“Naxal” comes from “Naxalbari” village in West Bengal.
Origin- Split in the Communist Party of India.
Naxalism- An informal name given to radical, often violent,
revolutionary communist groups that were born out of the SinoSoviet split in Indian Communist Movement.
Initial centre was West Bengal. Later it spread into Chhattisgarh,
Orissa and Andhra Pradesh.
fight for downtrodden
want equal social and financial status for all
work for decentralization of power
employ terror as a political weapon
use religion as a cover for terrorist activities
organized mostly where there is forest cover
West Bengal, India- birthplace of naxalism.
Originated by Kanu Sanyal (believer of communist ideology).
The term naxalism was led by Charu Majumdar.
Majumdar inspired by the doctrines of Mao zedog advocated that
peasants and tribals overthrow the government and the upper
class by force.
His ideology was spread through his writings, particularly the
“Historic Eight Documents” which formed the basis of naxalite
Social causes: poverty, socialization, social motives,
Biological causes: birth, location, etc.
Psychological causes: culture, leadership, impression,
Naxalites are active in 220 districts in 20 states as of 2009.
Account for about 40% of India’s geographical area.
Concentrated in an area known as the “Red Corridor”
where they control 92,000 km2.
UNEMPLOYMENT including UNDEREMPLOYMENT
Time to focus on elimination of naxal terror network entirely.
The intelligence network has to be strengthened.
Threat is more from these anti national elements as compared
to hostile neighboring countries.
Training and equipping of police forces and also development of
police leadership needs.
Even other various social issues are to be given prior obligations
on the part of the government.
Government has formulated 2 strategies :
Law and Order Approach
Social Integration Approach
The laws made by government
Rehabilitation and Resettlement Policy, 2007
Forests Rights Act, 2005
Strengthen intelligence set up at state level
Police action against Naxalites and their infrastructure.
The steps taken by the government is effective as the violence is
decreased but naxalites are still alive. Hence current steps taken are
not enough and more efforts need to be put in to eradicate poverty,
generate employment, more education schemes, awareness
programmes need to be started. Only with consolidation efforts on
the part of the legal and political framework, socio-economic reforms
can be implemented and the problem of naxalism can be tackled.