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  • TOWARD THE U LTI M ATE ECO- CAR Toyota Powertrain Technology for Sustainable Mobility
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  • MAKING THE WOR LD GR EENER, ONE ST EP AT A TIME T oyota believes in doing what we can “today for tomorrow”. That belief led to the launch in 1997 of the world’s first mass-produced gasoline-electric hybrid car, the Toyota Prius. The Prius was more than just a revolution in powertrain technology. It also catalyzed a revolution in consciousness. Sustainable mobility would never again be merely a dream. It was 3 achievable … if automakers, consumers and governments wanted it to happen. Here are the many ways Toyota is working to make the dream come true.
  • INNOVATION FOR SUSTAINABLE MOBILIT Y B y providing freedom of mobility for people and goods, automobiles make people’s lives more convenient and fulfilling. But automakers have a responsibility to minimize the negative impact of automobiles and help achieve sustainable mobility. Powertrain innovation can contribute to this endeavor in three ways: 1) by improving fuel efficiency, 2) by making exhaust emissions cleaner and 3) by supporting energy 4 diversification. 1) Greater E F F I C I E N CY – Since humans learned to harness fossil fuels to operate machines, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has steadily risen. Toyota is developing more efficient automobile engines and transmissions to help control CO 2 emissions and mitigate the dangers of global warming.
  • Powertrain innovation can contribute to sustainable mobility in three key ways. 5 2) Greater C LE A N LI N E S S – 3) Greater D I V E R S I T Y – In Japan and many other countries and regions, air quality As the world’s energy needs escalate, automotive fuels will has steadily improved since the early 1970s, thanks to also have to diversify in response to soaring petroleum prices, technological innovation, often in advance of regulatory concern about depletion of petroleum reserves and other changes. However, there is still room for improvement. The pressures. Alternative fuels, such as biofuels, hydrogen and entire Toyota Group is working toward this goal. electricity, hold promise for the future.
  • EF FICIENCY T ransportation accounts for about 20% of the world’s CO 2 emissions from energy sources, so it is critcal for the auto industry to reduce CO 2 emissions. As an automaker, Toyota is striving to raise fuel economy and thereby help control CO 2 emissions. Hybrid technology is a core technology in this endeavor. Worldwide CO2 emissions by sector — 2004 Other Household 7.0% 12.6% Power 40.4% generation 19.5% Transportation 20.5% Source: IEA/WEO 2006 Industry
  • Toyota technology to reduce CO2 A new generation of engines Efficient & clean diesel technology evolution Toyota has made significant progress on the environmental front by introducing the latest engine (dynamic) Low compression design and electronic control technologies. Beginning ratio Piezo injector Solenoid DPNR/DPR Efficient & clean gasoline engine evolution injector catalytic (acceleratioin & power) converter Common Driving performance rail Low friction New (dynamic) engine Valvematic 5 DOHC Variable series 4-valve nozzle turbo VVT-iE Cooled EGR Dual VVT-i * EGR: exhaust gas recirculation 7 D-4S 4 VVT-i 2 D-4 3 Environmental performance (acceleration & power) DOHC (high fuel efficiency and cleaner exhaust emissions) Driving performance 4-valve Low-friction New EFI 1 engine series Lean-burn with the V6 engine developed in 2003, Toyota intends to Environmental performance (high fuel efficiency and cleaner exhaust emissions) completely revamp its engine and transmission lineup 1 EFl: electronic fuel injection 2 VVT-i: Variable Valve Timing-intelligent by 2010, to pursue improved fuel efficiency and cleaner 3 D-4: Direct lnjection 4 stroke gasoline engine 4 D-4S: Direct lnjection 4 stroke gasoline engine superior version 5 Valvematic: Combines VVT-i with a new mechanism that continuously controls exhaust emissions. the intake valve lift volume
  • EF FICIENCY A new generation of transmissions Efficient transmission evolution Toyota is enhancing efficiency together with (dynamic) “acceleration feel” in multi-range automatic transmissions 8 AT Integrated vehicle such as our 8-speed AT and new CVT (continuously control CVT 6 AT (acceleration and power) variable transmission). Low- Driving performance 5 AT viscosity ATF* New ECT-i transmission series Flex Lock-up 8 Environmental performance (fuel efficiency performance) * ATF : automatic transmission fl uid
  • Toyota technology to reduce CO2 Powertrain evolution Hybrid technology leads powertrain evolution Toyota’s engine and transmission technologies seek (dynamic) Hybrid system w/ a sophisticated fusion of environmental performance 5.0 liter engine The ultimate New 4.6 liter V8 powertrain engine, new 8AT and driving performance. Hybrid technology has the Hybrid system w/ 4.3 liter V8 3.5 liter engine engine, 6AT potential to raise this fusion to an even higher level. 3.5 liter V6 Hybrid system w/ Hybrid engine, 6AT Series (acceleration & power) 3.3 liter engine Driving performance Hybrid system w/ Hybrid system w/ Toyota plans to double its hybrid vehicle lineup by the 3.0 liter inline 6 3.5 liter V6 2.4 liter engine 1.5 liter engine engine, 5AT engine, 6AT New 1.8 liter 4 New Series early 2010s. engine, new CVT 1.0 liter inline 3 3.0 liter V6 engine, CVT engine, 4AT Conventional 1.8 liter inline 4 Series engine, 4AT 1.0 liter inline 4 engine, 4AT 9 Environmental performance (fuel efficiency and low emissions)
  • EF FICIENCY Expanding hybrid popularity Environmental performance without sacrifice Toyota’s hybrid system, as implemented in the Prius, is a new type of powertrain that combines the Fuel efficiency Low emissions advantages of two kinds of power sources: the electric TOYOTA’S HYBRID TECHNOLOGY motor and the gasoline engine. The result is world- Driving performance Quietness class performance in terms of the fuel efficiency, clean emissions, driving excitement and quiet operation Toyota’s hybrid technology simultaneously achieves outstanding environmental performance and driving performance desired in today’s motor vehicles. 10 In May 2007, global cumulative sales of Toyota hybrid vehicles topped the 1 million mark. Over the 10 years since the Prius was launched in 1997, Toyota hybrid vehicles have produced approximately 3.5 million tons less CO2 compared with the same class of gasoline-powered vehicles of similar size and driving performance (according to Toyota calculations).
  • Toyota technology to reduce CO2 The HYBRID advantage How hybrid technology maximizes efficiency Hybrid technology is an energy management supplementing BATTERY shortage of + energy technology that aims to raise efficiency in every way possible. Hybrid vehicles recover energy that in storing unused ACCELERATION energy recovering conventional powertrains is lost during deceleration regenerated energy Energy or that appears as surplus energy during cruising. Engine Shut-Off Time Therefore, hybrid technology can significantly raise Engine Shut-Off gas/petrol engine operating at maximum efficiency efficiency and reduce CO2, while also delivering excellent - DECELERATION 11 driving performance. How it works 1 STARTUP 2 NORMAL DRIVING 3 ACCELERATION 4 DECELERATION 5 STOPPING 1 STARTING Electric motor only Motor and engine Motor and engine (Additional Battery charging Engine automatically Electric motor only power drawn from batteries) shuts off
  • CLEA NLINESS C leaner emissions can be achieved in several ways: by burning conventional fuels more efficiently, by implementing technology that removes noxious substances, and by using energy sources that are clean-burning or that do not “burn” at all. Toyota’s policy for emissions reduction is to take appropriate measures based on assessment of the urban environmental conditions in each country and each region.
  • Toyota technology to improve air quality Even cleaner gasoline engines The “clean diesel” challenge Though much progress has been made in gasoline A major challenge for improving air quality today is engines, Toyota keeps setting its sights higher. Through cleaning up diesel engine exhaust gases. Toyota D-CAT1 the proactive development and introduction of advanced (Diesel Clean Advanced Technology) with DPNR (Diesel technologies, Toyota is seeking to improve engine PM and NOx Reduction system) reduces NOx and PM operation and provide cleaner emissions in today’s and emissions 50% and 90% below EURO4 2, respectively. 1 D-CAT: In 2003, Toyota revolutionized the diesel engine by combining different tomorrow’s motor vehicles. technologies into a single new integrated concept called Toyota D-CAT 2 EURO4: emissions regulations implemented in EU from 2005 Achieving cleaner gasoline emissions Achieving cleaner diesel emissions 13 • NOx sensor • Oxidative catalytic converter • NOx-storage-and-reduction 3-way catalytic converter • Common rail injection system (135Mpa) • Electric air pump NOx (nitrogen oxides) • Variable nozzle turbo • Low compression NOx, HC, PM • Cooled EGR* ratio • Swirl control valve • Common rail (piezo injector) • Dual V V T-i* system (180Mpa) • DPNR catalytic converter • D-4S* • DPR catalytic converter low low ‘95 ‘07 ‘95 ’07 *VV T-i: Variable Valve Timing-intelligent * EGR: exhaust gas recirculation *D-4S: Direct lnjection 4 stroke gasoline engine superior version NOx: nitrogen oxides HC: hydrocarbons PM: particulate matter
  • CLEA NLINESS Cleaner fuels Besides making cleaner-running engines, Toyota is also working with the energy industry to develop cleaner fuels. • Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic diesel fuel Using this ultra-clean GTL (gas-to-liquids) fuel in Toyota D-CAT enables extremely low emissions with 14 a dramatic reduction of NOx and particulate matter compared with conventional diesel performance. To verify the clean potential of FT synthetic diesel, Toyota and Shell conducted road tests using the Avensis with Toyota D-CAT technology
  • Toyota technology to improve air quality The HYBRID advantage About half the CO2 and NOx/HC emissions Carbon dioxide (CO2) is always produced when an Prius produces about 55% less CO2 and nearly half engine burns gasoline. Other emissions are carbon the NOx/HC of other cars of the same class equipped with monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and hydrocarbons emissions control devices.* (HC).* Hybrid technology addresses this issue in three * For Prius of 1,260kg or less kerb weight, driving under specifi c testing conditions. ways: (1) outstanding fuel efficiency, to use less fuel and thereby produce less CO2 and other emissions; (2) cleaner combustion, to suppress generation 15 of CO, NOx and HC; and (3) by employing various devices to clean the exhaust gases. As a result, hybrid technology achieves exhaust emissions that are among the cleanest in the world. * CO2 is recognized worldwide as a factor in global warming; CO/NOx can be harmful to health if inhaled; NOx/HC are factors in the production of photochemical smog; NOx is one of the substances in acid rain.
  • DIV ERSIT Y I n the short term, we must conserve oil as the mainstream transportation fuel. Over the medium and long term, however, energy sources will gradually diversify, so we must begin now to develop technologies that support the most promising of these.
  • Toyota technology to support alternative fuels Automotive fuel diversification allow all its gasoline engines to run reliably on gasoline with 10 percent bio-ethanol content. Toyota began Primary energy source Automotive fuels selling 100% bio-ethanol-compatible Corolla flex-fuel Oil Gasoline, diesel vehicles (FFV) in Brazil in 2007 and is planning to launch Synthetic fuels Natural gas (FT synthetic diesel, etc.) a Tundra FFV in the U.S. market in 2008. Together with Biofuels Coal Gaseous fuels Nippon Oil Corporation, Toyota is also developing new (CNG) Biomass Hydrogen biodiesel fuel technology. Solar, wind, hydro, nuclear Electricity 17 Synthetic fuel Automotive energy sources will diversify along with primary Synthetic gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel can be derived energy diversification. Technological development must take into account the merits and demerits of each type of alternative fuel from natural gas and supplied as a diesel blend or clean alternative to diesel fuel. Toyota believes that Fischer- Biofuel Tropsch (FT) synthetic diesel is the appropriate choice The term “biofuel” refers to automotive fuels made among the GTL technology options. It is sulfur free and from plant sources such as sugarcane. Biofuels can aroma free and has a high cetane rating. help reduce CO2 emissions and control fossil-fuel consumption. Toyota already has the technology to
  • DIV ERSIT Y Hydrogen the Toyota FCHV achieved -30°C startup; in 2007, it Hydrogen can be made from a variety of raw drove 560 kilometers, from Osaka to Tokyo, without materials and does not produce any CO2 when refueling. As R&D continues, Toyota is accelerating it is consumed as a fuel. The need for a refueling toward FCHV vehicle popularization. infrastructure is one of several issues that must be addressed if hydrogen is to gain wider use. Since 2002, Electricity Toyota has leased the Toyota FCHV (fuel-cell hybrid An adequate supply of electricity can be generated vehicle), the first-ever market-ready fuel cell vehicle, from a wide variety of sources. Besides providing clean 18 in the U.S. and Japan. Toyota has also overcome the operation, electricity offers potential cost advantages. issues of sub-zero startup and cruising range: In 2006, As battery technology progresses, vehicles using electricity will become an increasingly viable alternative, particularly in urban areas. FCHV can start up at -30ºC
  • Toyota technology to support alternative fuels CNG The HYBRID advantage Compressed natural gas (CNG) is a clean and Hybrid technology can help maximize the merits of efficient fuel with low CO2 and noxious emissions all energy sources, whether they are conventional fuels discharge characteristics. such as gasoline and diesel or alternative fuels such as bio-ethanol, hydrogen and electricity. 19 Dyna CNG truck introduced in Japan
  • F UT UR E T ECH NOLOGY T o make the dream of the “ultimate eco-car” a practical reality as soon as possible, Toyota is developing innovative technologies for the future.
  • Doing what we can today for the earth of tomorrow Fuel-cells Zero emissions? Toyota’s FCHV is one of the most tantalizing A fuel cell makes electricity by combining hydrogen combinations of hybrid technology and alternative and oxygen in a chemical reaction. Since the fuel cell energy. The Toyota Group is pursuing the development generates electricity without hydrogen combustion, it and commercialization of fuel-cell technology for is both clean and extremely efficient. In principle, a fuel passenger cars, buses and other applications. cell produces no CO2 or harmful emissions; its only by- product is water. Passenger car TOYOTA-FCHV Bus Fixed location Hybrid systems of Prius and Toyota FCHV FCHV-BUS Residential fuel cell 21 (Hino Motors, Ltd.) cogeneration system (Aisin Seiki Co. Ltd.) Prius Toyota FCHV Hybrid vehicle Fuel cell hybrid vehicle Mini-vehicle Industrial vehicle MOVE FCV-K-II Toyota FC Stack FCHV-F (Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd.) (Toyota Industries Corporation) Engine Fuel cell Power Power control unit control unit Battery Battery Toyota Group companies cooperate in fuel-cell technology R&D Motor Motor
  • F UT UR E T ECH NOLOGY Doing what we can today for the earth of tomorrow Plug-in hybrid Innovation toward commercialization A plug-in hybrid vehicle operates as an electric Acceptance of plug-in hybrids depends on vehicle (EV) mainly for short trips around town. But for extending their EV mode cruising range and energy longer trips and high-speed driving, it operates as a saving performance. Therefore, Toyota is seeking conventional gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle (HV). It can innovations in battery technology that can raise energy be recharged at night using ordinary household current. capacity and output while reducing size and weight. Plug-in hybrids can be expected to help improve local Plug-in hybrid vehicle — air quality, not to mention reducing CO2 output. an overview 22 In 2007, Toyota began testing its plug-in hybrid vehicle prototype on public roads in Japan, Europe and North America as a step toward commercial feasibility. EV (mainly battery) mode used for HV (battery plus engine) mode used for short distances: long distances: CO2 emissions are nearly zero High fuel efficiency Battery Recharging Household circuit electricity Battery recharged mainly at night
  • HYBRID T ECH NOLOGY Multiple pathways to the ultimate eco-car Hybrid is a core technology Toward the ultimate eco-car for the 21st century Ultimate Eco-Car O n the way to the ultimate eco-car, Toyota is Alternative fuel HV FCHV developing innovative technologies for the Diesel HV Plug-in HV THSII future while continuously improving the Hybrid Technology Biofuels D-4 mainstream technologies of today. In this way, Toyota aims DPNR Synthetic fuels Lean burn EV to satisfy the diverse needs of customers around the world CNG Common rail DI VVT-i 23 and simultaneously bring us closer to sustainable mobility. Alternative fuel Diesel Gasoline Electrical engines engines engines energy Hybrid technology plays a key role in this endeavor as a core CNG: compressed natural gas technology for the 21st century that can be applied to all types DPNR: Diesel Particulate - NOx Reduction System THSII: Toyota Hybrid System II of powertrains. D-4: Direct Injection 4-stroke gasoline engine V VT-i: Variable Valve Timing-intelligent FCHV: fuel cell hybrid vehicle EV: electric vehicle DI: direct injection Toyota is developing hybrid technology as a core technology applicable to all powertrains
  • Toyota Motor Corporation positions global environmental preservation as one of its priority management issues in terms of corporate social responsibility. TMC is continuing to enhance its development of environmentally friendly vehicles and environmental technologies as it strives to deliver technologies and products that contribute to realizing sustainable mobility. TMC is also working to actively implement measures in accordance with its basic environmental policy, the Toyota Earth Charter, and in line with the Toyota Environmental Action Plan, which sets out specifi c medium and long-term activity targets. For further details, please visit www.toyota.co.jp/en This publication is printed on unbleached 100% recycled paper with 70% brightness. Printing with soy ink reduces the use of petroleum-based solvents. Furthermore, the use of volatile organic compounds is minimized and no heavy metals such as lead, mercury or cadmium are used. Printed in Japan, October 2007 Global External Affairs Division TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION