing the structure of such a crystalslightly, using an electric charge, the colour of the light reflected by that crystal will change too. Tunethe crystals appropriately and you can create different colours.There are also hybrid methods, like that used by Adrian Geisow at HP Labs‘ campus in Bristol,England. He has taken a conventional approach to generating colour, using liquid crystals and red,green and blue filters. However, he has done so in a plastic film produced in a printing-type process.The screen can be backlit, like a standard LCD, but it is capable of retaining its image because thematerial the liquid crystals sit on encourages the pixels to stay transparent or opaque once they havebeen switched. However it is eventually done, Dr Geisow is convinced that putting colour into flexiblescreens is what will turn them into a very big picture indeed.From the print edition | Science and technologyISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 11
  • A Bright Future For Roll-Up Video ScreensPublished: January 6, 2003 7:00 PMBy Jim Krane. THE ASSOCIATED PRESSA new technology that makes cell phone screens glow like a fireflys tail may well be destined tobrighten displays on everything from televisions to digital cameras. Built on organic molecules orpolymers that glow when theyre electrified, the technology could even spur the currently unattainable:roll-up computer screens that can fit in a breast pocket or sheets of radiant lighting that shimmer likethe aurora borealis. "Imagine a plastic film or a fiber-optic cable that emits light, that you can bend inany shape you want," said Stewart Hough, vice president at Cambridge Display Technologies, "Itsone of those limited-by-your-imagination things." Houghs company is developing a polymer-basedversion of the technology, known as organic light-emitting diodes or OLEDs (a diode being a piece ofelectronics in which current flows in only one direction). Chemical, electronics and lightingcompanies - including Kodak, Samsung, Philips, DuPont and others - are pouring funds into researchand development of OLEDs, rushing tiny screens to market and scrambling to race ahead ofcompetitors. For now, the monochrome screens appear on a handful of products: cell phones, an MP3player, car stereos. As the bright new screens mature into full-color displays with an active matrix thatpermits video, analysts say theyll jump to digital camera displays, auto dashboards, laptop screens andTVs. Global sales of OLEDs, estimated at just $80 million in 2002, are expected to jump to $2.3billion by 2008, said Kimberly Allen, research director at iSuppli/Stanford Resources, a firm thattracks the industry. As OLEDs progress, analysts say, theyll replace the silicon-based LCD, or liquidcrystal display technology, which is used in everything from watches and calculators to flat-screenmonitors and some TVs. OLED screens are composed of arrays of tiny diodes made of organicmaterials used in plastics and polymers. The diodes in todays little screens are sandwiched betweenlayers of glass, glowing in various colors as electricity flows through them. The delicate organicswither and die at a hint of moisture, so glass is needed to keep them dry. Experts say it will be adecade or so before someone figures out how to make a durable OLED screen on a plastic base,perhaps a flexible one, which would require flexible circuit boards and other components. A fewcompanies, including DuPont and Lucent Technologies Bell Labs, already are working on bendableplastic electronics for such a screen. "You could put it on curved surfaces," said Alan Heeger,professor of physics at University of California at Santa Barbara. "You can imagine nifty-lookingthings." Heeger, whose discoveries in polymer conductivity earned him and two colleagues a Nobelprize in 2000, said the innovations in lighting could be more dramatic than those in consumerelectronics. Todays OLED-bearing products are comparatively mundane. The first emerged in aPioneer car stereo in 1998. Since then, theyve shown up in cell phones made by Motorola, Fujitsu andLG, an MP3 player made by Taiwanese firm Delta Optoelectronics and a Philips mens shaver soldunder the Norelco brand in the United States. The shaver, with its orange screen that displays batterylife, turned up in the recent James Bond movie "Die Another Day." For 2003, Samsung is making aISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 12
  • cell phone with the first full-color OLED display, for sale in South Korea, Allen said. And Kodak isquietly shipping 2-inch horizontal OLED screens to a consumer-device manufacturer it refused toname. Those screens, configured like those used in digital cameras, are the first to use active-matrixtechnology that can play video, said Daniel Gisser of Kodaks display products unit. The product willemerge in the first half of next year, Gisser said. Larger screens for handheld computers and videocameras might be ready in a year or two, said Paul ODonovan, an analyst with Gartner Dataquest.Prototypes of 15- and 17-inch screens have been cooked up, although none are expected to hit storesfor years. ODonovan said OLED PC monitors might be available in four to five years, televisions infive to 10. "The trouble is scaling them up," ODonovan said. "Theyve got a 2.5-inch screen workingimpressively. The real technological leap will be to expand these into the replacement of TVs." Onemanufacturing technique, pioneered by Britains Cambridge Display Technologies, allows the screensto be simply "printed" by inkjet printers that can spray glow-producing polymers onto sheets of glass.In a few years, analysts and experts predict the onset of flexible plastic displays will allow roll-to-rollprinting, making the screens far cheaper to build than an LCD, which must be assembled in a vacuum.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 13
  • New Glasses-Free 3-D Approach Could Work on Thin, Flexible DisplaysKorean researchers envision 3-D on OLED displays for smartphones and other gadgetsBy Larry Greenemeier | August 30, 2011Three-dimensional television and the like got a major marketing push nearly two years ago from theconsumer electronics and entertainment industries, yet the technology still has major limitations.Whereas glasses-free 3-D on television screens and computer monitors is seen as crucial to generatingwidespread interest in new consumer electronics, for the most part, viewers still need to wear glassesto experience stereoscopic 3-D images, although glasses-free TVs are starting to hit in Japan.The use of 3-D sans specs has been much more successful in smaller screens such as smartphones andportable gaming devices. But these LCDs must be backlit to work properly—which can be a bigbattery drain and limits how small the gadgets can be made.Now a team of researchers in South Korea is developing an approach to autostereoscopic 3-D usingtiny prisms that would enable viewers to see three-dimensional images without glasses on organiclight-emitting-diode (OLED) screens. Because OLEDs do not need to be backlit—they get theirlighting from organic compounds that emit light in response to electric current—they can be thinner,lighter and more flexible than LCDs. The innovation is detailed in a paper published in the August 30issue of Nature Communications. (Scientific American is part of Nature Publishing Group.)The researchers—from Seoul National University, Act Company and Minuta Technology—used anarray of microscale prisms placed on a screen to create a filter that guides light directionally. Usingsuch a prism array—which the researchers refer to as a lucius prism after the Latin word meaning"shining and bright"—they were able to display an object on the screen that could be seen only whenviewed from a particular angle. They were also able to manipulate light intensity such that twodistinctly different images could be shown from the same screen—one to a viewers left eye and asecond image to the right eye. Seeing the two images together creates a sense of depth that the brainperceives as 3-D, without the help of special eyeglass lenses. (Click here to see an interactive graphicillustrating the principle of autostereoscopic display created by New York University computerscience professor Ken Perlin.)The lucius prism array described in the paper is a four-centimeter square, yet the researchers estimatethe size could be enlarged to that of a smartphone screen or even a video monitor. The prism array wasmade from photocurable polyurethane acrylate (PUA), although any kind of transparent polymer couldbe used, says Hyunsik Yoon, a professor at Seoul National Universitys School of Chemical andBiological Engineering in South Korea and a researcher on the project.Another approach to glasses-free 3-D has been to generate 3-D holograms. Researchers at theUniversity of Arizonas College of Optical Sciences (OSC) in Tucson, Ariz., last year reporteddeveloping technology that can write and rewrite such holograms onto a photorefractive polymerevery two seconds using a laser. Whereas fluid motion via such holographic images remains elusive,OSCs pulsed laser can write information into an array of holographic pixels, or hogels, that conveythree-dimensional depth by showing different sides of the object depending on the viewers angle tothe hologram. It can be used to provide full parallax—viewers can move not only from side to side butalso up and down to see different perspectives, according to Nasser Peyghambarian, chair of photonicsand lasers at OSC.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 14
  • Yoon notes the distinction between his work and that of OSC: "The work done by Peyghambarian isabout the hologram-type autostereoscopic 3-D display. Although it could be the ultimate goal of 3-Ddisplays, our optical film can be used and is applicable for commercialized LCD and OLED devicesby just putting the film on the display panel." The 3-D displays resolution can be improved by shadowmask technology already developed in the OLED industry to deposit materials on selective areas,Yoon adds. One criticism of shadow mask evaporation, however, is that it does not scale well to large-size screens and is not conducive to high-volume manufacturing, although this is not likely an issueyet for Yoon and his colleagues (pdf).In addition to research done by Yoon and OSC, 3Ms Optical Systems Division announced in 2009that it had developed a 3-D optical film for handheld devices that enabled autostereoscopic 3-Dviewing on mobile phone, gaming and other handheld devices without the need for glasses. SeoulNational Universitys work differs from 3Ms in that the 3M film cannot be used for OLED devices,which have no backlight unit, Yoon says.Smartphone makers are already bringing 3-D handsets to market worldwide. The HTC EVO 3D andLG Optimus 3D feature 11-centimeter displays that use parallax barrier screens to provide a 3-Deffect. Such a screen is made with precision slits that allow each eye to see a different set of pixels.When placed in front of an LCD, the screen creates a sense of depth using the parallax effect (each eyeviews an object from a slightly different angle). Unfortunately, this approach requires the viewer tolook at the screen at a very specific angle in order to experience the 3-D effect.AUTOSTEREOSCOPIC 3-D DISPLAY: This schematic illustration shows the concept of anautostereoscopic display with the lucius prism array. When the prism side of the lucius prism array isplaced on a mixed image in good alignment, two distinctively different images are seen by the left andright eyes. (b) Pictures taken from the positions of the left (SNUlogo) and right eye (smiley face). (c)Transformation of the printed picture when the flexible lucius prism sheet is bent backward(SNUlogo) and forward (smiley face) while holding the left-hand side firm. The slit area was 4centimeters by 4 centimeters. Image: Courtesy of the researchers and Nature CommunicationsISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 15
  • Un écran Sony souple qui se rouleLe fleuron de lélectronique japonais, Sony, a annoncé mercredi avoir développé un prototype décranvidéo souple en couleurs, qui se roule autour dun petit cylindre et peut se transporter dans une pochecomme un simple stylo.Il sagit dun écran dune dizaine de centimètres de diagonale, composé dun substrat souple ultra-finsur lequel sont répandues de minces couches de matériaux organiques semi-conducteurs etélectroluminescents.Cet écran peut afficher des images animées en 16,7 millions de nuances colorées et peut être roulé caril ne comporte plus de circuit électronique rigide à la périphérie, selon Sony."Même après plus de 1.000 cycles denroulement et étirement, nous navons pas constaté de nettedégradation dans laffichage", a assuré le groupe.Sony nest pas la seule firme nippone à travailler sur le développement décrans souples qui puissent semanier comme un journal. La chaîne de télévision publique japonaise NHK sintéresse aussi à cestechniques depuis des années. Lorganisme public des nouvelles énergies et techniques industrielles(Nedo) conduit aussi un vaste programme pluriannuel de recherche, avec plusieurs entreprises privéesnippones, pour créer un dispositif qui permette de fabriquer des écrans souples à la chaîne de la mêmefaçon que lon imprime des journaux.Cest ce type de procédé à haut rendement que Sony entend également mettre en oeuvre.Son prototype décran sera présenté jeudi lors dun colloque en marge du salon Society for InformationDisplay (SID) à Seattle (Etats-Unis).ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 16
  • OLED Flexible Display Technology Could Be Used in Smart Product PackagingEuropean researchers have developed a cost-effective method for manufacturing flexible displays inmuch the same way that newspapers are printed. Their work promises to revolutionise packaging,advertising and even clothing.Ultra-thin and energy efficient displays that use organic compounds to emit light have been stirring upexcitement in the consumer electronics industry for several years. Organic Light Emitting Diodes(OLEDs) are already being used commercially in some high-end flat-screen televisions, offeringsuperior image quality, wider viewing angles and lighter power consumption than the currentgeneration of Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and plasma flat-panel TVs.Low Production Cost OLED Screens for Smart Product PackagingBut OLEDs unique properties mean the displays using them can be put to a far wider range of uses,from electronic paper to adaptive clothing - so long as production costs can be brought down."Lowering production costs is extremely important if OLED devices are to become more widespread,and particularly if they are not just going to be restricted to high-end applications," explains ArtoMaaninen, technical manager of the printed electronics department of the VTT Technical ResearchCentre in Finland.Maaninen led the team of researchers behind the EU-funded ROLLED project, which developed atechnique for manufacturing OLED devices at considerably lower cost than current methods.OLED Display Technology and TV ScreensWhereas the OLEDs now making their way into TV screen sets and some mobile devices aremanufactured in a glass substrate, the ROLLED researchers print their OLEDs onto flexible protectivefilms, a procedure known as roll-to-roll processing that allows thousands of devices to be rapidly andcost-effectively produced in a single "print run."As part of their work, the researchers developed printable nano-particle indium tin oxide (ITO)coatings to form the anode, and they developed a new low-work function metal cathode, with thelight-emitting organic layer sandwiched in between.As an electric current passes from the anode to the cathode layer, the organic compound emits lightthat, depending on the application, can create a high-contrast TV image or a simple coloured sign.Each OLED sheet is just a fifth of a millimetre thick - equivalent to three or four sheets of paper.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 17
  • "The biggest cost saving is on equipment. The equipment needed to print OLED displays is widelyavailable, so the initial manufacturing costs are lower compared to other techniques. The materialcosts are about the same, but you can produce many more units in a much shorter period of time,"Maaninen says. "This brings down overall production costs three to five fold."Organic light everywhereThat opens the door to OLEDs finding their way into all manner of everyday items. The biggest ofseveral markets for cheap, flexible OLED displays may be in product packaging. Sheets of themcould, for example, be used to create more visible logos and more attractive promotional wrappings todifferentiate products on supermarket shelves, or they could be used as part of "smart packaging" toimprove product quality and safety."One demonstrator we developed consists of a two-colour OLED display: one showing a green tick,the other a red cross. It could be used on packaging to let consumers know if a product has beenopened or tampered with," the ROLLED coordinator says.The tiny amount of energy OLED devices need to operate, could mean that they be powered by asmall watch battery, solar cells or even radio waves. "It might be possible for a store to use its shelvesas an RFID antenna that would power the OLEDs in the product packaging," Maaninen says.The tiny amount of energy OLED devices need to operate, could mean that they be powered by asmall watch battery, solar cells or even radio waves. "It might be possible for a store to use its shelvesas an RFID antenna that would power the OLEDs in the product packaging," Maaninen says.Using flexible OLED displays in smart product packaging or even to replace paper billboardadvertisements still remains some way off, however, as too does the vision of clothing embedded withOLEDs to display different messages, pictures or colours."Our flexible OLED devices could be used in clothes - the biggest barrier would be making themrobust enough to survive being worn and put through a washing machine," Maaninen says.Having developed the technical ability to produce flexible OLEDs roll to roll, the ROLLED projectpartners are now working to meet the needs and requirements of potential end applications. Their aimis to carry out the first market trials within the next two years.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 18
  • Thin, flexible computer screen a peek into futureBy Rick CallahanThe Associated PressIn a step toward electronic newspapers and wearable computer screens, scientists have created anultra-thin screen that can be bent, twisted and even rolled up and still display crisp text.The material, only as thick as three human hairs, displays black text on a whitish-gray backgroundwith a resolution similar to a typical laptop computers screen.The screen is so flexible it can be rolled into a cylinder about a half-inch wide without losing its imagequality.Although its not quite the dream of single-sheet, electronic newspapers or books that can displayhundreds of pages of text, its creators said its the first flexible computer screen of its kind."I think its a major step forward. We have cleared a big obstacle in electronic-paper development,"said Yu Chen, a research scientist with E Ink of Cambridge, Mass.E Ink is one of several companies working to develop electronic "paper" for e-newspapers and e-books, and other possible applications — even clothing with computer screens sewn into it.The new screen is described in todays issue of the journal Nature.Aris Silzars, the past president of the San Jose, Calif.-based Society for Information Display, said oneof the technologys first applications could be something like an electronic tablet that lawyers coulduse in place of laptops.But Silzars said the best uses of the new screen, which E Ink is still developing, may not be evident."Its very hard to predict where this thing may go," he said.Chen and his co-workers made the 3-inch-wide display screen flexible by developing a stainless-steelfoil topped with a thin layer of circuits that control an overlying film of electronic ink.That "ink," developed in 1997 by a Massachusetts Institute of Technology scientist, contains tinycapsules with black and white particles with opposing electrical charges floating in a clear fluid.When a negative voltage is run through circuits behind these capsules, the positive white particlesmove to the capsules top. A positive current does the same to the negative black particles.The human eye blends these resulting patterns of black- or white-topped capsules into text displayedin a traditional column.Information and power now is fed to the screen through a wired hookup. But Chens team is workingon a self-contained system that could receive data through a wireless connection.They also hope to boost the speed at which the screen switches to a new "page" of text, from thecurrent quarter of a second to at least 10 times as fast, so it can display video.Another goal is making the screen display a full range of colors.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 19
  • Robert Wisnieff, senior manager of IBMs Advanced Display Technology Laboratory in YorktownHeights, N.Y., said E Inks flexible screen is something many futurists think is crucial to makingelectronic screens part of everyday life.He envisions such lightweight, thin screens being used for a credit card that could display the availablebalance or recent purchases.Another possible use is a jacket with a screen sewn into its sleeve to allow its wearer to read e-mailwhile on the run, check stock prices or access maps in an unfamiliar city."This is a peek at the future," Wisnieff said.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 20
  • Scientists Fabricate Pliable Electronic DisplayBy Sarah Graham | May 8, 2003For some people, nothing can replace the joy of cracking the spine of a new book or spreading theSunday paper across the breakfast table. But researchers hope to one day replace traditional ink andpaper with electronic displays that bend and fold like paper, yet can also be erased and reused againand again. A report published today in the journal Nature moves scientists one step closer to electronicnewspapers and wearable computer screens. It describes a flexible electronic ink display just threetimes the width of a human hair that can be viewed from almost any angle.The new display is comprised of a thin-film transistor (TFT) array, which can impart both positive andnegative charges to different areas of its surface, and an electricity-conducting layer of clear fluid.Within this layer are millions of tiny capsules of black and white pigments that respond to charge.Thus, a negative voltage on the TFT causes white particles to move to the surface while a positive onemoves black particles to the top to create the appearance of print. Yu Chen and his colleagues at E InkCorporation report that the display can be bent 20 times and rolled into a cylinder with a diameter of 4millimeters without compromising its performance (see image).Changing the ink arrangement on the novel screen takes 250 milliseconds, which is sufficient forelectronic paper applications but is too slow for video displays. Chen notes that most of the majortechnical challenges have been solved; however, it will still be several years before digital papersappear at a newsstand near you.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 21
  • Flexible screenLow-power colour display from Fujitsu can be rolled up or reshapedBy Simon Perry | The Guardian, Thursday 13 October 2005Fujitsu isnt the first to pursue the idea of a flexible screen, but as the crowds around its display atCeatec demonstrated, the idea of a low-voltage, flexible screen has been a long-held dream for many.Fujitsu has created a colour version that requires little power and, in the case of one demonstrationunit, could be updated wirelessly. This would make it ideal, for example, as an external screen to showinformation from your mobile phone, freeing it from the limitations of the small display typical ofmost handsets.The prototype screen displays a reasonable range of colours and only needs minimal power to changewhat is displayed. Once there, the image will remain for two months, even if the power is switchedoff.Fujitsu acknowledges that there are other colour screens, but claims they lose out on flexibility byusing glass, and require more power, since they need to be refreshed more regularly to maintain whatis displayed.But dont go thinking youll be folding it in half and stuffing it in your back pocket. When the producthits the market sometime in 2007 or 2008, it will need a semi-rigid protective coating on either side,taking it from a thickness of 3mm to just under a centimetre.The designers claim that will make it flexible enough to roll up or bend around a lamp post, so it couldbe used for advertising or changeable information bulletins.It uses a Cholesteric LCD (ChLCD), which was designed for images that either move very slowly orare still: that means it wont be displaying TV or films. The slowness of the display becomes apparentwhen the screen refreshes: a visible vertical line washes from left to right, with the new imagedisplayed in its wake.If you fancy one, you will have to get in line behind Japans crown prince Naruhito, who paid itparticular attention when he visited the show.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 22
  • Sony met au point un écran souple qui senrouleLEMONDE.FR avec AFP | 26.05.10 | 13h09Le fleuron de lélectronique japonais, Sony, a annoncé mercredi avoir développé un prototype décranvidéo souple en couleurs, qui se roule autour dun petit cylindre et peut se transporter dans une pochecomme un simple stylo.Il sagit dun écran dune dizaine de centimètres de diagonale, composé dun substrat souple ultra-finsur lequel sont répandues de minces couches de matériaux organiques semi-conducteurs etélectroluminescents. Cet écran peut afficher des images animées en 16,7 millions de nuances coloréeset peut être roulé car il ne comporte plus de circuit électronique rigide à la périphérie, selon Sony."Même après plus de 1 000 cycles denroulement et étirement, nous navons pas constaté de nettedégradation dans laffichage", a assuré le groupe. "Nous pensons que ces résultats entraîneront lacréation dappareils électroniques mobiles fins, légers et robustes", a-t-il souligné.Sony nest pas la seule firme nippone à travailler sur le développement décrans souples qui puissent semanier comme un journal. Lorganisme public des nouvelles énergies et techniques industriellesconduit aussi un vaste programme pluriannuel de recherche, avec plusieurs entreprises privéesnippones, pour créer un dispositif qui permette de fabriquer des écrans souples à la chaîne de la mêmefaçon que lon imprime des journaux.Cest ce type de procédé à haut rendement que Sony entend également mettre en œuvre. Son prototypedécran sera présenté jeudi lors dun colloque en marge du Salon "Society for Information Display" àSeattle, aux Etats-Unis.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 23
  • Un prototype de tablette souple et translucidePublié le 06.12.2011, 16h14Samsung a présenté en vidéo (et en Coréen) un concept de tablette transparente et flexible qui pourraitrévolutionner les terminaux mobiles de demain.On pourrait être tenté de disqualifier cette vidéo en ny voyant quune divagation, mais Samsung a déjàprésenté des prototypes décrans flexibles et transparents.Au Consumer Electronics Show (CES) cette année, Samsung présentait un écran AMOLEDtranslucide de 19 pouces et au Samsung Mobile Display un écran flexible de 4,5 pouces.Nokia a profité du salon Nokia World en octobre pour présenter un prototype similaire, le Kinetic.Nokia et Samsung prévoient tous les deux de commercialiser ce type dappareils dès lan prochain.Ultra-minces et souples, ils suivraient la forme et les mouvements du corps et répondraient auxpressions et aux flexions.Dans la vidéo repérée par OLED-Info.com, le Flexible de Samsung est également capable de projeterdes images holographiques en 3D.On devrait voir dautres exemples décrans transparents et flexibles à lédition 2012 du CES en janvier.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 24
  • Flexible screens nearer to commercializationBy William DUrso - Apr. 10, 2011 12:00 AMThe Arizona RepublicA plastic screen that rolls up and doesnt crack when you drop it may sound like science fiction, butthe Flexible Display Center at Arizona State University is investing millions to liberate electronicdevices from the constraints of rigid glass.And reality could come sooner than you think.The project was initiated by the U.S. Army in cooperation with a number of companies, includingBoeing and Hewlett-Packard, to expedite the development of the technology."Flexible ... black-and-white screens for e-readers are very close to commercialization," said NickColaneri, Flexible Display Center director. Black-and-white screens are less complicated to create, andhe estimates flexible screens capable of rolling up and displaying color images are three to five yearsaway.Manufacturers see vast potential for consumer applications. DisplaySearch, an industry researchcompany, says the market for flexible screens will likely surpass $1 billion this year and reach $8.2billion by 2018.From the beginning, the project has been pushed along by the U.S. military, which is interested inflexible screens for their portability, durability and miserly use of power.The military, high-tech manufacturers and academia have made Arizona ground zero for bringing thetechnology into mainstream use. They are pinpointing key materials and testing manufacturingtechniques needed to make the sophisticated screens at the Flexible Display Center.Colaneri, who has been director of the project for two years, said about $90 million has been spent onthe project since the center was launched in 2004 under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Army,and about $10 million more will be needed for completion.Projects of this scale generally take at least 25 years to complete, Colaneri said. Even though flexiblescreens face manufacturing hurdles, because many companies have come together to collaborate, theprocess has been streamlined.Carl Taussig, director of the information-surfaces lab at HP Labs, said, "If you can do it all yourself, itwould be ideal. In practice, the risk-reward tradeoff does favor mitigation of the risk by defrayingcosts and tasks to partners. This also speeds the development, which is an increasingly importantaspect in todays marketplace."The development of color screens is highly coveted, because black-and-white screens typically showless detail.Jennifer Colegrove, DisplaySearch vice president, believes the technology will be widely adopted,especially once it is available in color.Because one of its hallmarks is its light weight, Colegrove believes the technology will find itsgreatest value in devices such as smartphones, tablet computers and laptops."It will not have a huge market share in TVs and computer monitors," she said.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 25
  • HP recently demonstrated a lightweight wristwatch designed for soldiers in the field to view digitalmaps and other data on a flexible plastic screen that wont shatter or crack. The device uses E Inkfront-plane technology, which is used in digital book readers like the Kindle and has better visibility insunlight. It does not consume a lot of energy and requires no power to hold an image. And the screenis flexible enough that it can be sewn to fabric.Taussig said HP also has been considering uses for the technology and ways to market it."We started thinking about all kinds of commercial applications for this military demonstrator," hesaid. "There are many uses for an inexpensive, super-lightweight, mechanically rugged hands-freedisplay. Think about all the people that need to have their hands free but could use simple maps,schematics or other instructions available."He said the technology would be particularly useful to first responders.Armband displays for the military could be widely used in the not-too-distant futureColaneri said the complex nature of the project has demanded collaboration. One of the problems hasbeen to find adequate ways to seal the screens to prevent them from degrading."The organic molecules we use are very sensitive to oxygen and moisture," he said. "Plastic is like ahuge open netting, and oxygen and moisture just pass right through it."Finding ways of attaching the electronics has also proven to be a problem because the electronics aretoo hot and melt the screen.A major challenge has been figuring out how to avoid damaging the plastic during manufacturingbecause existing equipment is made to handle glass.Researchers tried gluing sheets of plastic to glass plates and other hard surfaces and running the platesthrough traditional machines. But temperature variances caused the plastic to stretch. The center had toresearch and create a special kind of glue, Colaneri said.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 26
  • Sony develops flexible, razor-thin displayBy Yuri KageyamaASSOCIATED PRESSMay 26, 2007TOKYO – In the race for ever-thinner displays for TVs, cell phones and other gadgets, Sony may havedeveloped one to beat them all – a razor-thin display that bends like paper while showing full-colorvideo.Sony released video of the 2½-inch display yesterday. In it, a hand squeezes a display thats 0.3millimeters, or 0.01 of an inch, thick. The display shows color images of a bicyclist stuntman and apicturesque lake.Although flat-panel TVs are getting slimmer, a display thats so thin it bends in a human hand marks abreakthrough.Sony said it has yet to decide on commercial products to use the technology.―In the future, it could get wrapped around a lamppost or a persons wrist, even worn as clothing,‖Sony spokesman Chisato Kitsukawa said. ―Perhaps it can be put up like wallpaper.‖Tatsuo Mori, an engineering and computer science professor at Nagoya University, said some hurdlesremained, including making the display bigger, ensuring durability and cutting costs.But he said the displays pliancy is extremely difficult to imitate with liquid crystal displays andplasma display panels – the two main display technologies now on the market.―To come up with a flexible screen at that image quality is groundbreaking,‖ Mori said. ―You can dropit, and it wont break because its as thin as paper.‖The new display combines two technologies: Sonys organic, thin-film transistor, which is required tomake flexible displays, and an organic, electroluminescent display.Sonys new razor-thin display can show full-color images but bends like paper. The company said ithas yet to decide on commercial products to use the technology.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 27
  • APPLICATIONSFlexible LED screens on the wayResearchers have developed flexible LED screens that they suggest could be used in the future for allsorts of applications, reports Reuters. The screens - developed using a technique described by scientistJohn Rogers at the University of Illinois at Urban-Champaign - effectively create "rubber stamps"made of LEDs that can be imprinted on any surface. Possible suggestions include car brake lights.(Heres the paper in Science, behind a paywall)Flexible electronic display will get Army field testThe Army this year is expected to receive a working prototype of a device that can be wornby soldiers. Advantages of plastic screens include being lighter and less fragile than glass.February 21, 2011|By Brandon BaileyReporting from San Jose — Later this year, Hewlett-Packard Co. researchers say, they expect todeliver to the U.S. Army a working prototype of what theyre calling a Dick Tracy wristwatch — alightweight, wearable device that soldiers in the field can use to view digital maps and other data on aflexible plastic screen that wont shatter or crack like glass.Although it will be Spartan by design, researchers say HPs prototype could be one of the first in awave of products incorporating flexible electronic displays. Freed from the constraints of a rigid-glassscreen, designers could one day build flexible plastic displays into clothing, wall coverings andperhaps even e-readers or tablets that can roll up like a newspaper."You can start thinking about putting electronic displays on things where you wouldnt ordinarily thinkof having them," said Nick Colaneri, a scientist and director of the Flexible Display Center at ArizonaState University. "How about a stack of thin displays that I can peel off and stick on things, sort of likea pad of Post-It notes?"Long before those hit the market, however, flexible plastic displays will provide tablets, smart phonesand other portable computers with big screens that weigh less and are far more durable than todaysmodels, said Carl Taussig, director of advanced display research at HP Labs in Palo Alto."Unlike glass, plastic doesnt break when you drop it on the floor," said Taussig, whose employer has avested interest in electronic displays as the worlds biggest seller of personal computers.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 28
  • Experts have long predicted a big future for flexible displays. The Defense Department has fundedefforts to develop lightweight screens that soldiers can use in hostile environments. A host ofcomputer makers and electronics companies are working on commercial applications."Were quite bullish on this market," said Jennifer Colegrove, vice president for emerging technologiesat DisplaySearch, an industry research and consulting firm, which estimates that sales of flexibledisplays will grow from $85 million in 2008 to more than $8 billion in 2018.But technical issues have made it a long and sometimes frustrating quest. Plastic Logic Ltd. ofMountain View, Calif., showed off a prototype e-reader with a flexible display last year, dubbed theQue, only to announce later that its commercial release would be delayed indefinitely.Standard components for liquid crystal displays, used in most portable computers today, generallyrequire a rigid glass to keep images from being distorted. Traditional displays also depend ontransistors that are embedded in glass through processes that involve temperatures high enough to meltor distort plastic.Taussigs team at HP, however, is working with plastic film that is both lighter and thinner than glass,and which can be stored in rolls. Their method resembles, in a sense, the way newspapers are printedfrom giant spools of paper.The process starts with rolls of plastic that have been treated with thin layers of metal and othermaterial. The plastic is run through a press that imprints a microscopic, three-dimensional pattern,which can then be etched to create transistors on the film. These can transmit instructions toelectrically charged particles or diodes contained in a second layer of plastic, which then displays textor images.Although its not yet ready for commercial use, Taussig said hes convinced the roll process can be farcheaper than current "batch" methods used for making glass displays, which require vast clean roomsand precision robotics to keep each pane from being damaged in production.Other groups in Taiwan and elsewhere are developing manufacturing processes in which layers oftransistors are laid down on sheets of plastic temporarily bonded to a pane of glass. Colaneri saiddisplay manufacturers could adopt that approach while using much of their existing equipment.But eventually, Colegrove said, HPs roll approach may be a less-expensive process for makingflexible screens in large volume. Currently, she added, the cost of the glass display might be $30 to$40 for a typical e-reader such as the Amazon Kindle that sells for $139.The prototype that HP is building for the Army also takes advantage of low-power features associatedwith E Ink, the technology used in most e-readers. As a result, Taussig said the device will be able torun on the power from a small, flexible solar panel that can be part of the wristband.E Ink uses black and white particles with opposite electrical charges, floating in tiny capsules ofliquid. Electrical signals cause the particles to form a pattern of letters, words or other images. Thedisplay requires little power because it has no backlighting and uses electricity only to create a newpage.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 29
  • Flexible Computers Make Smarter Credit CardsJanuary 11, 2012, 1:11 pmBy BRIAN X. CHENLAS VEGAS — Miniature, flexible computers can act as credit cards that offer more control overpayments.Dynamics Inc., a New York-based start-up, has been manufacturing ―smarter‖ credit cards that cantake on multiple identities.One version of the card allows a user to press a button to choose between a checking or a savingsaccount. For example, press button 1, and the magnetic stripe is configured to charge a purchase to thechecking account. Press button 2, and the stripe is rewritten to charge the savings account.Another version of the card is tailored to big businesses that need tighter security. The card has aflexible display and five buttons. Press a personal unlock combination, and digital numbers will appearon the card to complete the credit card number; the magnetic stripe is written with the information ofthe credit account. When the card turns off, the numbers disappear, and the magnetic stripe erases itsdata. This way, if the card is stolen, a thief cannot view the full credit card number or swipe the card tomake a purchase, which helps prevent fraud.―There‘s not one card for everyone,‖ said Jeffrey Mullen, chief executive of Dynamics Inc., in aninterview. ―We are trying to be a technology innovation arm for an industry where that‘s neverhappened.‖Each card contains a miniature, flexible circuit board, a battery and a programmable magnetic stripe.Some of the cards are being tested in trials with various bank customers, according to Mr. Mullen, andCitibank is already offering a version of the technology that allows card owners to choose betweenpaying with credit or rewards points.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 30
  • Flexible screens and secret future of TabletsPosted By: Dattatreya Mandal | 2 months agoAs we know itGoing by the past trend of a slew of electronic products, starting from laptops to smartphones, itimplied a dictum of thin is beautiful. But now, as the chimes of rampant technological evolution aresounding at all corners of the electronic realm, the dictum should be changed to flexibly ultra-thin isbeautiful. Now you may ask, why? Well, the simple answer is: in a space of just two years, there hasbeen a fascinating spurt of flexible display technologies (most of them in developmental stage),ranging from HTC phones, Nokia Kinetic Future to Kodak Televisions.Flexible screensNeed for changeThen again, amidst this brouhaha over flexible, bendable gadgets, are there any significant advantagesof such devices, other than their avant-garde factor? According to pundits and analysts, the answer iscomprehensively yes. The primary point in favor of them is obviously the improved essence ofportability. But beyond mobility, the technology in itself makes the components easier to store andimprove upon their hardiness (from cracking and scratching). Finally, we are also looking at the pricefactor, and how such systems can allude to a better cost effective alternative.What’s Next?1. Samsung Flexible AMOLEDISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 31
  • Samsung Flexible AMOLEDWhat’s newThe very recent uproar in the flexible display domain was caused by none other than the Korean giantSamsung. The company has quite nonchalantly put forth that they will start shipping their bendyscreen gadgets by 2012. Aptly touted as the tablet of the future‘, the ductile displays would be justaround 0.3mm thick, while their high-tech bearing will feature a myriad of attributes: starting frominstant translation, video and never before seen level of three dimensional image quality.What difference will it makeWe may be smitten by the plethora of features that will supposedly be offered by Samsungs FlexibleAMOLED technology. But beyond the glittery essence of attributes, it is the very basic idea that reallywould appeal to the consumers. Just imagine that your device (a smartphone or a tablet) can be rolledup like a newspaper or even stretched out for different tasks! And if you thought that was cool,Samsung is also talking about complete transparency of the screen (which means we can see rightthrough it). Of course, it is not just about the screens highfalutin nature. Users can certainly utilize thedisplay to watch videos, read e-books, surf the net and occasionally snap neat pictures.ProblemsTechnically speaking, flexible OLED are comprised of a plastic substrate on which theelectroluminescent organic semiconductor gets deposited. Now, this plastic substrate along with thephysical process of bending and thermal effect can induce an element of stress for the OLED material.Long term exposure to such type of stresses can result in reduction of efficiency and brightness of thedevice. Moreover, according to Samsung, the transparency of the screens can also cause somepredicaments, related to the availability of equally transparent batteries (and other internalcomponents).2. Nokias kinetic future: flexible screensISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 32
  • Nokias kinetic futureWhat’s newNokia Research Center certainly has a lot of feathers tucked in its cap, starting from speech andchannel codec found in almost all GSM phones to creating the worlds very first music based ringtone.But this time the organization has really notched it up a level with their Kinetic concept. Theconceptualization entails a real OLED display with all the circuitry of a modern day computingsystem. The only difference is that all of it is bendable, both along the vertical and horizontal planes.The intrinsic flexibility of the device is not just exemplified by its bending, because a twistingmechanism is also applicable in other circumstances.What difference will it makeNow, many of us may be fascinated by all these twisting and bending, but in the practical scheme ofthings, such motional attributes do have their own set of functionalities. For example, the twisting inopposite directions will allow the device to scroll through a wealth of multimedia collection, includingvideos and photos. While, the bending motion will allow the users to zoom the photos, along with apause and play function for music. This means, one can interact and operate with his portable device,without actually having to look at it. On the other hand, this will also solve the predicaments relatingto conventional touch interfaces (where the magnitude of touch and other factors are related to theresponse).ProblemsOther than the stress factor (mentioned earlier), flexible OLEDs are also more susceptible to theadverse effects of external air and moisture. So, the developers do need to come up with a efficientencapsulation technology, which would take the place of glass (like Gorilla Glass) protection found inconventional high-end mobile devices.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 33
  • Flexible Samsung phone to be issued in 2012The new Samsung Galaxy Skin is set to feature a bendable AMOLED display that will allowusers to roll it up like a wrist-watch.By Gianluca Mezzofiore | 7:00 AM BST 27 Sep 2011Samsung is poised to release a flexible mobile phone, according to reports in the InternationalBusiness Times. The new Samsung Galaxy Skin will feature an AMOLED display that will allow thephone to bend around a cylinder with a 1-inch diameter. Brighter than the normal screen, theAMOLED display is also low-energy and almost unbreakable, according to the reports.Using a plastic polyimide substrate instead of glass, Samsung has produced displays that are ―rollable[and] bendable‖ and which can even ―survive blows from a hammer‖. The phone was developed byProf Haeseong Jee and Jye Yeon You.The key material of this new technology is ‗graphene‘, touted as ―the miracle material‖. Research byscientists from Columbia University has established that ‗graphene‘ is the strongest material in theworld, ―some 200 times stronger than structural steel‖.The Galaxy Skin will offer a high-resolution 800×480 flexible AMOLED screen, eight megapixelcamera and 1Gb of RAM as well as a 1.2GHz processor. Samsung has not yet disclosed the device‘soperating system, but there have been rumors about Jelly Bean – Google‘s next Android release afterIce Cream Sandwich – or a new release called Android Flexy.The new core technology also allows the phone to be used as a mouse, a clock or a wrist-watch.Samsung has not confirmed the exact date of release.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 34
  • Et si, demain, liPhone devenait flexible ?Un laboratoire de luniversité canadienne de Queens a dévoilé le PaperPhone, un prototypedécran souple et interactif à base dencre électronique. Et annonce que ce genre dappareilsfera partie de notre quotidien dici à cinq ans.Guillaume Deleurence | 01net | le 09/05/11 à 18h24Imaginez un iPhone, ou tout autre smartphone, qui soit plat, souple et que vous pourriez ranger dansvotre portefeuille aux côtés de vos cartes de crédit. Lidée peut paraître incongrue et pourtant, deschercheurs y travaillent concrètement. Demain, mardi 10 mai 2011, lors de la conférence ComputerHuman Interaction (CHI 2011), sera ainsi dévoilé un prototype, baptisé PaperPhone, conçu par leHuman Media Lab (HML) de luniversité canadienne de Queens.Dans un communiqué, Roel Vertegaal, directeur du HML, présente cette innovation comme le« premier ordinateur-papier du monde, prêt à révolutionner lunivers de linteractivité informatique ».Pour lui, « voici le futur », ce à quoi ressembleront les technologies « dici à cinq ans ».Ce PaperPhone se présente comme « une fine feuille de papier interactif » qui peut être pliée, parexemple pour tourner une page de texte, ou sur laquelle on peut écrire. Ses concepteurs expliquent quecet sorte « diPhone flexible » peut faire les mêmes choses quun smartphone, à savoir « stocker deslivres, jouer de la musique ou passer des appels », avec un écran de 9,5 cm de diagonale soupleutilisant la technologie dencre électronique de E Ink (celle dont se sert le Kindle dAmazon, parexemple).Le HML, qui a collaboré sur ce projet avec luniversité dArizona et E Ink, indique que, encreélectronique oblige, lappareil ne consomme rien quand il ny a pas dinteraction avec lécran ou derafraîchissement. Et prédit des versions plus grandes, qui annoncent « lentreprise sans papier ». A cestade cela dit, le prototype PaperPhone a encore besoin dêtre connecté pour fonctionner.Dans une interview donnée à nos confrères de PC Mag, Roel Vertegaal précise que le PaperPhonecoûte 7 000 dollars. De fait, ses concepteurs nont pas osé le tester de façon trop brutale, pour voirjusquà quel point il pouvait être tordu. Nos confrères de News.com rappellent quen 2010, Nokia a faitenregistrer aux Etats-Unis un brevet décran souple, qui effectuerait telle ou telle action selon quon luiferait prendre telle ou telle forme.Nombre de fabricants travaillent sur des écrans souples, depuis des années, – citons le Pholed,dUniversal Display –, mais ce PaperPhone est le premier à être interactif. Reste à savoir sil verra lejour ou non et, si oui, quand. La solution, en ces temps de débats sur la sobriété énergétique, ouvre entout cas une voie intéressante.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 35
  • Paperphone, ou comment un écran souple sert d’interface à un mobileLe 9 mai 2011 à 11h38 | Par Jean-Luc Goudet, Futura-SciencesUn laboratoire canadien propose d’utiliser les écrans souples comme une interface : quelquesmouvements de torsion déclenchent des commandes simples. Les testeurs-cobayes ont appréciéet convergé vers les trois mêmes gestes. La même équipe a essayé l’ordinateur au poignet et lesT-shirts lumineux…Pour tourner la page, saisir le coin supérieur droit. Les humains apprennent ce geste dès leur premierlivre d‘images. Il n‘en faut pas plus pour passer à la page suivante sur un Paperphone, prototyped‘interface mis au point par le laboratoire Human Media de l‘université Queen, en Ontario. « C’estl’avenir, affirme Roel Vertegaal, le directeur de laboratoire dans le communiqué de l‘universitéQueen. Tout ressemblera à ça d’ici cinq ans. » Voici donc l‘iPhone de demain…Les chercheurs canadiens ont réalisé leur appareil autour d‘un écran souple utilisant l‘encreélectronique E-Link monochrome. En soi, il n‘y a là aucune invention nouvelle. Ce que l‘équipevoulait réaliser, c‘est un essai dans le but dutiliser cette souplesse pour en faire une interface.Lécran souple est loin dêtre une nouveauté mais sur le Paperphone cette souplesse sert à quelquechose : tordre lafficheur sert à tourner les pages, à envoyer un e-mail ou à choisir une option dans unmenu. Une vidéo (avec commentaires en anglais) illustre son fonctionnement. © Human Media LabDans l‘article décrivant ce Paperphone, les auteurs, Byron Lahey, Audrey Girouard, WinslowBurleson et Roel Vertegaal, expliquent que comme dix volontaires, ils ont eux-mêmes essayédifférents gestes qui leur semblaient intuitifs. La quête a convergé vers trois paires de gestes : torsiond‘un coin, supérieur ou inférieur, vers le bas ou vers le haut, et torsion latérale, vers le haut et vers leISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 36
  • bas. Pour envoyer un mail, par exemple, affichez-le et poussez-le en tordant la feuille comme pour enexpulser des miettes…Les gestes qui ont obtenu un bon succès chez les testeurs. Tous ont utilisé les trois premières paires(A-B, C-D et E-F), mimant les mouvements de doigts servant intuitivement à feuilleter un livre. ©Human Media LabUn écran au poignet et sur mon T-shirtOn retrouve le principe intuitif d‘un écran tactile où un mouvement du doigt fait défiler les photos oules pages. Pour les chercheurs canadiens, un écran souple doit servir autrement qu‘un écran rigide et sasouplesse doit être mise à profit…Depuis longtemps, l‘électronique souple passionne les scientifiques, qui les voient un peu partout et denombreux prototypes ont été présentés. Sony a montré un écran que l‘on peut enrouler, et Readius unprototype abouti de smartphone à écran enroulable.Snaplet sutilise avec un stylo mais peut aussi être roulé autour du poignet. © Human Media LabDes modèles en couleur existent déjà et le laboratoire japonais de Takao Someya a même réalisé desécrans sur supports élastiques et déformables… D‘ailleurs, l‘équipe canadienne du Paperphone montreaussi Snaplet, un modèle plat que l‘on peut enrouler sur son poignet et Tagurit, un T-shirt à affichageISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 37
  • lumineux utilisé dans un jeu interactif, rappelant le « chat » des cours de récréation, où les vêtementsde chaque joueur affichent momentanément des sortes de smileys, Goomba et Boo.L‘électronique souple a-t-elle enfin trouvé une utilité ?ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 38
  • Vers des téléphones à écrans souples en 201213:40 - mercredi 2 novembre 2011 - Par Jean-Sébastien Zanchi - Source : FuturaNokia KineticDeux téléphones souples en 2012 ? C‘est bien ce que l‘on pourrait voir arriver sur le marché si l‘on encroit Nokia et Samsung. Après la présentation du Kinetic chez Nokia la semaine dernière, le Coréenvient en effet de promettre la commercialisation pour l‘année prochaine de son premier téléphoneutilisant la technologie d‘écran souple déjà démontrée plusieurs fois depuis 2008. Ce prototypeAMOLED présenté à l‘époque ne faisait que cinq centièmes de millimètres d‘épaisseur. Une versionimaginaire de ce mobile baptisée Galaxy Skin avait même fait l‘objet dune publicité fictive de la partde Samsung.Du côté de Nokia, c‘est le Kinetic qui a fait sensation lors du Nokia World de la semaine dernière. Cemobile est quant à lui entièrement souple, même son châssis. En résulte un usage particulier : entordant un coin, on faire par exemple défiler les images.Reste toutefois à démontrer l‘avantage ergonomique à utiliser ce genre d‘écran, pour l‘instant plutôtcantonné aux fantasmes des films de science-fiction. Les fabricants devront donc trouver une réelleutilité à cette technologie pour ne pas tomber dans l‘effet gadget.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 39
  • Futuristic Samsung Flexible Displays Coming In 2012Author: Jesse BauerPublished: December 05, 2011 at 1:23 pmSamsung has a good grasp on what consumers want in their technology lately. Going back a fewyears, the Samsung LCD and Plasma flat screens were one of the sexiest devices youd want in yourliving room. Going up to the present day, Samsung is leading the technology field by not only buildingparts for other device manufacturers to use in their products, such as Apples iPhone and iPad, but alsotheir own devices such as the Samsung Galaxy Nexus, and the hot selling Galaxy S II smartphones.In the video below, Samsung is taking their ingenuity to the next level, and showcasing what thefuture, the very near future, could look like when using the Samsung flexible display. This gives us alook at how a flexible display could work with us and interact in our lives. The display is shown in aflexible see-through tablet form factor, but Samsung has every intention of putting this flexible displayonto smartphones first in 2012. Thats right, the future is right around the corner for us if Samsung hasanything to do with it.Have a look at the video, and let us know what you think about these displays in the comments below.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 40
  • Lécran flexible est-il lavenir du smartphone?Publié le 27 octobre 2011.Le Nokia Kinetic, un prototype décran flexible intégré à un smartphone.HIGH-TECH - Nokia a présenté un prototype dinterface lors de son grand salon...Vous touchiez? Pliez, maintenant. Ou pas. Dabord, le Nokia Kinetic, présenté lors du grand salon duFinlandais de Londres, nest quun prototype. Surtout, si le gadget entier est flexible, grâce à son écranOLED, ce dernier nest pas tactile.Linterface dévoilée nest appliquée que pour parcourir des photos ou écouter de la musique. Pourzoomer, on plie par exemple lappareil vers lextérieur –et vers lintérieur pour dézoomer. Le scroll sefait un tordant un coin, ajuster le volume également.Au-delà de laspect «science-fiction» indéniablement cool, cela pourrait-il se révéler pratique? Le juryréserve son verdict. Dun côté, cela permettrait deffectuer certains contrôles sans devoir regarderlécran. De lautre, lessentiel de linterface requiert deux mains –même si Nokia montrait égalementune sorte de télécommande flexible contrôlable à une main.Si Nokia nest pas le premier à expérimenter sur les écrans flexibles, il sagit-là du prototype le plusavancé jamais dévoilé. Lentreprise na cependant pas annoncé ses intentions sur une éventuellecommercialisation dans un produit, expliquant simplement que cela dépendrait de lengouement dupublic. Pas sûr non plus que la technologie soit au point pour la combiner avec un écran tactile. En2009, le Flexible Display Center avait fait une démonstration tactile+flexible, mais à un stade encoretrès embryonnaire.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 41
  • Nokias kinetic future: flexible screens and a twisted interface (video)By Mat Smith posted Oct 26th 2011 12:50PMHidden within Nokias Future Lounge, this very flexible display offers up a glimpse of what sort ofthing we could possibly be dealing with when we roll up to Nokia World in 2021. The prototypeNokia Kinetic Device, including its display, can be flexed across both the vertical and horizontalplanes -- with bending and twisting motions controlling the interface. If you bend the screen towardsyourself, it acts as a selection function, or zooms in on any pictures youre viewing. In music mode,you can navigate, play and pause with the tactile interface. Its still a way off from arriving on phones,though Nokia is aiming to whet developers appetites with this prototype. We may have seen sometwisty interfaces already, but nothing packing a four-inch screen and built-in functionality like this.Nokia couldnt confirm the screen technology being used. Could that be a flexible AMOLED display?See those impressive viewing angles and contortions after the break and judge for yourself.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 42
  • Nokia a déposé un brevet pour un téléphone souple avec plein de fonctionsPar Aurélien, le 19 janvier 2010 à 5:11Nokia nous a sorti un concept de téléphone souple avec un écran transparent, le Morph, il y a de çadeux ans. Ce téléphone pourrait bien passer du concept à la réalité puisque Nokia vient de déposer unbrevet pour un portable à l‘écran pliable.Le brevet décrit un appareil qui lancera des applications en fonction de la forme qu‘on lui donnera. Leschéma d‘illustration du brevet peut laisser croire que Nokia se lance dans les articles pour campingmais il illustre en fait les utilisations possibles de l‘appareil.Fig 10a : la forme ressemble à une canette, pouvant contenir de la bière ou du soda, la recherched’un café ou d’un bar, soit d’une chaîne spécifique, soit le plus proche pourra donc être lancéeFig 10b : la forme ressemble à un bol, la recherche d’un restaurant, soit d’une chaîne spécifique, soitle plus proche pourra donc être lancéeFig 10c : la forme ressemble à une tente ou à un toit, la recherche d’un hôtel ou d’une chambred’hôtes, soit d’une chaîne spécifique, soit le plus proche pourra donc être lancéeJe ne sais pas si le concept est vraiment intéressant, on attendra de voir le téléphone en chair et en os,s‘il devient réalité un jour. [Go Rumors via Slash Gear]ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 43
  • Nokia demonstrates a phone with a flexible OLED display27 October, 2011The Lumia and Asha range of handsets may have been the focus of the Nokia World event but thatsnot all that Nokia had to show.One of the more interesting things on display was a Nokia phone with a flexible OLED display calledthe Nokia kinetic device. The device comes with a large flexible OLED display that you can bendfrom the middle or from around the edges.But being able to bend is not its only feature. It actually uses that ability to control the UI on thedevice. You can, for example, zoom in and out by bending it from the middle. You can scroll througha list by bending it from around the edges.Nokia kinetic prototype live photosThe advantage of this method is that it can be used without looking at the display and also when youreusing gloves, something that capacitive touchscreens cannot do. The downside is that you have to useboth hands and its not terribly convenient, with far too much effort being required to flex the devicecompared to simply tapping on the screen.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 44
  • Update: We got our hands on the prototype at Nokia World and well be posting a video of ourexperience with it later. Our first impressions are overwhelming. Its a must-see device that easilyredefines what you thought was possible in mobile phones.First of all, weve never seen a screen with such wide viewing angles - theres virtually NO shift incolors or contrast no matter how you look at it. The contrast itself is also nice - with nicely deepblacks. The resolution of the screen is WVGA and it looks great. On top of the screen theres some sortof plastic protection as obviously glass wont bend. Unfortunately, that means it could be prone toscratches in real-life use.The device is just a prototype with no current plans of being put into production. But who knows, wemight just see them in the future, and not necessarily from Nokia.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 45
  • Nokia et le concept Morph de téléphone pliable et auto-nettoyantPar Cyril, le 25 février 2008 à 12:03Le concept Morph de téléphone Nokia veut employer les nanotechnologies pour créer un corpsflexible et un écran transparent transformables selon les envies de l‘utilisateur, loin des machinessolides et trapues que nous connaissons.Même la circuiterie interne serait transparente et souple, pour pouvoir plier et transformer le téléphoneen forme de bracelet ou de tablette de chewing-gum. Les nanotechnologies permettraient même qu‘ilse nettoie tout seul. Développée conjointement avec la Cambridge University, cette vision d‘un futurproche est exposée au musée d‘art moderne, le MoMA, de New York.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 46
  • Pliez-le26.11.2009Lavenir du téléphone portable, chez Nokia, sappelle Morph. Développé en partenariat avecluniversité de Cambridge (Grande-Bretagne), cet appareil futuriste répond à un cahier des charges trèsprécis en vue dun prochain modèle grand public. Le Morph, qui utilise les nanotechnologies, présenteun écran tactile translucide et souple que lon peut replier comme un portefeuille ou enrouler autour dupoignet, et une oreillette sans fil qui peut faire office de pince une fois lappareil replié. Autre atout :lécran tactile efface tout seul les traces de doigts.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 47
  • Taking the paper out of workJanuary 7, 2010 8:32 pm by Richard WatersIt would be really nice to be able to believe in the success of the Que proReader (and not just becausethe Financial Times is one of the publishers that has done a deal with Plastic Logic, the company thatmakes the device).The history of the Que is one of those compelling technology stories that leaves you rooting for thepeople behind it, and the wide vision that it represents is infectious. Like all ambitious visions, though,this one relies on perfect execution.Until the full reviews are in I‘ll suspend final judgment, but my fear is that CEO Rich Archuleta‘sclaim that the Que marks the arrival of the ―paperless briefcase‖ will end up being filed with all thosesimilar promises of ―paperless offices‖ we‘ve heard over the years.Plastic Logic‘s roots are in technology developed at Cambridge University in the 1980s. The idea wasbased on printing semiconductors on a plastic substrate rather than using silicon – something thatwould greatly reduce both material and manufacturing costs.The technology was spun out into a company ten years ago, which then set out to create a productcapable of showing off the virtues of the technology: a large-screen, lightweight, flexible screen for adigital reading device. Breaking all the rules of the modern consumer electronics business, PlasticLogic even built its own expensive fab in Germany – long before it was ready to start churning outQues.Given the history, it‘s amazing the Que looks as good as it does (after all, Intel‘s ventures intoconsumer electronics devices over the years have bombed).This is a high-end eReader for business users, and it‘s priced to match: $649 for a 4GB version thatconnects with WiFi and bluetooth, or $799 for a 8GB model that also comes with 3G from AT&T.Orders can be placed on the company‘s website now, with shipments scheduled to begin in April.Barnes & Noble, which is running the online store that supports the Que, is also going to sell thehardware.While it downloads and displays books, the device is really aimed at all the material that makes up thebulk of the average business user‘s day: things like work documents, email and (we hope) newspapers.It syncs with Outlook to display the user‘s daily calendar on the home screen, and the touchscreeninterface is navigated with taps and swipes.There are things to carp about. The response time seems very slow when you tap. The screen looksdull and uninspiring compared with the print-outs and back-lit computer screens that make up mostoffice reading. But that aside, it seems to perform adequately as a basic large-screen reading device.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 48
  • And the thought of not printing out reams of paper to read the next time you get on a plane is certainlyan appealing one.The real issue comes with the input features. Business documents, says Archuleta, aren‘t just forreading, they‘re tools for making decisions – you need to annotate them, share them with colleagues,cross-reference them. You don‘t just read them in a linear way like a novel, you flick around betweenpages.The Que‘s UI tries to solve all of these things, but what today‘s demo really made you think of was theamazing facility of good, old-fashioned paper. For jotting down your thoughts and scribbling oversomeone else‘s, it can‘t be beaten.The inherent advantages of digital – being able to capture your scribbles electronically and transmitthem to co-workers – may outweigh this. But my bet is that most executive briefcases will bulge withreal paper for a long time to come.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 49
  • Technology... or magic? Samsung shows off video of transparent, flexiblescreen - with 3D so real it looks like you can touch itLast updated at 12:08 PM on 7th December 2011Samsung has said that it will start to ship bendy screened gadgets in the first half of 2012 - with thefirst flexible gizmos on the market certain to be mobile phones.At technology shows, the Korean company has also demonstrated flexible screens just 0.3mm thick.But its latest video demo shows off truly out-there technology - a tablet of the future that offersinstant translation, video, and a level of 3D beyond anything yet available.Samsungs transparent, flexible AMOLED screen isnt as wacky as it seems - the company has alreadypromised that it will ship flexible AMOLED devices in 2012, starting with mobile phonesISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 50
  • This is where it all starts to get a little far-fetched - the screen seems to be able to throw a holographic3D image so solid it looks like you could touch it. Glasses-free 3D does exist - but it doesnt look likethisThe screen has the functions of a high-end tablet computer - and appears to be able to translateinstantly from French into KoreanThe Galaxy Skin phone will be so flexible you can roll it up - and may be in shops early next yearBut while Samsungs video demo might be concept technology, factories in the Far East are alreadyworking on real versions - flexible phones that will hit the market in early 2012.Both Samsung and Nokia are working on the technology.During a company results conference, investor relations chief Robert Yi said, The flexible display, weare looking to introduce sometime in 2012, hopefully the earlier part.Yi said that the first devices to ship with flexible screens would be phones.Other possible applications include foldable iPad-style tablets.Its not an out-there prediction, either.Rival smartphone giant Nokia unveiled a basic prototype of the Nokia Kinectic - a bendablesmartphone - at Nokia WorldISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 51
  • Kinectic allowed users to bend the screen to control functions such as music and video.Nokia refuses to say when its Kinectic smartphones will be on sale.Earlier Samsung demonstrations have shown off OLED screens which can be folded over.The company demonstrated bendable AMOLED screens 4.5 inches across and just 0.3mm thick inJanuary this year.Another paper by Samsung scientists showed off an AMOLED screen with a section that could befolded over completely without cracking.Earlier this year, reports leaked that Samsung had the capacity to manufacture large amounts of suchscreens by early 2012 - but no one knew what they might be for.Pictures of a concept phone using the technology - the Galaxy Skin (pictured) - also appeared.Skin was a project carried out by design students using the Samsung logo and Galaxy trademark.Samsungs Galaxy Skin - unveiled as a concept earlier this year - could be on sale as early as Spring2012, according to recent reportsLayers of Graphene - atom-thick layers of carbon - will be used to create paper-thin foldable screensin the Samsung Galaxy SkinFlexible screens have been demonstrated in various forms since as early as 2004 - with tech insiderssuggesting that laptops or e-Book readers might one day take the form of a pen housing a processorwith a sheet of paper-like screen wrapped around them.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 52
  • Sony annonce un prototype décran souple en couleursPublié le 26 Mai 2010(Easybourse.com) Le groupe délectronique japonais Sony a annoncé ce mercredi avoir mis aupoint un prototype décran vidéo souple en couleurs. Cet écran senroule autour dun petitcylindre et peut tenir dans une poche.Après son premier modèle de télévision en 3D qui doit sortir en juin, le groupe nippon Sony a annoncéce mercredi un prototype décran vidéo souple en couleurs. Cet écran mesure une dizaine decentimètres de diagonale et peut se rouler autour dun petit cylindre et se ranger dans la proche.Cet écran peut afficher des images animées en 16,7 millions de nuances colorées. Labsence de circuitélectronique rigide à la périphérie permet à cet écran dêtre roulé, explique Sony. « Même après plusde 1 000 cycles denroulement et étirement, nous navons pas constaté de nette dégradation danslaffichage », a souligné le groupe japonais.« Nous pensons que ces résultats entraîneront la création dappareils électroniques mobiles fins,légers et robustes », a indiqué Sony. Le groupe délectronique grand public assure que la méthode defabrication de ce type décran est même moins polluante et consommatrice dénergie que les procédéstraditionnels.Cet écran OLED enroulable de Sony doit faire lobjet dune démonstration ce jeudi lors dun colloqueen marge du salon Society for Information Display (SID) 2010 de Seattle, aux Etats-Unis.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 53
  • ENTREPRISESSamsung Future is Now: Flexible Screen Device to Launch in 2012 [VIDEO]Nokia Also Touted a Bendable Screen Last Week at Nokia WorldBy Anthony Myers: Subscribe to Anthonys RSS feed | October 30, 2011 9:07 AM EDTApple and Samsung have been going back and forth during 2011 for the entire year, and now, with theholiday shopping season looming, the smartphone war is heating up fast. Both companies havedebuted new smartphones and operating systems in October, and now word has come that Samsung iscurrently outselling Apple in worldwide sales.Time to take the fight to the next level. Samsung announced that it may be ready to debut asmartphone and tablet computer in 2012 that features a flexible, bendable screen. The technologydebuted in June, but now the company says it is ready to begin mass producing devices that make useof the futuristic technology, PCWorld said in a blog post.The organic light-emitting diode-based display could be featured on a regular smartphone before itcomes out in a version where people could actually bend it. It could serve as a kind of a safety feature,where it would be much more difficult to break the display if dropped or thrown by accident.Finnish mobile phone maker Nokia also unveiled a bendable screen at this weeks Nokia Worldconference in London, although its version is more like a prototype and not as far along indevelopment as the Samsung version. Below are videos showing both, and the Nokia one actuallyshows the screen bending back and forth. Instead of a touch screen, you can control the device bybending it. Bend it toward you to zoom out and bend it away to zoom in.For Samsung, its the second revelation in just a weeks time, as only one day earlier, U.K.-basedStrategy Analytics revealed that Samsung had outsold Apple smartphones in 2011s third quarter.Coincidentally, Nokia is the world leader in mobile phone manufacturing, but Samsung is now numberone in smartphones. Below are two videos showing off the Samsung screens, and below that, a videoof Nokias prototype. Let us know in the comments if you think the bendable screen is just a gimmickor if you think its the next big thing.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 54
  • Beautiful Flexible Screens Samsung New PhonesAn article by JessieIn its periodical earnings call, Samsung‘s vice president of investor relations, Robert Yi, told investors,analysts and press, ―The bendable display we are looking to bring in for a moment in 2012, with anyluck the previous part. Samsung‘s original mobile device arrangement will characteristic flexiblescreens starting in 2012, the company announced today. The application almost certainly will startfrom the handset side.‖ After flexible- screen mobile phones roll out, the company plans to introducethe same technology for tablets and other devices. In January 2011, Samsung purchased Liquivista, astrategic acquisition that will allow it to produce the kinds of displays that were announced today.Liquivista made electro wetting display skill, which is used to create mobile and other consumerelectronic displays that are bright, low-power, flexible and transparent. you see this great gadget andcomments about this.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 55
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  • Samsung plans to make flexible screens a reality in 2012By Ed Oswald | Published 3 months agoAfter years of promises and demos both from Samsung and a host of other companies, the flexiblescreen is set to finally become a reality in 2012. Samsung confirmed plans during its quarterlyconference call."The flexible display, we are looking to introduce sometime in 2012", company spokesperson RobertYi says. The company aims to introduce the first flexible screen device in the early part of the year. Headds that it would "probably start from the handset side".Following the debut of the technology in handsets, Yi says to expect the company to bring flexiblehandsets to other products over the rest of the year. The company has already shown concepts of anOLED screen that has technology embedded in the individual pixels allowing it to generate light.That said, Samsung is not allowing those who have seen it to play with the screens: the screen islocked up in a case which keeps the screen bent. How far along Samsung really is in producingworking production models of these screens is not really known.If Samsung can meet its goals, it certainly would give the company a leg up on its competitors,including Apple which has proven to be its strongest -- both in the marketplace and in the courts.Is Apple working on similar technologies? It is hard to tell given the companys secretive nature.Samsung is a parts vendor to Apple, so it is within the realm of possibility that Apple may purchasescreens from the company. Apple is working on some flexible device technologies itself, however.Patent applications have surfaced showing that the Cupertino company might have plans to add aflexible display within its Magic Mouse.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 57
  • Samsung to Sell Phones With Flexible Screens Next YearBy Jay Alabaster, IDG News | Oct 28, 2011 5:30 amSamsung Electronics said Friday that it is aiming to launch mobile phones with flexible displays nextyear, with tablets and other portable devices to have these displays soon after.The company said it was aiming to follow on the success of its Galaxy S II smartphone, which hasnow sold 10 million units in five months.The comments came as the company discussed its earnings for the three-month period throughSeptember. Samsung said its overall profit fell 23 percent from a year ago to 3.44 trillion Korean won(US$3.1 billion), dragged down by its chip and display operations, but operating profit at its mobileunit more than doubled in the period."The flexible display, we are looking to introduce sometime in 2012, hopefully the earlier part," saidspokesman Robert Yi during an earnings call. "The application probably will start from the handsetside."Yi said tablets and other mobile devices with flexible displays would follow.Samsung has shown flexible OLED (organic light emitting diode) displays inside rigid cases that keptthe screens curved. The technology has material within each pixel that generates light, making itperhaps more suitable for flexible screens than LCDs, which would require both a flexible screen anda backlight.The Korean company said its popular Galaxy S II smartphone continued its strong performancerecently, and has now sold 10 million units in five months. The Android-based handset appears tohave benefited from the October launch of the iPhone 4S by Apple, which has launched previousiPhone models in the summer months.Samsung shipped 27.8 million smartphones in the third quarter, versus 17.1 million shipped by Apple,according to research firm Strategy Analytics. Apples iPhone 4S appears to be raking in strong sales,however, and the company said it sold over 4 million units in the first three days after its launch onOct. 14.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 58
  • Phones With Flexible Screens Coming Next Year, Says SamsungSamsung drops this little nugget during earnings callBy Josh Wolford · October 28, 2011At Samsung‘s earnings call, the company announced intentions to introduce phones with flexibledisplays as early as 2012.―The flexible display, we are looking to introduce sometime in 2012, hopefully the earlier part,‖ saidspokesman Robert Yi during an earnings call. ―The application probably will start from the handsetside.‖He went on to say that the flexible screens would start appearing in tablets and other devices followingtheir debut in smartphones.Of course, this isn‘t the first time that we‘ve heard about the flexible display technology – it‘s beenaround for a while. Various prototypes have been shown off by a number of companies in the past fewyears, including Samsung itself. Here‘s an demo of Samsung‘s flexible AMOLED display at the 2011CES show –Samsung is not the only one demoing this technology, but it‘s interesting that they have come out anddefinitively said that flexible display phones would be hitting the market in early 2012.In September, a concept-phone called the Samsung Galaxy Skin made the round on the interwebs. TheGalaxy Skin was a super-thin device that could be bent – and nearly rolled. There were conflictingreports as to whether the phone actually existed in prototype form, or if it was simply a concept.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 59
  • Samsung told CNET that Samsung wasn‘t involved in the product, it was just a theoretical design thatwas stamped with the Samsung name to make it look legit.But Samsung is now saying that these flexible phones will arrive in 2012. Whether they have anythingto do with this ―Skin‖ concept is yet to be determined.Here are some other example of flexible display technology, from other sources.Would you buy a flexible phone? What does the technology have to offer? Let us know in thecomments.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 60
  • Samsung Challenges Nokia in Flexible Display WarsBy Mike Perlman on October 30, 2011 in Phones, SamsungIt used to be a race to the biggest, highest-resolution screen, but now manufacturers have their eyes ona bigger prize. Samsung is intending to implement flexible displays in future smartphones and tabletsnext year. While Nokia‘s intriguing technology appeared to be more of a concept, PC World reportsthat Samsung is quite serious about bringing flexible screen technology to its mobile phones just pastthe crest of 2012.“The flexible display, we are looking to introduce sometime in 2012, hopefully the earlier part,” saidspokesman Robert Yi during an earnings call. “The application probably will start from the handsetside.”Nokia recently debuted its take on flexible screen technology at Nokia World in London. The Finnishsmartphone giant‘s Kinetic devices could be bent and twisted in different positions to control portionsof the user interface. Whether or not Samsung will connect physical manipulation with their phoneuser interfaces is uncertain.Flexible screen technology is certainly a cool concept, though its place in the mobile landscape is a bitnebulous. Would consumers be able to adapt to a phone that looked like it walked out of a Dr. Seussbook? And the sudden gold rush to the technology by two of the world‘s largest smartphonemanufacturers is rather peculiar. Is this where smartphones and tablets are headed? Are we taking afew shortcuts on our path to nanotechnology, as conceptualized by Nokia‘s Morph demonstration?Only the future will know.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 61
  • Samsung promises flexible OLED screen phones for 201228 October 2011 12:35 GMT / By Rik HendersonBendy and trendySamsung is to introduce flexible screen phones next year, presumably for the South Korean marketfirst. The company has also said that it plans to introduce the technology to tablets and other portabledevices.Pocket-lint played with the Nokia bendable handset concept at Nokia World earlier this week, butSamsung has revealed that it will be bringing similar tech to market in 2012: "The flexible display, weare looking to introduce sometime in 2012, hopefully the earlier part," said vice president Robert Yi,while explaining that the companys overall profit fell 23 per cent in the last year, thanks mainly to thechip and display sectors."The application probably will start from the handset side," he added.Bendy Super-AMOLED displays have been on the agenda for some time, with Samsung showing offits technology this time last year.It exhibited a 4.5-inch flexible Super-AMOLED display at the FPD International Expo in Tokyo inNovember 2011, which also boasted a WVGA resolution of 800 x 480. That particular sample can berolled into a tube 1cm in radius.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 62
  • Of course, the challenges will be where to put the battery, SIM slot, antenna, processor and the rest ofthe gubbins, but this is the clearest indication that those particular issues have already been addressed.What do you think of the idea of bendy smartphones? Gimmick or could you think of a practical use?Let us know in the comments below...ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 63
  • Samsung et Nokia dans la course04.11.2011Samsung a annoncé la sortie « en 2012 » dun téléphone à écran souple, voire pliable. De son côté,Nokia, qui vient de lancer deux smartphones sous Windows, les Lumia 800 et 710, a dévoilé untéléphone à écran souple, nom de code : Kynetic Device. Intérêt : utiliser la capacité de torsion commeinterface : zoomer, allé à limage précédente, accélérer… Après la 3D, ce sera donc lécran souple.ISTIA – EI2 2011-2012 Page 64