Ia engleza cu tine  gramatica si reguli
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Ia engleza cu tine gramatica si reguli

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  • 1. www.limba-engleza.info 1 Ia Engleza Cu Tine BONUS - Gramatica si Reguli
  • 2. www.limba-engleza.info 2 CUPRINS I. Morfologia 1. Articolul ……………………………………………..........………………………..……3 2. Substantivul ………………………………………………........………………………7 3. Adjectivul ……………………………………………………........………..…………13 4. Pronumele ……………………………………………………….......……………….17 5. Numeralul …………………………………………………………........………….…21 6. Verbul ………………………………………………………………..........……...……24 Timp present …………………………………………………..………………….30 Timp trecut ……………………………………………………...…………………34 Timp viitor ………………………………………………………...……….….…..48 7. Adverbul ……………………………………………………………........…….……..49 Clasificare ………………………………………………………….....………….…49 Locul adverbelor in propozitie ………………………...……………….….55 8. Prepozitia …………………………………………………………........……..………57 9. Conjunctia …………………………………………………………….......………….61 II. Sintaxa 1. Subiectul …………………………………………………………........……...………65 2. Predicatul ………………………………………………………………..........………65 3. Atributul …………………………………………………………………...........…….67 4. Complementul …………………………………………………………......…..……67 5. Sintaxa frazei ……………………………………………………………........………69 6. Concordanta timpurilor ……………………………………………………..……77 Lista verbelor neregulate ……………………………………….….…………78
  • 3. www.limba-engleza.info 3 I. MORFOLOGIA 1. ARTICOLUL - The article Articolul este un instrument grammatical care individualizeaza sau determina un substantiv. Prezenta lui dovedeste ca substantivul pe care il insoteste este deja cunoscut de interlocutor. Articolul hotarat : Este “THE” – si este pus inaintea cuvintelor care incept cu o consoana sau semi- consoana. (EX : the ball, the picture). - se pronunta {di} inaintea cuvintelor care incep cu o vocala. (EX: the eye, the apple). - Articolul hotarat apare intr-un numar mare de expresii: “on the one site – pe de o parte” “at the same time- in acelasi timp” Articolul hotarat plasat in fata unor adjective da acestora sensul unos substantive la numarul plural : - adj rich – bogat, bogati - the rich – cei bogati - adj poor – sarac - the poor – cei saraci Articolul hotarat apare la gradul superlative relative al adjectivelor : - the best – cel mai bun
  • 4. www.limba-engleza.info 4 - the least – cel mai putin - the biggest – cel mai mare - the most interesting – cel mai interesant Articolul hotarat se intercaleaza de regula intre un substantiv precedat de o prepozitie si prepozitia respectiva. - a house in the forest – o casa in padure - a boat on the lake – o barca pe lac - across the road – peste drum - at the end – la sfarsit - at the door – la usa - in the end – in final - in the morning – dimineata - in the shade – in umbra Articolul hotarat poate fi intalnit si in denumirile geografice : The Black Sea, The Danube, The Alps, The Sahara Desert, etc. Articolul nehotarat : The indefinite article Acesta este : a – inaintea cuvintelor care incep cu consoana sau semiconsoana EX : a dog, a wall, a flower, a year. an – inaintea cuvintelor care incep cu o vocala EX : an apple, an eye, an ear, an idea. Articolul nehotarat introduce de obicei un element nou. El poate fi intalnit in : - in fata substantivelor insotiteprecedate de un adjectiv: - A good teacher – un professor bun -A big house- o casa mare -A house on fire – o casa in flacari -A little tea – putin ceai
  • 5. www.limba-engleza.info 5 - in unele structuri: -A baker’s – o brutarie -A blue-eyed girl – o fata cu ochi albastri -A jeweller’s – un magazin de bijuterii -Once upon a time – a fost odata -Two at a time – cate doi odata Articolul nehotarat are in unele cazuri functie numerica : - a hundred- o suta - a thousand- o mie Articolul zero : The zero article Articolul zero apare : - In nume de continente, tari, persoane, zilele saptamanii, etc. EX: Africa, Asia, Europe, England, France, Italy, Romania, Sunday, Alice, Peter, Friday, etc. - In fata substantivelor folosite in sens general : EX: Children like sweets – copiilor le plac dulciurile Knowledge is power – stiinta inseamna putere Oil is lighter than water – uleiul este mai usor ca apa - In fata substantivelor nenumarabile : EX : Gold is yellow – aurul este galben This house is made of wood – aceasta casa este facuta din lemn. - Inaintea substantivelor abstracte sau nume de materie: EX : care, death, honesty, hunger, love, sand, salt, tea, water, etc.
  • 6. www.limba-engleza.info 6 - Nume de culori, sporturi si jocuri sportive, limbi, mese : EX : culori – white, black, blue, yellow Sporturi – football, basketball, volleyball Limbi – English, Romanian, german, French. Mese – breakfast, lunch, dinner - In unele structuri fixe, care trebuie memorate pentru evitarea greselilor: EX: After dark – dupa lasarea intunericului After three o’clock – dupa ora trei After dinner – dupa cina Day by day – zi dupa zi Drop by drop – picatura dupa picatura From first to last - de la primul pana la ultimul Goods on sale – bunuri de vanzare To learn by heart – a inavata pe de rost To leave for school – a pleca la scoala To keep in mind - a tine minte To be on duty – a fi de serviciu To go on foot – a merge pe jos To put in order – a pune in ordine From morning to night – de dimineata pana seara On certain conditions – cu anumite conditii.
  • 7. www.limba-engleza.info 7 2. SUBSTANTIVUL – The noun Substantivul este partea de vorbire care denumeste finite, obiecte, stari, notiuni, insusiri, etc. Clasificare : - Comune (common nouns): dog, cat, bird, house, apple, boy, girl, water. - Proprii (proper nouns) : John, Alice, Romania, London, Europe,July, Sunday, Great Britain. - Abstracte (abstract nouns) : friendship, joy, wisdom, safety, theory - Individuale (individual nouns) : man, house, stone, tree - Colective (collective nouns) : team, army, family, crowd, group - Nume de materie (name of matter) : water, air, fire, beer, milk, steel, silver, gold, snow, wine, tea. Genul substantivelor: Masculine Feminine Neuter Common HE – EL SHE – EA IT – ELEA HESHE – ELEA Actor - actor Actress - actrita Air - aer Artist Bachelor - celibatar Spinster - celibatara Ball - minge Beginner Barman – barman Barmaid- barmanita Box - cutie Child Bridegroom - mire Bride - mireasa Bus - autobuz Client Husband - sot Wife - sotie Error - eroare Cook Brother - frate Sister - sora Fish - peste Cousin Father – tata Mother - mama Fork - furculita Customer Grandfather - bunic Grandmother-bunia Impression-impresie Dancer
  • 8. www.limba-engleza.info 8 Hero - erou Heroine - eroina Kangaroo - cangur Doctor King - rege Queen - regina Land - pamant Driver Man - barbat Woman - femeie Legend - legenda Fighter Master - stapan Mistress - stapana Monkey- maimuta Guest Monk - calugar Nun - calugarita Mouse - soricel Journalist Sir - domn Madam - doamna Mushroom - ciuperc Parent Son - fiu Daughter - fiica Pig - porc Prisoner Uncle - unchi Aunt - matusa Shark - rechin Rival Lion - leu Lioness - leoaica Sun - soare Writer Horse - cal Mare - iapa Tea - ceai Worker Pluralul substantivelor: Pluralul regulat : se formeaza prin adaugarea literei “S” – EX: book – books - Literea S semn al pluralului se citeste : - S cand e precedata de consoane surde (book - books) - Z cand e precedata de o consoana sonora (chair- chairs) - IZ cand e precedata de s, sz, ch sau sh sau consoane suieratoare (bench – benches, bus – buses, fox – foxes) - Unele substantive terminate in Y precedat de consoana primesc S la plural , dar pe Y il transforma in YE ( baby – babies, city - cities) - Substantivele terminate in Y formeaza pluralul prin simpla adaugare la sfarsitul lor a literei S daca in fata lui Y se afla o vocala (boy – boys, day - days) - Substantivele care se termina in F sau FF formeaza pluralul prin adaugarea lui S (chief – chiefs, half- halfes, knife – knives)
  • 9. www.limba-engleza.info 9 - Substantivele terminate in O formeaza pluralul astfel : - unele adauga terminatia ES : hero – heroes, potato- potatoes, - altele adauga doar litera S : casino – casinos, piano – pianos. Pluralul neregulat : Businessman – businessmen = omoameni de afaceri Child – children = copil, copii Die – dice = zar, zaruri Fireman – firemen = pompier, pompieri Tooth – teeth = dinte, dinti Woman- women = femeie, femei Pluralul substantivelor compuse : Blackboard – blackboards = tabla, table Mother in law – mothers in law = soacra, soacre Substantive numai cu forma de plural: Glasses – ochelari Trousers – pantaloni Clothes – haine Scissors – foarfeci Cazurile substantivelor : Nominativ – the nominative case (who - cine? What - ce?) The boy is playing in the garden. Who is playing in the garden ? Vocativ – the vocative case Este cazul adresarii sau al chemarii: - george will you help me ?
  • 10. www.limba-engleza.info 10 - come here, my boy ! Genitiv – the genitive case Este cazul atributului si raspunde la intrebarile : Whose –ale cui ?, which – care? Which of – care dintre?, what – ce, care ? Cazul genitive este de patru feluri : a. saxon sintetic – se formeaza la singular cu apostrof “ ‘ ” plus litera S si se intrebuinteaza cu substantive masculine si feminine. EX : the boy’s friend, the children’s ball, the sun’s heat, at shakespear’s. b. prepositional analytic – se formeaza cu prepozitia OF si se foloseste cu substantive de toate genurile. EX: the smell of the flower, the friend of the boy, some books of my friend. c. Genitivul dublu EX: my friend’s birthday – the birthday of my friend Her sister, alice’s blue eyes That boy’s friend’s book d. implicit anglutinant EX: The United Nations Organisation Student Organisation A heat disease Dativul – the dative case Este cazul complementului indirect si raspunde la intrebarile : to whom – cui ?, for whom – pentru cine? , to what – la ce ? EX: I give Alice two books.- I give two books to Alice. To whom I give two books ?
  • 11. www.limba-engleza.info 11 Everybody is working for him. For whom is everybody working ? Acuzativ – the accusative case Este cazul complementului direct si raspunde la intrebarile : whom – cine?, what – ce ? EX: I see the boy everyday. Whom do I see everyday ? You see the book on the table. What do you see on the table? My sister is looking for a book. What is my sister looking for ? Declinarea substantivelor : the declension of the nouns Trecerea unui substantive sau pronume prin toate cazurile la numarul singular si plural poarta numele de declinare. Declinarea cu articol nehotarat a unui substantiv masculin si a unui substantiv feminin. SINGULAR PLURAL Nominative A boy- un baiat Boys – baieti A girl – o fata Girls – fete Genitive Of a boy, a boy’s- a, al, ai, ale unui baiat Of boys - a, al, ai, ale unor baieti Of a girl , a girl’s - a, al, ai, ale unei fete Of girls - a, al, ai, ale onor fete, de fete Dative To a boy = unui baiat To boys – unor baieti To a girl – unei fete To girls – unor fete Accusative A boy – un baiat Boys – baieti A girl – o fata Girls – fete Vocative Boy ! – baiete ! Girl ! – fata! Boys ! – baieti ! Girls! – fete !
  • 12. www.limba-engleza.info 12 Declinarea substantivelor cu articol hotarat : SINGULAR PLURAL Nominative The boy The boys The girl The girls Genitive Of the boy Of the boys Of the girl Of the girls Dative To the boy To the boys To the girl To the girls Accusative The boy The boys The girl The girls Vocative - - Declinarea substantivelor neutre : SINGULAR PLURAL Nominative A table –o masa Tables - mese The table- masa The tables – mesele Genitive Of a table Of tables – de mese Of the table Of the tables Dative To a table To tables To the table To the tables Accusative A table Tables The table The tables Vocative - -
  • 13. www.limba-engleza.info 13 3. ADJECTIVUL – the adjective Adjectivul este partea de vorbire care calificadetermina un substantiv sau echivalentul unui substantiv. In limba engleza adjectivele stau inaintea substantivelor sau dupa verbul TO BE sin u se acorda in gen, numar si caz cu substantivele pe care le determina. EX : The interesting book is on the table. (cartea interesanta este pe masa.) Calsificarea adjectivelor : a. calitative (descriptive) – clever, interesting b. posesive – my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their. c. Interogativ relative – wich – care? Pe care ?, wich of - care dintre ?, what – ce? Care ?, what kindsort of – ce fel de ?, whose – al, a, ale, ai cui ? who – care?, to whom – caruia ?. d. Demonstrative – this, these, that, those, the one, the former, the latter, the first, the last, the other, another, such, the same, one and the same, the very. e. Cantitative – some, any, few, little, much, many, plenty, a lot of, each, every, several, enough, certain. Comparatia adjectivelor si adverbelor : Comparatia adjectivelor se realizeaza la urmatoarele grade : -pozitiv – cand insusirea unui obiect nu se raporteaza la nici un alt termen. -comparativ – prin care se exprima superioritatea, egalitatea sau inferioritatea unui obiect fata de altul. -superlativ – prin care se arata ca insusirea obiectului se afla fie in cea mai mare masura fie in foarte mare masura. Adjectivele monosilabice dubleaza consoana finala cand aceasta este precedata de vocala scurta. Comparatia adjectivelor si a adverbelor este :
  • 14. www.limba-engleza.info 14 a. regulata sintetica (cele scurte) Gradul pozitiv Comparativ de superioritate Superlativ relativ Superlativ absolut Big Bigger The biggest Very big Dry Drier The driest Very dry Great Greater The greatest Very great Happy Happier The happiest Very happy Hot Hotter The hottest Very hot Long Longer The longest Very long Small Smaller The smallest Very small Tall Taller The tallest Very tall Strong Stronger The strongest Very strong b. analitica Gradul pozitiv Comparativ de superioritate Superlativ relativ Superlativ absolut Active More active The most active Very active Curious More curious The most curious Very curious Foolish More foolish The most foolish Very foolish Huge More huge The most huge Very huge Severe More severe The most severe Very severe Sincere More sincere The most sincere Very sincere Sociable More sociable The most sociable Very sociable Unjust More unjust The most unjast Very unjust Untidy More untidy The most untidy Very untidy
  • 15. www.limba-engleza.info 15 Din analiza exemplelor de mai sus rezulta ca la gradul comparativ de superioritate adjectivele de comparative analitica se ajuta de adverbul “more”, la superlativul relativ de adverbul “most” iar la superlativul absolut de adverbele “very”, “extremely”, “quite”, etc. c. mixta (sintetica si analitica) Gradul pozitiv Comparativ de superioritate Superlativ relativ Superlativ absolut Able More able Abler The most able The ablest Very able Ample More ample Ampler The most ample The amplest Very ample Empty More empty Emptier The most empty The emptier Very empty Strange More strange Stranger The most strange The strangest Very strange Stupid More stupid Stupider The most stupid The stupidest Very stupid
  • 16. www.limba-engleza.info 16 d. neregulata Gradul pozitiv Comparativ de superioritate Superlativ relativ Superlativ absolut Good Better The best Very good Bad Worse The worst Very bad Little Less The least Very little Much More The most Very much Old Older elder The oldest Very old Near Nearer The nearest Very near Late Later The latest Very late In Inner The inmost - Out Outer The outmost -
  • 17. www.limba-engleza.info 17 4. PRONUMELE – the pronoun Pronumele este partea de vorbire care inlocuieste un substantiv (o fiinta, un obiect,etc) Clasificare : a. pronume personale – the personal pronouns I - eu You - tu He - el She - ea It – el, ea We - noi You – voi, dumneavoastra They – ei,ele, dansii, dumnealor b. pronumele interrogative – the interrogative pronouns Nominativ : who ? (who knows him ?) Genitiv : whose ? (whose is this little girl ?) Dativ : to whom ? who ? (to whom are you referring ?, who are you referring to?) Acuzativ : whom ? (this is the boy whom I saw) c. pronumele relative - the relative pronoun who ? – cine ? EX: He doesn’t know who must come to see us. I know the bpy who can play tennis well d. pronumele posesive - the possessive pronouns Mine – al meu, a mea EX: John’s friend is in London and mine is in Berlin.
  • 18. www.limba-engleza.info 18 Yours – al tau, a ta EX: my car is blue and yours is red. His - al lui EX : Our daughter is a student and his is a school girl. Hers – a ei. EX : My friend works at a farm but hers doesn’t. Ours – al nostrum. EX : Your boys play tennis but ours doesn’t. Yours – al vostru. EX : My friends live here, yours doesn’t. Theirs – al lor. EX : our son is here but their doesn’t. e. pronumele demonstrative – the demonstrative pronoun This – that book is yours and this one is mine. That – this book is yours and that one is mine. These – these books are mine and those one are yours. Those – these players are very good but those one aren’t. f. pronumele impersonale – the impersonal pronouns one, you – one could work there. You should always behave decently. g. pronumele reflexive – the reflexive pronouns myself - ma yourself - te himself - se herself - se itself – se Cu ajutorul lor se formeaza diatezareflexiva a verbelor. ourselves - ne yourselves - va themselves - se oneself - se To enjoy oneself – a se distra I enjoy myself – eu ma distrez
  • 19. www.limba-engleza.info 19 De retinut ca verbelor reflexive din limba romana nu le corespund intotdeauna verbe reflexive in limba engleza. h. pronumele emfatice – the emphatic pronouns myself - eu insumi, personal yourself – tu insuti himself – el insusi herself – ea insasi itself – el insusi, ea insasi ourselves – noi insine, insene, yourselves – voi insiva themselves – ei insisi i. pronumele nehotarate - the indefinite pronouns another – alt , alta (one man says yes, another says no) each – fiecare (we received three books each) the other – celalalt (john likes this book but I like the other) others – altii (others know better than you) one – unul, una (you don’t have any games but I have one) all – tot (he must tell you all or nothing) either – oricare din doi (you may buy either) neither – nici unul din doi (one can see neither) both – ambii (you may read either of them – both are interesting) several – mai multi (you can see many books here but several are mine) few – putin (I only found few) little – putin (I have done little for them) much – mult (I have got much tea) many – multi (I’ve got many books) some – niste (some are good but some are bad)
  • 20. www.limba-engleza.info 20 any – orice (he doesn’t like any) somebody – cineva (I can see somebody at the gate) anybody – A. oricine – I can ask anybody I. cineva – do you see anybody? N. nimeni – I cannot ask anybody. nobody – nimeni (I see nobody) something – ceva (I see something) anything – orice (I buy anything) nothing – nimic (I bought nothing) someone – cineva (you must ask someone) j. pronumele reciproce – reciprocal pronoun each other – unul pe celalalt – doua persoane(two neighbours are helping each other) one another – unul pe celalalt – minim trei personae (the three brothers help one another) Declinarea pronumelui personal : In schema care urmeaza este inclus si cazul genitiv desi pronumele personal in cazu genitiv este pronume posesiv , nu personal. Singular : N. I – eu You – tu He- el She - ea It – elea G. My, mine – meu al meu Your, yours- tau al tau His, his – luial lui Her, hers – eial ei Its, its – al luiei D. To me - mie To you - tie To him - lui To her - ei To it – luiei A. Me-pe mine You-pe tine Him- pe el Her –pe ea It- pe eael Plural : N. We- noi You - voi They - ei G. Our - nostru Your - vostru Their - lor
  • 21. www.limba-engleza.info 21 Ours – al nostru Yours – al vostru Theirs – al lor D. To us - noua To you - voua To them - lor A. Us -pe noi You – pe voi Them – pe eiele 5. NUMERALUL – the numeral Numeralul este partea de vorbire prin care se exprima un numar de obiecte sau ordinea acestora. Clasificare : a. numerale cardinale – cardinal numerals Exprima un numar exact de obiecte sau fiinte incepand de la zero catre plus sau minus infinit. La telefon cifra zero se citeste O, in stiinte se foloseste cuvantul zero. Cand ne referim la ani exprimam : 1907 – nineteen oh seven Exprimarea temperaturii se realizeaza astfel : -10 grade = ten degrees below zero Cand se exprima scorul la jocurile de fotbal , 0 se pronunta NIL sau NOTHING. La tennis – Nastase leads by two sets to tennis.(2-0) Numerele de telefon se scriu cu spatii intre grupele de cifre – 0763 324 850 Numerele se rostes separate iar cifrele duble se rostesc folosindu-se cuvantul DOUBLE : 01 223 456 = oh one two three four five six Cifre triple – 7 555 = seven five double five b. numeralul ordinal – the ordinal numeral 1st / the first – primul, prima 2nd / te second – al doilea 3rd /the third – al treilea 4th /the fourth – al patrulea 5th /the fifth – al cincilea 10th /the tenth – al zecelea 11th / the eleventh – al unsprezecelea
  • 22. www.limba-engleza.info 22 21st / the twenty first – al 21 lea 100th / the one hundredth – al 100lea 101st / the one hundred an first c. numeralul colectiv – the collective numeral contine o multime exprimata printr-un singular. EX: couple – cuplu, team – echipa, pair – pereche, dozen – duzina, d. numeralul multiplicativ – the multiplicative numeral EX: double – twofold = dublu, indoit Triple – threefold = triplu Fourfold = impatrit Tenfold = inzecit A hundredfold = insutit A thousandfold = inmiit Once = o data Twice = de doua ori Thrice = de trei ori Four times= de patru ori Fity times= de 50 de ori A hundred times = de o suta de ori He has a suitcase with a double botton = El are o valiza cu fund dublu. e. numeralul distributiv – the distributive numeral EX: one at a time – cate unulo data Two at a time – cate doi odata Three at a time – cate trei odata One by one – unul cate unul Two by two – doi cate doi
  • 23. www.limba-engleza.info 23 Every other minute – din doua in doua minute Every other hour – hourly – la fiecare doua ore f. numeralul adverbial – the adverbial numeral EX: once – o data Twice – de doua ori Secondly – in al doilea rand Firstly – in primul rand Thirdly – in al treilea rand g. numeralul nehotarat – the indefinite numeral EX: a number of – un numar de A lot of - o multime de Lots of- multi Ten of – zeci de Hundreds of – sute de Thousands of – mii de
  • 24. www.limba-engleza.info 24 6. VERBUL – the verb Verbul este partea de vorbire care exprima o actiune, o activitate sau un proces si are urmatoarele actegorii gramaticale : timp, aspect, numar, persoana, diateza si mod. Timpul verbului este categoria gramaticala prin care se precizeaza momentul desfasurarii actiunii. Exista trei timpuri de baza : trecut, present si viitor. Aspectul reprezinta gradul de indeplinire a actiunii. In limba engleza exista doua aspecte : a. aspect comun – prin care se exprima o actiune generala, terminate sau de scurta durata. b. Aspect continuu – care prezinta o actiune in desfasurare, deci o actiune neterminata. Diateza realizeaza realatia dintre subiect si complementul direct. Exista trei diateze: a. diateza activa – actiunea subiectului se indreapta asupra complementului direct b. diateza pasiva – actiunea savarsita de complementul de agent se rasfrange asupra subiectului grammatical. c. Diateza reflexiva – actiunea se rasfrange asupra autorului ei, adica asupra subiectului. Modul este categoria gramaticala a verbului prin care se precizeaza felul actiunii si anume daca actiunea este reala, sigura, ireala, probabila, posibila, imposibila. In limba engleza exista patru moduri personale si trei moduri nepersonale.
  • 25. www.limba-engleza.info 25 Personale Indicative – are toate timpurile Subjunctive – present, past si past perfect Conditional – present si perfect MODURI Imperative – present Nepersonale Infinitive – present si perfect Participle – present, past si perfect Gerund – present si perfect a. Clasificarea verbelor : Infinitive present Trecut simplu Participiu trecut 1. Auxiliare To be Was, were Been = a fi To have Had Had = a avea To do Did Done = a face Shall Should - = trebuie sa Will Would - = a vrea To let Let Let = a lasa 2. Modale Can Could - = a putea May Might - =a avea voie Must Must - = trebuie Shall Should - =trebuie sa Will Would - = a dori Ought to Ought to - = ar tb sa Dare - - = a indrazni Need Need - = obisnuia
  • 26. www.limba-engleza.info 26 To be to Was, were to Been to = a urma sa - Used to - =obisnuia sa 3. Principal Regulate To ask Asked Asked = a intreba To like Liked Liked = a placea To answer Answered Answered = a raspunde To use Used Used a intrebuinta Neregulate To go Went Gone = a merge To see Saw Seen =a vedea 4. Auxiliar- modal Shall Will Can Should Whould Could - - - =a trebui = a vrea = a putea Verbele auxiliare ajuta celelalte verbe sa-si formeze aspectul continuu, diateza pasiva, timpurile compuse, unele moduri. Ele devin instrumente gramaticale pierzandu-si sensul lexical. Verbele modale dau verbelor principale impreuna cu care se folosesc nuante lexicale speciale. Verbele modale se mai numesc defective caci nu au forme proprii fie pentru infinitive present, fie pentru trecut, fie pentru participiuyl trecut situatie in care se inlocuiesc cu sinonimele lor. Ele nu au particula infinitiva TO si nu folosesc aceasta particula dupa ele.
  • 27. www.limba-engleza.info 27 b. Modurile personale ale verbelor 1. Modul indicativ Este modul actiunilor reale si cuprinde toate timpurile. Timpul present simplu– the present tense : Este forma I de baza a verbelor. Exprima actiuni generale, stari, un obicei present. Se foloseste si in propozitii conditionale de tip I. normal timpul present coincide cu timpul vorbirii. Affirmative Negative Interrogative Long form Short Form I walk I do not walk I don’t walk Do I walk ? You walk You do not walk You don’t walt Do you walk ? He walks He does not walk He doesn’t walk Does he walk ? She walks She does not walk She doesn’t walk Does she walk? It walks It does not walk It doesn’t walk Does it walk ? We walk We do not walk We don’t walk Do we walk ? You walk You do not walk You don’t walk Do you walk ? They walk They do not walk They don’t walk Do they walk ? Negative – Interogative Don’t you walk ? Doesn’t he walk ? etc Expresii folosite cu prezentul simplu : - every dayweekmonthyear - usually - often - always
  • 28. www.limba-engleza.info 28 - rarely - never - sometimes - in the morningeveningafternoon - at night - ar Mondays Folosim acest timp pentru situatii permanente, actiuni repetate, legi ale naturii, programe, comentarii sportive. EX : They own a beautifull car. I usually get up at 6 o’clock. Water freezes at 0 C degrees. The film finishes at 9 pm. Tom cruise acts very well in this movie. Timpul present continuu – present contiunuous Cand verbele se termina intr-o vocala intre doua consoane , dublam consoana finala. EX : swim - swimming Sit - sitting Cand infinitivul se termina intr-un E , stergem E-ul EX: write – writing Dive – diving Folosim prezentul continuu pentru situatii temporare, pentru actiuni care se intampla in momentul in care vorbim, actiuni repetate cu expresia ALWAYS , cu aranjamente fixate in viitorul apropiat, sau pentru situatii in derulare sau in schimbare. EX : They are living with Ann at present. She is looking for a better job. You are always interrupting me. The baby is always crying at night.
  • 29. www.limba-engleza.info 29 Affirmative Negative Interogative Long form Short Form Long form Short Form I am talking I’m talking I am not talking I ‘m not talking Am I talking ? You are talking You’re talking You are not talking You aren’t talking Are you talking ? He is talking He’s talking He is not talking He isn’t talking Is he talking ? She is talking She’s talking She is not talking She isn’t talking Is she talking? It is talking It’s talking It is not talking It isn’t talking Is it talking? We are talking We’re talking We are not talking We aren’t talking Are we talking ? You are talking You’re talking You are not talking You aren’t talking Are you talking ? They are talking They’re talking They are not talking They aren’t talking Are they talking? Negative interrogative Aren’t you talking ? Isn’t he talking ? etc Expresii folosite cu prezentul continuu : - now - at this moment - at present - nowadays - today - tonight - always - still
  • 30. www.limba-engleza.info 30 Timpul present perfect- havehas + past participle (the 3rd form of the verb) Exprima o actiune trecuta terminata sau se poate termina in present. EX : verbul regulat talk – talked - talked Affirmative Negative Interogative Long form Short Form Long form Short Form I have talked I’ve talked I have not talked I haven’t talked Have I talked? You have talked You’ve talked You have not talked You haven’t talked Have you talked ? He has talked He’s talked He has not talked He hasn’t talked Has he talked ? She has talked She’s talked She has not talked She hasn’t talked Has she talked? It has talked It’s talked It has not talked It hasn’t talked Has it talked? We have talked We’ve talked We have not talked We haven’t talked Have we talked ? You have talked You’ve talked You have not talked You haven’t talked Have you talked ? They have talked They’ve talked They have not talked They haven’t talked Have they talked? Negative interrogative Haven’t you eaten? Hasn’t he eaten ? etc
  • 31. www.limba-engleza.info 31 Verbe neregulate : eat – ate - eaten Affirmative Negative Interogative Long form Short Form Long form Short Form I have eaten I’ve eaten I have not eaten I haven’t eaten Have I eaten? You have eaten You’ve eaten You have not eaten You haven’t eaten Have you eaten ? He has eaten He’s eaten He has not eaten He hasn’t eaten Has he eaten ? She has eaten She’s eaten She has not eaten She hasn’t eaten Has she eaten? It has eaten It’s eaten It has not eaten It hasn’t eaten Has it eaten? We have eaten We’ve eaten We have not eaten We haven’t eaten Have we eaten ? You have eaten You’ve eaten You have not eaten You haven’t eaten Have you eaten ? They have eaten They’ve eaten They have not eaten They haven’t eaten Have they eaten? Negative interrogative Haven’t you eaten? Hasn’t he eaten ? etc Expresii folosite cu prezentul perfect : - just - ever - never - already - yet - always - how long - so far - recently - since - today - this weekmonth
  • 32. www.limba-engleza.info 32 Folosim prezentul perfect pentru actiuni recent terminate, actiuni care s-au intamplat in trecut si au conexiune cu prezentul, experiente personale. EX: She has washed her blouse. He has lost his keys. I’ve lost 10 kilos. He’s written three stories this month. Timpul present perfect continuu – present perfect continuous (havehas been+ verb + ing) Folosim acest timp pentru actiuni care au inceput in trecut dar inca continua in present, actiuni in derulate in trecut dar care inca mai au consecinte in present, actiuni care exprima furie, iritare, explicatii sau critici. EX : She’s been listening to music for three hours. They’ve been playing football. Who has been using my toothbrush ? She’s been packing since this morning. Expresii folosite cu prezentul perfect continuu : - how long - for - since
  • 33. www.limba-engleza.info 33 Affirmative Negative Interrogative Long form Long form I have been working I have not been working Have I been working ? You have been working You have not been working Have you been working ? He has been working He has not been working Has he been working ? She has been working She has not been working Has she been working ? It has been working It has not been working Has it been working ? We have been working We have not been working Have we been working ? You have been working You have not been working Have you been working ? They have been working They have not been working Have they been working ? Affirmative Negative Interrogative Short form Short form I’ve been working I haven’t been working Haven’t you been working? Verbele statice : Sunt verbe care descriu o stare permanenta si care nu au , in general, forme continue. Acestea sunt : - verbe de simturi : see, hear, speak, smell, taste. - Verbe de opinie : agree, believe, consider - Verbe de emotie : feel, forgive, hate, like, love, - Alte verbe: appear, seem, be, belong, fit, have, know, look, need, prefer, require, want, wish, etc.
  • 34. www.limba-engleza.info 34 Unele verbe statice au si forme continue dar cu alt inteles. State Action I think she’s rich. I’m thinking about your plan. The milk tastes awful. He’s tasting the souce. He has a pet dog. He’s having dinner now. The clothes feel like velvet She’s feeling her way through the dark. I love holidays. I’m loving this holiday. 2. Timpul trecut Trecut simplu - past simple Past simple se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei –ED la verbele regulate. Affirmative Negative Interrogative Long form Short form I walked I did not walk I didn’t walk Did I walk ? You walked You did not walk You didn’t walk Did you walk ? He walked He did not walk He didn’t walk Did he walk? She walked She did not walk She didn’t walk Did she walk? It walked It did not walk It didn’t walk Did it walk? We walked We did not walk We didn’t walk Did we walk ? You walked You did not walk You didn’t walk Did you walk? They walked They did not walk They didn’t walk Did they walk? Negative – interrogative Didn’t you walk? Didn’t he walk ? etc
  • 35. www.limba-engleza.info 35 Verbele neregulate au o forma speciala de trecut : Present I go I drink I am Past I went I drank I was Expresii folosite cu timpul past simple : - yesterday - last week - how long ago - then - two days ago - in 2008, etc Folosim past simple pentru situatiile actiunile din trecut care se deruleaza una dupa alta, obiceiuri din trecut, actiuni sau evenimente complete care s-au intamplat in trecut. EX : She got up, washed and had breakfast. He used to go went to school. They phoned three days ago. Shakespeare wrote a lot of good plays. Trecutul continuu – past continuous – waswere + verb + ing Affirmative Negative Interrogative Long form Short form I was walking I was not walking I wasn’t walking Was I walking? You were walking You were not walking You weren’t walking Were you walking ? He was walking He was not walking He wasn’t walking Was he walking ? She was walking She was not walking Se wasn’t walking Was she walking? It was walking It was not walking It wasn’t walking Was it walking ? We were walking Were were not walking We weren’t walking Were we walking? You were walking You were not walking You weren’t walking Were you walking ?
  • 36. www.limba-engleza.info 36 They were walking They were not walking They weren’t walking Were they walking? Negative – interrogative Weren’ t you walking? Wasn’t he walking ? etc Expresii folosite cu timpul past continuous : - while - when - as Folosim acest timp pentru o actiune care se deruleaza in trecut , pentru o actiune inceputa in trecut dar intrerupta de alta actiune inceouta in trecut, doua sau mai multe actiuni derulate simultan in trecut, o descriere a unor evenimente intr-o poveste. EX : She was eating at 8 AM yesterday. While I was watching TV my mom came home. The dog was barking. Mai mult ca perfectul – past perfect : had + past participle (=the 3rd form of the verb) Affirmative Negative Interogative Long form Short Form Long form Short Form I had walked I’d walked I had not walked I hadn’t walked Had I walked ? You had walked You’d walked You had not walked You hadn’t walked Had he walked ? He had walked He’d walked He had not walked He hadn’t walked Had he walked ? She had walked She’d walked She had not walked She hadn’t walked Had she walked? It had walked It’d walked It had not walked It hadn’t walked Had he walked ? We had walked We’d walked We had not walked We hadn’t walked Had we walked ? You had walked You’d walked You had not walked You hadn’t walked Had you walked ? They had walked They’d walked They had not walked They hadn’t walked Had they walked? Negative – interrogative
  • 37. www.limba-engleza.info 37 Hadn’t you walked ? Hadn’t he walked ? etc Expresii folosite cu timpul past perfect : - for - since - already - after - just - yet - before - never - by - by the time, etc Folosim past perfect pentru o actiune trecuta care s-a intamplat inaintea altei actiuni trecute, pentru o actiune care a avut rezultate vizibile in trecut. EX : She had finished the exercises by the time her mom came home. He was in the hospital beacouse he had had an accident. Trecut perfect continuu – past perfect continuous: had been + verb + ing Affirmative Negative Interrogative Long form Long form I had been working I had not been working Had I been working ? You had been working You had not been working Had you been working ? He had been working He had not been working Had he been working ? She had been working She had not been working Had she been working ? It had been working It had not been working Had it been working ?
  • 38. www.limba-engleza.info 38 We had been working We had not been working Hadwe been working ? You had been working You had not been working Had you been working ? They had been working They had not been working Had they been working ? Affirmative Negative Interrogative Short form Short form I’d been working I hadn’t been working Hadn’t you been working? Expresii folosite cu past perfect continuous : - for - since Folosim acest timp pentru actiunile derulate de-alungul timpului pana la un moment dat in trecut, pentru actiuni din trecut care au o anumita durata si rezultate vizibile in trecut. EX: She had been working as a nurse for 10 years before resigned. He was tired because he had been playing football. 3. Timpul viitor Viitor simplu – future simple : will + verb Exprima o actiune posterioara timpului present (adica momentului vorbirii). Affirmative Negative Interogative Long form Short Form Long form Short Form I will walk I’ll walk I will not walk I wont walk Will I walk ? You will walk You’ ll walk You will not walk You wont walk Will he walk ? He will walk He’ ll walk He will not walk He wont walk Will he walk ? She will walk She’ ll walk She will not walk She wont walk Will she walk? It will walk It’ ll walk It will not walk It wont walk Will he walk ? We will walk We’ ll walk We will not walk We wont walk Will we walk ?
  • 39. www.limba-engleza.info 39 You will walk You’ ll walk You will not walk You wont walk Will you walk ? They will walk They’ ll walk They will not walk They wont walk Will they walk? Negative – interrogative Won’t you walk ? Won’t he walk ? etc Expresii folosite cu future simple : - tomorrow - tonight - soon - next weekmonth - in a week, etc Folosim future simple pentru deciziie luate pe loc, deciziile luate in timp ce vorbim, pentru sperante, frica, amenintari, oferte, promisiuni, atentionari, predictii, comentarii. EX: I’ll take the blue jacket. Will you help me ? You will soon be rich. Shall I do the washing- up ? Viitorul continuu : will be + verb + ing Affirmative Negative Interrogative Long form Long form I will be working I will not be working Will I be working ? You will be working You will not be working Will you be working ? He Will be working He Will not be working Will he be working ? She Will be working She Will not be working Will she be working ? It Will be working It Will not be working Will it be working ? We Will be working We Will not be working Will we be working ?
  • 40. www.limba-engleza.info 40 You Will be working You Will not be working Will you be working ? They Will be working They Will not be working Will they be working ? Affirmative Negative Interrogative Short form Short form I’ll be working I wont’t be working Wont’t you be working? Expresii folosite cu future continuous : - tomorrow - tonight - soon - next week - in a week Folosim viitorul simplu pentru actiuni care merg intr-un anumit punct in viitor, actiuni care sunt rezultatul unei rutine, cand intrebam politicos despre oameni care au aranjamente si daca ne pot ajuta cu ceva. EX : I’ll be walking on the beach this time tomorrow. I’ll be seeing Tom tomorrow. Viitor perfect - Future perfect (the 3rd form of the verb) Exprima o actiune viitoare care se petrece inaintea altei actiuni viitoare. Se formeaza cu auxiliarele SHALLWILL plus infinitivul scurt perfect al verbului de conjugat. Affirmative Negative Interrogative Long form Long form I will have walked I will not have walked Will I have walked ? You will have walked You will not have walked Will you have walked? He will have walked He Will not have walked Will he have walked? She will have walked She Will not have walked Will she have walked? It will have walked It Will not have walked Will it have walked?
  • 41. www.limba-engleza.info 41 We will have walked We Will not have walked Will we have walked? You will have walked You Will not have walked Will you have walked? They will have walked They Will not have walked Will they have walked? Affirmative Negative Interrogative Short form Short form I’ll have walked I wont’t have walked Wont’t you have walked? Expresii folosite cu acest timp : - before - by - by then - by the time - until Folosim future perfect pentru actiuni care se vor termina pana la o data stabilita in viitor. EX : He will have visited Jamaica by the end of the year. She won’t have finished her homework until 9 o’clock. Viitor perfect continuu – future perfect continuous : will have been + verb - ing Affirmative Negative Interrogative Long form Long form I will have been walking I will not have been walking Will I have been walking ? You will have been walking You will not have been walking Will you have been walking? He will have been walking He Will not have been walking Will he have been walking? She will have been walking She Will not have been walking Will she have been walking?
  • 42. www.limba-engleza.info 42 It will have been walking It Will not have been walking Will it have been walking? We will have been walking We Will not have been walking Will we have been walking? You will have been walking You Will not have been walking Will you have been walking? They will have been walking They Will not have been walking Will they have been walking? Affirmative Negative Interrogative Short form Short form I’ll have been walking I wont’t have been walking Wont’t you have been walking? Expresii folosite cu acest timp : - by - for Folosim future perfect continuous pentru durata unei actiuni inintr-o perioada din viitor. EX: By the end of this yeas she will have been working here for two years. Be going to + verb Affirmative Negative Interrogative Long form Long form I am going to eat I am not going to eat Am I am going to eat ? You are going to eat You are not going to eat Are You are going to eat? He is going to eat He is not going to eat Is He is going to eat? She is going to eat She is not going to eat Is She is going to eat? It is going to eat It is not going to eat Is It is going to eat ? We are going to eat We are not going to eat Are We are going to eat? You are going to eat You are not going to eat Are You are going to eat?
  • 43. www.limba-engleza.info 43 They are going to eat They are not going to eat Are They are going to eat? Affirmative Negative Interrogative Short form Short form I’m going to eat I’m not going to eat Aren’t you going to eat? Expresii folosite cu BE going to : - tomorrow - tonight - next week month year - in two days - the day after tomorrow - soon - in a week Folosim acest verb pentru actiuni pe care le vom performa in viitorul apropiat, actiuni planificate sau intentii, lucruri de care suntem siguri sau pe care ne-am decis sa le facem in viitorul apropiat. EX: I’m going to meet her tomorrow. They are going to have a party on their birthday. She is going to have a baby. It’s going to rain. He is going to be promoted.
  • 44. www.limba-engleza.info 44 4 . infinitivul –ING form past participles Timpuri ale infinitivului – tenses of the infinitive Active voice Passive voice Present To offer To be offered Present continuous To be offering - Perfect To have offered To have been offered Perfect continuous To have been offering - Timpuri ale formei –ING – tenses of the –ing form Active voice Passive voice Present Offering Being offered Present continuous - - Perfect Having offered Having been offered Perfect continuous - - Infinitivul present se refera la present sau viitor EX : I’d like to sleep for a while. - The Present continuous infinitive se foloseste cu appear, claim, seem, pretend, must, cant, happen, should,would – pentru a descrie o actiune care se deruleaza in momentul vorbirii. EX : She must be rehearsing by now. - The perfect infinitive – se foloseste cu appear, happen, pretend, seem, pentru a arata ca actiunea la infinitive s-a intamplat inaintea actiunii verbului. EX : They claim to have passed the exam. - The perfect continuous infinitive – se foloseste cu appear, seem, pretend pentru a evidentia durata actiunii la infinitive care s-a intamplat inaintea actiunii verbului. EX : He seems to have been playing football all morning.
  • 45. www.limba-engleza.info 45 - The present gerund – forma –ing se refera la present sau viitor EX: I enjoy listening to music. - The perfect gerund – forma –ing arata ca actiunea gerundului s-a intamplat inaintea actiunii verbului. Putem folosi the prezent gerund in locul perfectului gerund fara a face vreo diferenta in sens. EX: He denied having stolen the money. He denied stealing the money. Subiectul infinitivului forma –ing Forma –ing se omite cand e aceeasi cu subiectul verbului. EX : They want to go to the circus. I left without taking my glasses. Cand subiectul infinitivului este diferit de subiectul verbului , atunci pronumele sau substantivul este plasat inaintea formei – ing. Subiectul gerundului poate fi de asemenea un adjectiv posesiv sau un substantive. EX : I want her to clean the table. (she should clean the table) I want to clean the table. (I should clean the table) I remember himhis tom’s tom complaining about the difficulty of the task. The to –infinitive is used : - to express purpose : ex. He came here to meet us. - After nouns Ex: it’s a pleasure to talk to you. - after certain verbs (advise, agree, appear, decide, expect, hope,promise, refuse): ex : She advised me to wait. - After tooenough constructions Ex : It is too good to be true. She is rich enough to give money. -After certain adjectives (angry,happy,glad) Ex : He was happy to come. - With it + be + adjective(+of+object) ex : it is nice of you to lend me your bike. - After question words (where, how, what, who, wich, but not after why) - With only–to express unsatisfactory result
  • 46. www.limba-engleza.info 46 ex : Did he tell you where to go ? Ex : She call me only to tell me she was going to be married. -After would like ,would love,would prefer Ex : I’d like to meet her again. The infinite without “to” is used - After modal verbs Ex : You must come back. - But : in the passive form: be made be heard be seen + to – infinitive. Ex : He was made to apologise. - After had betterwould rather Ex : I’d rather stayed in last night. Note : Help is followedby a to – infinitive or an infinitive without TO. Ex : He helped me (to) carry the bag. - After make letseehearfeel + object Ex : He let her go on a trip. Verbs taking to – infinitive or – ing form without a change in meaning - beggin, start, continue + to – infinitive or –ing form. However we never have two –ing forms together. Ex : She began dancing But: it’s beginning to get cold. Not: It’s beginning getting cold. - Advise, allow, permit, recommend, encourage when followed by an object or in a passive form take a to – infinitive. They take the – ing formwhen not followed by an object. Ex : He doesn’t allow us to smoke here. They aren’t allowed to smoke here. They don’t allow smoking here.
  • 47. www.limba-engleza.info 47 It needs it requires it wants + - ing form. It needs can also be followed by a passive infinitive: Ex : The house needs reuires wants painting. The car needs repairing to be repaired. Verbs taking to – infinitive or – ing form with a change in meaning a. forget + to – infinitive = not remember ex : I’sorry, I forget to come earlier. forget + - ing form = forget a past event ex : I’ll never forget visiting Spain. b. remember + to – infinitive = remember to do something ex : Remember to switch off the lights before leaving. remember + - ng form = recall a past event ex : He doesn’t remember leaving the keys at home. c. go on + to – infinitive = finish doing something and start doing something else; then: ex : After finishing cooking she went on to wash the dishes. go on + -ing form = continue ex: they went on walking for hours. d. mean + to – infinitive = intend to ex : He means to find a job abroad. mean + -ing form ex : Finding a job means attending many interviews. e. regret + to – infinitive = be sorry to : ex: I regret to tell you tere is no money left in your account. regret + -ing form ex : I regret buying that dress. f. try + to – infinitive =do one;s best, attempt ex : The policemen are trying to catch the thief.
  • 48. www.limba-engleza.info 48 try + -ing form = do something as an experiment ex : Why don’t you try sleeping in the afternoon. g. want + to – infinitive = wish ex : I want to come with you. want + -ing form = need something done ex : This wall needs painting. h. stop + to – infinitive = pause temporarly ex : She stoped to finish her lunch. stop + -ing form = finish, end ex : She stoped playing the piano. i. be sorry + to – infinitive = regret ex : I’m sorry to see you sad. be sorry + - ing form = appologise ex: I’m sorry for telling you that lie. j. be afraid + to – infinitive (the subject is too frightened to do something): ex : The cat is afraid to climb the latter. be afraid of + ing form ex: She wont climb that three, she is afraid of falling.
  • 49. www.limba-engleza.info 49 7. ADVERBUL – the adverb Adverbul determina un verb , un alt adverb sau un adjectiv. Clasificare : b. Adverbe de mod – adverbs of manner Adverbele de mod raspund la intrebarea “how ?” (cum). Exemple de adverbe de mod : - upside down - somehow - willingly - fluently - by chance - accidentally - beautifully - deliberately - completely - extremely - little - much - very - badly - slowly - rather - quicly - fast - aloud
  • 50. www.limba-engleza.info 50 c. adverbe de timp – adverbs of time Adverbele de timp raspund la intrebarea “when?” (cand) Exemple de adverbe de timp : - afterwards - daily - early - formerly - immediately - never - now - presently - meanwhile - yearly - recently - often - late - then - always - last month - before - after - just - at present - today - at last - by now - already - still - once
  • 51. www.limba-engleza.info 51 - when - just now - so far - sooner or later d. Adverbe de loc – adverbs of place Adverbele de loc raspund la intrebarea “ where ? ” (unde?) Exemple de adverbe de loc : - behind - far - here - near - there - inside - upstairs - along - up and down - here and there - abroad - under - somewhere - nowhere - anywhere - everywhere - southwards - homeward - where
  • 52. www.limba-engleza.info 52 e. Adverbe de cauza – adverbs of cause Adverbele de cauza raspund la intrebarea “ why? “ (de ce ?) Exemple de adverbe de cauza: - that is why - why - therefore - for the reason that f. Adverbe de scop – adverbs of porpose Adverbele de scop raspund la intrebarea “for what purpose ?” (cu ce scop) Exemple de adverbe de scop: - for this purpose - for the mere purpose of g. Adverbe de cantitate – adverbs of quantity Adverbele de cantitate raspund la intrebarea “how much?”, “how little?” Exemple de adverbe de cantitate: - almost - entirely - little - musch - quite - really - sufficiently - enough - too - very
  • 53. www.limba-engleza.info 53 h. Alte adverbe - especially - exactly - even - only - surely - precisely - at most - at latest - at ealiest - however - of course - consequently - also - at least - at any rate - at worst Comparatia adverbelor Comparatia neregulata a adverbelor Pozitiv Comparativ de superioritate Superlativ relative Well Better The best Badly Worse The worst Far Farther The farthest Much More The most Near Nearer The nearest Little Less Thea least
  • 54. www.limba-engleza.info 54 Late Later The latest Up Upper upmost Comparatia analitica a adverbelor Pozitiv Comparativ de superioritate Superlativ relative Attractively More attractively The most attractively Beautyfull More beautifull The most Bestially More Bestially The most Bestially Carefully More Carefully The most Carefully Fortunately More fortunately The most fortunately Quickly More quickly The most quickly Charmingly More charmingly The most charmingly Fluently More fluently The most fluently Gratefully More gratefully The most gratefully Willinigly More willinigly The most willinigly Comparatia sintetica a adverbelor Pozitiv Comparativ de superioritate Superlativ relative Cleanly Cleanlier The cleanliest Early Earlier The earliest Hard Harder The hardest Low Lower The lowest Multe adverbe se folosesc dupa verbul TO BE si dupa verbele modale, fiind nume predicative. Se stie ca verbul TO BE poate fi predicat in propozitie doar cand este urmat de un adverb de loc : Ex : - to be black
  • 55. www.limba-engleza.info 55 - to be bloody - to be carefull - to be cold - to be concise - to be hard Locul adverbelor Adverbele cu ajutorul carora se formeaza gradul superlative absolute stau totdeauna inaintea adjectivelor sau adverbelor. Ex : very well, uite right Adverbul enough este singurul adverb care sta dupa adjective si verbe. Ex : She sings beautifully enough. a. Locul adverbelor de timp Afterwards – I saw them afterward Again – I saw him again Always – I am always at home on Mondays Before – I had read the book before Ever- Do you ever go to see them ? Never – I have never tried Often – I often go to see them Rarely – I rarely agree with them. Sometimes – Sometimes she makes good decisions. b. Locul adverbelor de mod He has walking fast, not slowly. He spoke about it briefly. The letter must be written very carefully. You must learn to speak English fluently. I love this country very musch/
  • 56. www.limba-engleza.info 56 This lesson can be easily learned. He almost always makes mistakes. It is almost time we started to play tennis. Almost no one can believe such a thing. They were fully satisfied. Our trip look fully satisfied. Quite- It is quite so. Really – I want to tell you what I really think about it. Din exemplele de mai sus se vede ca adverbele de mod fully, hardly, nearly, quite,etc isi au locul in general inaintea cuvantului pe care il determina. c. Locul adverbelor de loc We’ll be waiting inside, not outside. I found the book where I have put it. I saw john in the park. They walked past my car. He was left well behind. We shall find the book somewhere. The book may be anywhere. We may walk everywhere. d. Propozitii cu mai multe adverbe I must give this book to your friend today at six o’clock. It will be written by john later this week, perhaps on Saturday afternoon. They are requested to be quiet between twelve and five o’clock every day. My friends are living in the country somewhere near Sibiu. It will be hard for her to live on her small pension from now on. We all are to meet them at the station tomorrow at a quarter past twelve.
  • 57. www.limba-engleza.info 57 8. PREPOZITIA – the preposition Prepozitia este partea de vorbire care uneste diferite unitati sintactice in cadrul unei propozitii , realizand relatii de timp, loc, etc. Ex : The book is on the table. Prepozitiile sunt : - simple : about, on, under, etc - compuse : into, within, without, etc - complexe : beacouse of, instead of, etc - locutiuni prepozitionale : by means of, in the middle of, etc. Prepozitia OF este cea cu care se formeaza genitivul prepositional analytic, iar prepozitia TO este aceea a dativului prepositional. In limba engleza prepozitia sta fie inaintea substantivului sau a altui cuvant cu care este in relatie , fie la sfarsitul unei propozitii. Ex : What is he talking about ? Whom is the talking to ? – about whom is he talking ? Whom friend are you talking about ? – About whose friend are you talking ? What are you looking at ? – At what are you looking? Prepozitiile in limba engleza pot aparea in post – pozitie in : - intrebari care incep cu who, what, which - in subordonatele attributive - in unele exclamatii – What trouble they’ve got intro! - in unele constructii passive – He is looked for by us. - in propozitii infinitivaleThey are impossible to talk to. - in fraze affirmative care incep cu who, what, which
  • 58. www.limba-engleza.info 58 Cele mai importante prepozitii in limba engleza sunt: - about =despre - above = deasupra - across = de-a curmezisul - along = de-a lungul - alongside = alaturi - among = intre - around = imprejur - at = la - before = inainte - below = dedesubt - beneath = sub, mai jos de - besides = in afara de - beyond = dincolo de - by = de, prin - for = pentru - in = in - inside = inauntru - into = in - near = langa - of = de - on = pe - opposite = peste drum de - over = peste - past = e langa - round = iin jurul - since = de, de la - throughout = prin
  • 59. www.limba-engleza.info 59 - under = sub, peste, dupa - up = in susul - within = inlauntrul, in - without = fara Expresii idiomatice cu prepozitii, adverbe sau cu adjective About the town = prin oras A journey around the world = o calatorie prin lume It is about two o’clock = este in jurul orei doua To have money about one self = a avea bani asupra sa A plane above the clouds = un avion deasupra norilor Above my head = deasupra capului meu A bridge across the Danube = un pod peste dunare To sail across the ocean = a naviga peste ocean To walk across the street = a traversa strada After breakfast = dupamicul dejun Day after day = zi dupa zi They came two days after = ei au venit la doua zile dupa aceea Soon after = in curand dupa aceea Against the enemy = impotriva inamicului Against the laws = impotriva legilor A race against time = o cursa impotriva timpului To walk along the road – a merge pe drum Among his friends = intre prietenii lui A trip around the country = a calatorie in jurul tarii Put a coat around the baby = pune o haina pe copil Is an island a land with water all around = este insula un uscat inconjurat de ape At noon = la pranz At the time = la vremea aceea
  • 60. www.limba-engleza.info 60 At random = la inramplare To be at school = a fi la scoala Since before the war = inca dinaintea razboiului Before long = curand To hide behind a tree = a te ascunde in spatele unui copac Verbe cu prepozitii obligatorii: To accuse = a acuza To agree on = a fi de accord cu To approve = a aproba To ask = a intreba To be angry with = a fi nervos pe To be concerned with = a fi preocupat de To be crazy about = a fi nebun dupa To be dependent on = a fi dependent de To agree with = a fi de accord cu cineva To apologize for = a cere iertare pentru To arrive at = a ajunge la To be afraid of = a se teme de To be aware of = a fi constient de To be close to = a fi aproape de To be confident of = a fi increzator in To be cruel to = a fi crud cu To be deprived of = a fi deposedat de To be different from = a fi diferit de To be good at = a fi bun la To be grateful to = a fi recunoscator fata de To be of opinion that = a fi de opinie ca To be on the move = a fi in miscare
  • 61. www.limba-engleza.info 61 To be intend to = a fi absorbit de To be jealos of = a fi gelos pe To be polite to = a fi politicos cu To be proud of = a fi mandru de To be sorry for = a-I parea rau pentru To be seized with = a fi prins de To be surprised at = a fi surprins de To beg for = a implora To boast of= a se lauda To begin with = a incepe cu To call at a place = a trece printr=un loc 9. CONJUNCTIA – the conjunction Partea de vorbire care leaga in propozitii cuvinte cu aceeasi functie sintactica , sau propozitii in fraza se numeste conjunctie. Conjunctiile sunt : - simple – and, after, but - compuse – however, unless - correlative – either…or, neither…nor, both…and, as if, in order to a. Conjunctii coordonatoare – coordonating conjunctions Leaga parti de propozitie cu aceeasi valoare sintactica sau propozitii de acelasi fel. b. Conjunctii copulative – copulative conjunctions And – I see a boy and a girl. As well as – He speaks English as well as german. Both .. and – I like both English and german.
  • 62. www.limba-engleza.info 62 Not only … but also – I like not only English but also german. c. Conjunctii disjunctive – disjunctive conjunctions Either … or – He can speak either English or german. Neither … nor – I see neither him nor her. Otherwise – The book is expensive otherwise it is very useful. Else – Hurry up or else you will loose the train. d. Conjunctii adversative – adversative conjunctions Aceste conjunctii exprima contrastul. But – We want to buy a house but we don’t have the money. However – I didn’t want to do it, however I did it. Nevertheless – Math is difficult nevertheless I like it. Still – It is expensive still I will buy it. While – Your motorcar is old while mine is new. Yet – These goods are expensive, yet people buy them. e. Conjunctii conclusive – illative conjunctions Exprima o concluzie. Accordingly – I found the book I needed and accordingly I bought it. Consequently – I found the book interesting , consequently I bought it. So – I considered the book interesting so I bought it. Therefore – I didn’t find them in the park , therefore I came home. f. Conjunctii cauzale – causal conjunction For – it is very hot for it is august. Sunt rare cazurile cand se intalnesc in limba engleza astfel de exemple cu FOR causal.
  • 63. www.limba-engleza.info 63 g. Conjunctii de loc – conjunctions of place Where – You must come here where I live. Wherever – we’ll live wherever it is possible. As far as – I shall go as far as I need. Whence – I am going there whence you are coming. h. Conjunctii de timp – conjunctions of time After – I came after you had left. Before – I must note you number before I forget it. The first time – I saw he was a serious man the first time I saw him. All the time – we are laughing all the time we were watching he play. As long as – a man must learn as long as he lives. As soon as – I must find out the truth as soon as I arrive. Since – I haven’t seen him since he was a student. Ever since – I realized he was a good man ever since I met him. Till, until – you must wait till they come. When – I shall tell you everything when they come. While – while there is a life there is hope. The moment – I recognized him the moment I saw him. The very moment – I understood the real state of things the moment I entered their house. i. Conjunctii de mod – conjunctions of manner Introduc subordonatele modale. As – he talks as he thinks As if – he open his mouth as if to say something. Not so …as – your house is not so big as I thought. As…as – she sang the song as beautyully as she could.
  • 64. www.limba-engleza.info 64 So much as – I do not like tennis so much as he does. So far as – you will buy the house so far as you can afford it. j. Conjunctii de cauza – conjunctions of cause Introduc subordonatele cauzale. Because – I bought the ball because it was cheap. Seeing that – seeing that it was raining I entered the house. Since – since it is raining I must take my umbrella. Now that – now that I have come I shall drink a cup of coffee. k. Conjunctii de scop – conjunctions of purpose Introduc subordonatele finale. In order to – we have come to school in order to learn. Lest – turn on the lights lest you will knock your head against smth. So that – turn on the light so that I can see better.
  • 65. www.limba-engleza.info 65 II. SINTAXA
  • 66. www.limba-engleza.info 66 1. SUBIECTUL Subiectul este partea propozitiei care poate fi uneori autorul actiunii alteori obiect al actiunii savarsite de altcineva. Subiectul poate fi cinevaceva despre care se comunica ceva in propozitie. Raspunde la intrebarile WHO ? si What ? (cine, ce) Ex : The boy learns – cuvantul THE BOY este subiect iar cuvantul learns este predicat. 2. PREDICATUL Este partea de propozitie prin care se comunica ceva despre subiect sau ce anume face subiectul. Subiectul si predicatul sunt parti principale ale unei propozitii. Se poate vorbi uneori despre propozitii cu mai multe subiecte sau subiect multiplu. In momentul in care intr-o comunicare apare predicat multiplu , comunicarea respectiva nu mai este propozitie ci fraza. Predicatul unei propozitii este reprezentat printr-un verb la unul din cele patru moduri personale ale verbului : indicative, conditional, subjunctiv si imperativ. Predicatele sunt : - Verbale – reprezentate printr-un verb principal. Ex : He studies chemistry. They will come back by coach. He had seen the monastery. - Nominale – consta dintr-un verb copulativ si un nume predicativ Iata cateva verbe copulative : to be, to become, to continue, to get, to grow, to seem. Ex : everybody grows old.
  • 67. www.limba-engleza.info 67 I must go to church. He is clever. Roses smell great. 3. ATRIBUTUL – the attribute Atributul determina un substantiv si isi are locul inaintea lui. Sh is singing a beautyfull song. He is my friend. John is my best friend. They were the last to come. You can ask the man in the street. The book read by me is interesting. 4. COMPLEMENTUL – the object a. Complementul direct – the direct object Este partea de propozitie asupra careia se orienteaza actiunea subiectului. Se exprima prin substantive pronume in cazul acuzativ. Ex : I am reading a book. What am I reading ? Who is raeding a book ? Locul complementului direct in propozitie este dupa verbul sau. Exista si un complement intern care sta intre verbul tranzitiv si complementul direct propriu zis. b. Complementul indirect – the indirect object Este cel asupra caruia actiunea subiectului se rasfrange indirect si este exprimat prin substantive sau pronume in cazul dativ.
  • 68. www.limba-engleza.info 68 Ex : I shall buy a book for you. He bought the boy a book. Complementul indirect raspunde la intrebari ca : to whom ? for whom ? about whom ? with whom ? without whom ? c. Complementul circumstantial de loc Se exprima printr-un adverb de loc. Ex : We are at home. English is spoken all over the world. Raspunde la intrebarile where ? (unde), from where ?, how far ? d. Complementul circumstantial de timp Se exprima printr-un adverb de timp. Raspunde la intrebarea : when ? (cand) Ex : I was at home yesterday. I have never seen him there. We have lived in Sibiu for 35 years. e. Complementul circumstantial de mod Se exprima prin adverbe de mod. Raspunde la intrebarile : how ?, how much ?, in what way ? , how many times ? Ex : The children were playing happily. Alice sings beautifully. f. Complementul circumstantial de cauza Exprima cauza actiunii savarsite de subiect si exprimata prin predicat. Raspunde la intrebarile : why?, for what reason ?, on what account ? , on whose account ? Ex : I couldn’t come because of the rain.
  • 69. www.limba-engleza.info 69 We arrived late on my account. g. Complementul circumstantial de scop / final Reprezinta materializarea scopului subiectului propozitiei in care se afla. Raspunde la intrebarile : for what purpose ? , for what ? , what for ? Ex : He only works for money. This device is used for various purposes. h. Complementul circumstantial concesiv Raspunde la intrebarile : in spite of whom / what ? Ex : They have come in spite of the bad wather. They have played tennis in spite of my refusal not to play. i. Complementul de agent Complementul de agent sau subiectul logic este folosit numai la diateza pasiva. Raspunde la intrebarile : by whom ?, whom by ?, by what ? Ex : the book was ready by the student. Se vede clar ca autorul actiunii este studentul. Cartea este subiectul grammatical. 5. Sintaxa frazei Fraza este o comunicare alcatuita din mai multe propozitii aflate intre ele fie in raporturi de coordonare fie de subordonare. In cazul coordonarii , partile de propozitie in propozitie si propozitiile in fraza sunt independente una de alta. Se pot lega intre ele prin conjunctii coordonatoare sau juxtapunere. Subordonare inseamna raport syntactic de dependenta a unei parti de propozitie sau de alta parte de propozitie sau a unei propozitii de alta propozitie.
  • 70. www.limba-engleza.info 70 Elemental subordonat depinde de termenul sau regent iar propozitia subordonata depinde de regenta sa. Elemental subordonat este deci termenul dependent iar cel regent este cel este cel care guverneaza in cadrul relatiei respective. Propozitia regenta este aceea care depinde semantic o alta propozitie in cadrul aceleiasi fraze. Propozitia subordonata se poate adresa unui singur cuvant din regenta sa iar acest cuvant , care se numeste termen regent , determina felul subordonatei respective. a. Propozitia subiectiva – the subject clause Functioneaza ca subiect al predicatului din regenta si intregeste intelesul regentei. Se intalneste dupa expresii ca : - it is advisable that - it is better that - it is certain that - it is desirable that - it is meet and proper that - it is inevitabl that - it is necesay that I came - it is important that Ex: Why they didn’t come is still a secret. How to write a book is not known by anybody. b. Propozitia predicativa – the predicative / complement clause Implineste functia de nume predicative al verbului din regenta sa si se introduce in maniera in care se introduce si subiectivele. Ex : Why he has come is the question. Why he has come – subiectiva Is the question – preducativa.
  • 71. www.limba-engleza.info 71 c. Propozitia atributiva – the attributive clause Este un atribut al unui substantiv din regenta sa. Ex : Every man , who knows him, appreciates him verry much. Every man appreciates him verry much.– regenta who knows him – atributiva. Termenul regent al atributivei de mai sus este substantivul man. d. Propozitia completiva directa – the object clause Este complemetul direct al verbului tranzitiv din regenta. Ex : I did not ask him wheter he has thirsty. I told you whom he gave the books. He said that he could come later on. e. Propozitia subordonata temporala – the adverbial clause of time Este in fraza complementul circumstantial de timp pe langa un verb sau adverb din regenta sa. Ex : I shall read this book when I have time. Termenul regent este vebul read. I shall read this book before you come home. I shall give you the money as soon as I meet you. She is happy when she is with her family. You may stay until your cousin arrives. f. Propozitia circumstantiala de loc – the adverbial clause of place Este complementul circumstantial de loc al unui verb sau adverb din regenta sa de care se leaga prin adverbe relative ca : where, wherever. Ex : You cannot live where they live. We may spend our holydays wherever we want.
  • 72. www.limba-engleza.info 72 g. Subordonata de proportie Este o varianta a subordonatei de mod. Ex : the more we are the better it is. As time went on, so she began to type more quiqly. The harder you work, the more money you make. h. Subordonata preferentiala – the clause of preference. Se traduce prin subordonata opozitionala. Ex : Rather then play football I’d prefer to swim. Rather then play football you had better learn. I would play football rather then learn. i. Propozitia circumstantiala de mod si comparative – the adverbial clause of manner and comparison. Joaca rolul de complement circumstantial de mod pe langa un verb sau un adverb din regenta sa. Ex : Mary sings as beautifully as her sister does. My friend is older than you friend. Tomorrow we shall work more than we worked yesterday. j. Propozitia subordonata cauzala – the adverbial clause of reason Este in fraza respective un complement circumstantial de cauza pe langa termenul sau regent care este un verb sau un adverb din regenta sa. Ex : I didn’t meet them there because I was late. Se leaga de regenta sa prin conjunctii sau adverbe relative ca : because, for the reason that, seeing that, on the ground that, owing to the fact that, since, on account that. Raspunde la intrebari ca : why? , on what account ? , for what reason ? , Ex : Seeing that they did not come I went home.
  • 73. www.limba-engleza.info 73 I did not come owing to the fact that it was too late. k. Propozitia subordonata finala – the adverbial clause of purpose Corespunde in fraza respective unui complement circumstantial de cauza pe langa un verb sau adverb din regenta sa , respectiv pe langa termenul sau regent. Subordonata finala se leaga de regenta sa prin conjunctiile si adverbele relative : in order that, so that, that, lest, for fear that, on porpose to. Ex : You must get up earlier so that you can meet him at the station. He must turn on the light lest he should knock himself against something in the darkness. I shall go to England so that I can learn English well. We go to church to pray. l. Subordonata concesiva – the adverbial clause of concession Se introduce prin conjunctiile : though, although, however, whoever, in spite of, no matter who, no matter by whom, no matter why, no matter when. Ex : Though it is late we shall sit and watch he football match. We shall watch the football match altought it is late. Late as it is we shall watch the football match. You should have been waiting for him even if it were late. I buy it however expensive it is. m. Propozitia consecutiva – the adverbial clause of result Exprima rezultatul / urmarea / consecinta actiunii din propozitia regenta. Ex : Alice was so beautiful that everybody was admiring her. His explanation was so clear that each of us understood it. He never go to the seaside but spend a lot of money.
  • 74. www.limba-engleza.info 74 n. Propozitia subordonata conditionala – the adverbial clause of condition Reprezinta conditia infaptuirii actiunii din regenta sa. Se leaga de regenta sa cu ajutorul conjunctiilor conditionale: if, on condition that, providing/ provided that, suppose/ supposing that, unless, whether… or not, as soon as, as long as, in case. Exista trei tipuri de conditionale , clasificare facuta in raport cu posibilitatea realizarii / indeplinirii actiunii din regenta respectiva. 1. subordonata conditionala de tip I – conditie reala si posibilia , iar verbul din regenta sa este la viitor. Locul lor in fraza se poate schimba. Ex : If I have time I shall read this book. I shall read this book if I have time. I shall not read this book unless I have time. I shall read this book on the condition that I have time. 2. subordonata conditionala tip II – conditie ireala si improbabila darn u imposibila. Ex : I should read this book if I have time. Se observa ca verbul este la modul conditional timpul present iar in regenta verbul este modul subjonctiv timpul present. In aceasta siuatie conditia devine probabila. In acest caz, actiunea din regenta pare sa fie in contradictie cu realitatea ori faptele ascunse. Ex : He would buy this palace if he had money. If he were to go on a journey round the world he would be very happy. He would be very happy if he were to go on a journey round the world. 3. subordonata conditionala de tip III – conditie imposibila In aceasta situatie verbul din regenta este la modul conditional perfect iar cel din regenta este la modul subjonctiv perfect. Conditiile sutn trecute, sunt deci imposibil de indeplinit. Ex : If I had had time I should have read the book. I should have read the book if I had had time.
  • 75. www.limba-engleza.info 75 o. Subordonata conditional concesiva – the alternative conditional concessive clause ex : He will pay for everything , wheter he likes it or not. Wherever you live, you have to work hard. Wherever you lived, you’d have to work hard.
  • 76. www.limba-engleza.info 76 6. Concordanta timpurilor – the sequence of tenses Este acordul obligatoriu al timpului verbului din subordonata cu timpul verbului din regenta sa. In limba engleza timpul verbului din subordonata trebuie sa se subordoneze timpului verbului din regenta. Cu alte cuvinte, timpurile verbelor din regente dicteaza folosirea anumitor timpuri in subordonatele lor. Exista in acest sens trei reguli de cunoscut si de aplicat : Regula I – daca in regenta verbul este la present tense sau present perfect tense in subordonata se poate folosi orice timp. Regula II – daca in regenta verbul este la trecut in subordonata el trebuie sa fie la unul din cele trei timpuri trecute ale limbii engleze : the past perfect, the past tense, the future in the past. Regula III – daca verbul din regenta este la viitor in subordonatele conditionale si temporale el trebuie sa fie la present tense sau present perfect tense, iar daca subordonata este completive directa verbul va fi la viitor. REGENTA SUBORDONATA I. Verbul este la present Verbul poate fi la orice timp We all know that He had come He came He will come He would come He would have come II. Verbul este la trecut Verbul trebuie sa fie la trecut He did not know that She had come She came She would come
  • 77. www.limba-engleza.info 77 III. Verbul este la viitor A. verbul sa fie la present sau present perfect in subordonatele conditionale sau temporale. I shall tell you the truth if/when You give / have given me the book B. Verbul va fi la orice timp in subordonata completive directa. I shall see what I shall do.
  • 78. www.limba-engleza.info 78 Lista verbelor neregulate Present infinitive Past tense Past participle Present participle To arise arose Arisen Arising To awake Awoke Awaked Awaking To be Was/were Been Being To beat Beat Beaten Beating To become Became Become Becoming To begin Began Begun Beginning To bite Bit Bit/ bitten Biting To bless Blessed Blessed Blessing To blow To blew Blown Blowing To break Broke Broken Breaking To bring Brought Brought Bringing To broadcast Broadcast Broadcast Broadcasting To build Built Built Building To burn Burned Burnt Burning To burst Burst Burst Bursting To buy Bought Bought Buying To cast Cast Cast Casting To catch Caught Caught Catching To choose Chose Chosen Choosing To cling Clung Clung Clinging To come Came Come Coming To cost Cost Cost Costing To crow Crew Crowed Crowing
  • 79. www.limba-engleza.info 79 To cut Cut Cut Cutting To do Did Done Doing To draw Drew Drawn Drawing To dream Dreamt Dreamed Dreaming To drink Drank Drunk Drinking To drive Drove Driven Driving To eat Ate Eaten Eating To fall Fell Fallen Falling To feed Fed Fed Feeding To feel Felt Felt Feeling To fight Fought Fought Fighting To find Found Found Finding To fly Flew Flown Flying To forget `forgot Forgotten Forgetting To forgive Forgave Forgiven Forgiving To get Got Gotton Getting To give Gave Given Giving To go Went Gone Going To grow Grew Grown Growing To hang Hung Hanged Hanging To have Had Had Having To hear Heard Heard Hearing To hide Hid Hidden Hiding To hit Hit Hit Hitting To hold Held Held Holding To hurt Hurt Hurt Hurting To keep Kept Kept Keeping To know Knew Known Knowing
  • 80. www.limba-engleza.info 80 To lay Laid Laid Laying To lead Led Led Leading To learn Learned Learned Learning To leave Left Left Leaving To let Let Let Letting To lie Lay Lain Laying To lose Lost Lost Losing To make Made Made Making To mean Meant Meant Meaning To meet Met Met Meeting To melt Melted Molten Melting To pay Paid Paid Paying To put Put Put Putting To read Read Read Reading To ride Rode Ridden Riding To ring Rang Rung Ringing To rise Rose Risen Rising To run Ran Run Running To say Said Said Saying To see Saw Seen Seeing To sell Sold Sold Selling To send Sent Sent Sending To set Set Set Setting To show Showed Shown Showing To shut Shut Shut Shutting To sing Sang Sung Singing So sit Sat Sat Sitting To speak Spoke Spoken Speaking
  • 81. www.limba-engleza.info 81 To spread Spread Spread Spreading To steal; Stole Stolen Stealing To swim Swam Swum Swimming To take Took Taken Taking To teach Taught Taught Teaching To tell Told Told Telling To think Thought Thought Thinking To understand Understood Understood Understanding To upset Upset Upset Upsetting To wake Woke Woken Waking To win Won Won Winning To write Wrote Written Writing
  • 82. www.limba-engleza.info 82