climate change, global warming, greenhouse effect & energy efficency
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climate change, global warming, greenhouse effect & energy efficency

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  • 1. REG 521 : BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 2. Introduction DEFINITION OF CLIMATE • From World Meteorological Organization (WMO) (2013) defined climate as, ‘nature forces of “average weather”, driven by sun over a period of time ranging from months to thousands or millions of years’. • The classical period – 30 years. • Influenced by : a) Temperature b) Precipitation c) Shifting of season and wind REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 3. Classification of climate zones REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 4. Global Climatic Factors 1) The location of earth facing the sun directly or indirectly. Earth getting sun ray in solar radiation quantity form :  Ultraviolet radiation - it produce photochemical like sunburn and skin radiation.  Visible light – produce glare that if it over 380nm Violet, prone to blindness.  Short infra-red radiation – not all the radiation can penetrate into the earth. 35% of the radiation may change due to the changes of the sun distance from earth. REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 5. Legends: A – Long Wave Radiation B – Evaporation C - Convection Distribution of solar radiation to Earth Heat released from Earth REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 6. 2) Location of Earth Latitude  Closely related to earth rotation through its orbit in elliptical orbit.  A full whole orbit take 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 46 seconds. 3) Location of Longitude, North Hemisphere, and South Hemisphere  Existing of the season on north hemisphere and south hemisphere.  Climat change because of the orbit rotation.  The earth rotate 23.5 degree on inclined plane. REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 7. Scientific Evidence of Climate Change From the website ‘Climate Change : Impacts and Responses’ (2013) stated that the evidence of climate change are : • Ice cap reduction and glacial melt • Sea level change • Floods, drought, forest fires, hurricanes REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 8. Elements of Change Temperature • Higher maximum temperatures and more hot days in nearly all land areas Precipitation • More intense precipitation events over many northern hemisphere middle to high latitude land areas Ice and snow • Higher minimum temperatures and fewer cold days and frost over virtually all land areas Sea level rise • Reduced diurnal(daily) temperature range across most land areas • Summer continental drying in some areas and associated drought risks REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 9. Causes of Climate Change REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 10. Global Warming DEFINITION OF Global Warming : ‘Global warming is defined as an increase in the average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere, especially a sustained increase great enough to cause changes in the global climate’. Detailed researches of climatic events of the past 150 years have revealed that the temperatures have risen all over the globe, with the warming occurring in two phases. The first phase was from 1919 to 1940, with an average temperature gain of 0.35°C. The second phase was from 1970 to the present, exhibiting temperature gains of 0.55°C. Records show that the past 25 years have been the warmest time of the past 5 centuries. The global warming has resulted in the warming of the oceans, rising of the sea levels, melting of glaciers, and diminished snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere Hayanah Husain 2006,What is Global Warming, Bob De Waay 2008, Global Warming and the Definition Mark Marlin 2004, Global Warming REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 11. Explanation the Causes of Global Warming Popular usage definition: Warming caused by human activity. Technical term for this: Anthropogenic global warming. Definition of Greenhouse Gas: A gas, like CO2, which traps the sun's heat. Human Causes: Carbon dioxide (CO2), e.g. exhaust from cars and power plants. Natural causes: Some claim the sun is getting hotter. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming www.sciencedaily.com/global warming REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 12. What causes global warming? • Carbon dioxide + other air pollution • like a thickening blanket, trapping the sun's heat Source: • Coal-burning power plants are the largest U.S. -- they produce 2.5 billion tons CO2 every year. • Automobiles, the second largest source, create nearly 1.5 billion tons of CO2 annually. From household: • Vehicles • Home Heating • Electricity http://www.time.com/time/health/articl e/0,8599,1841125,00.html REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 13. • Impact of Global Warming • 2009 Indian floods • The 2009 India floods affected various states of India in July 2009. The most affected states were Karnataka, Orissa, Kerala, Gujarat and North-East Indian states, with over 200 people reported dead, and a million homes destroyed. • 2002, CAUSING BAD Colorado, THINGS Arizona and Oregon endured • floods • worst wildfire • dust storms in hundreds of seasons ever Montana, millions of Colorado dollars in and damage in Kansas Texas, Montana and North Dakota snow accumula tion has declined 60 • winter seasons shortened in Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington Sunil Chauhan ,Climate Change, Disasters and Security, 2010 Michael Northcott, A Moral Climate: the ethics of global warming, 2007 http://www.climatecrisis.net/ REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 14. Explanation of the effects of global warming in both MEDCs and LEDCs REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 15. HURRICANES WORSE •the ocean is getting warmer, tropical storms can pick up more energy and become more powerful. Country the largest source of global warming pollution. • The United States. produce 25 ° of the carbon • dioxide pollution from fossilfuel burning. 1 REG Michael Northcott, A Moral Climate: the ethics of global warming, 2007 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 16. put existing technologies for building, cleaner cars and reducing pollution from vehicles and power plants Hybrid gaselectric engines manufacture more efficient appliances and conserve energy How can we cut global warming pollution renewable more modern electricity generators into widespread use energy sources such as wind, sun and geothermal choose a compact fluorescent light bulb over an incandescent bulb DO TO HELP FIGHT GLOBAL WARMING http://earthtrends.wri.org http://nl.wikipedia.org fluorescent light bulb opting for a refrigerator with the Energy Star label refrigerator REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 17. Simple Things To Do • Turn off your computer or the TV when you're not using it. • Take shorter showers. Heating water uses energy. • Keep rooms cool by closing the blinds, shades, or curtains. • • Turn off the lights when you leave a room. REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 18. • Dress lightly when it’s hot instead of turning up the air conditioning. Or use a fan. • Dress warmly when it’s cold instead of turning up the heat. • Offer to help your parents keep the air filters on your AC and furnace clean. • Walk short distances instead of asking for a ride in the car. • Plant a tree. http://earthtrends.wri.org http://nl.wikipedia.org REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 19. BESIDE THAT : • HYBRID CARS. These still cost more than they save, but not too much, and lots of people like the idea of polluting less. We will eventually switch over almost completely and the sooner the better-there's lots of room for savings here. • NUCLEAR POWER. Nuclear power still has problems, but makes no C02. A high priority needs to be placed on solving the nuclearwaste problem. • PUMPING C02 UNDERGROUND. It seems incredible, but they do it all the time to force oil out of oil wells. US DOE has a big project to study this. It may turn out to be too expensive, but it is considered to be one of the best options by those in the know. • WIND POWER. Facts will be studying this option soon. It is nearly break-even but how much could be installed? Is 5% of total power realistic? Right now that seems very far off. REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 20. ENERGY EFFECT ON THE ENVIRONMENT
  • 21. ENERGY POLICY OF MALAYSIA  The energy policy of Malaysia is determined by the Malaysian Government, which address issues of energy production, distribution, and consumption.  The Department of Electricity and Gas Supply acts as the regulator while other players in the energy sector include energy supply and service companies, research and development institutions and consumers.  Government-linked companies Petronas and Tenaga Nasional Berhad are major players in Malaysia's energy sector.  Governmental agencies that contribute to the policy are the Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water, Energy Commission (Suruhanjaya Tenaga), and the Malaysia Energy Centre (Pusat Tenaga Malaysia).  Among the documents that the policy is based on are the 1974 Petroleum Development Act, 1975 National Petroleum Policy, 1980 National Depletion Policy, 1990 Electricity Supply Act, 1993 Gas Supply Acts, 1994 Electricity Regulations, 1997 Gas Supply Regulation and the 2001 Energy Commission Act.
  • 22. YPES OF ENERGY: 1. kinetic energy - energy of a moving object. 2. light energy - energy transferred through waves and light particles (photons). 3. electrical energy - energy transferred by an electric current. 4. sound energy - energy transferred via sound waves. 5. thermal (heat) energy - energy of an object due to its temperature. This is partly because of the random kinetic energy of the particles of the object. 6. elastic (strain) potential energy - energy stored in an object that is being stretched, squashed, twisted. 7. chemical energy - energy stored in fuel (ie. food) which is released when chemical reactions take place. 8. gravitational potential energy (GPE) - energy an object contains due to its position. 9. nuclear energy - energy stored in an atom’s nucleus.
  • 23. ENERGY TYPES
  • 24. ISSUES OF THE ENERGY INDUSTRY 1. Climate change a. Bio-diesel 2. Biofuel use b. Firewood a. Coal b. Petroleum 3. Fossil fuel use c. Gas 4. Electricity generation 5. Reservoirs 6. Nuclear power 7. Wind power
  • 25. I. Climate change and global warming happen due to human activity and caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. II. The majority of greenhouses gas emissions are due to burning fossil fuels with most of the rest due to deforestation. Climate change will cause shortages of food and water and increased risk of flooding that will affect billions of people, particularly those living in poverty. The IPCC report Climate Change 2007: Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability
  • 26. Biofuel is defined as solid, liquid or gaseous fuel obtained from relatively recently lifeless or living biological material. Various plants and plant-derived materials are used for biofuel manufacturing There are 2 types of Biofuel use: a. Bio-diesel b. Firewood
  • 27. a. Bio-diesel Environmental impact of biodiesel 1. Greenhouse gas emissions 2. Pollution 3. Biodegradation 4. Biodegradation in Aquatic Environments 5. Carbonyl Emissions
  • 28. b. Firewood Firewood is a renewable resource. However, demand for this fuel can outpace its ability to regenerate on local and regional level. For example in some places in the world and through history, the demand has led to desertification. Unsustainable firewood harvesting can lead to loss of biodiversity and erosion due to loss of forest cover.
  • 29. a. Coal 3 types of fossil fuel are : b. Petroleum c. Gas In 2006 primary sources of energy consisted of petroleum 36.8%, coal 26.6%, natural gas 22.9%, amounting to an 86% share for fossil fuels in primary energy production in the world. Estimated by the Energy Information Administration  Burning of fossil fuels produces around 21.3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide per year.  Carbon dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases that enhances radiative forcing and contributes to global warming, causing the average surface temperature of the Earth to rise
  • 30. Malaysia is the second largest oil and natural gas producer in Southeast Asia, the second largest exporter of liquefied natural gas globally, and is strategically located amid important routes for seaborne energy trade. Source from Energy Information Administration Malaysia‘s heavy reliance on oil and natural gas to sustain its economic growth is causing the government to emphasize fuel diversification through coal imports and to promote investments in renewable energy .
  • 31. a. Coal Environmental impact of the coal industry 1. Water management 2. Land use management 3. Greenhouse gas emissions 4. Air pollution 5. Radiation exposure 6. Dangers to miners I. Impact to land and surroundings II. Waste management III.River water pollution IV.Wildlife I. Air emissions II. Mercury emissions III.Annual excess deaths IV.Economic costs
  • 32. b. Petroleum Environmental impact of petroleum industry ISSUES 1. Toxicity 2. Exhaust 3. Acid rain 4. Climate change 5. Oil spills 6. Volatile organic compounds 7. Waste oil
  • 33. c. Gas Natural gas is often described as the cleanest fossil fuel, producing less carbon dioxide than coal or oil and far fewer pollutants than other fossil fuels but it produced greenhouse gas to the atmosphere. In 2004 natural gas produced about 5,300 Mt/yr of CO2 emissions, while coal and oil produced 10,600 and 10,200 respectively.  IPCC Fourth Assessment Report By 2030, according to an updated version of the SRES B2 emissions scenario, natural gas would be the source of 11,000 Mt/yr, with coal and oil now 8,400 and 17,200 respectively. 
  • 34. Electrical power is normally generated at power plants that convert some other kind of energy. Environmental impact of electricity generation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Water usage Fossil fuels Nuclear power Hydroelectric power Tidal power Biomass 7. Wind power 8. Geothermal power 9. Solar power 10. Concentrated solar power 11. Negawatt power
  • 35. Environmental impact of reservoirs is increasing as the world demand for water and energy increases and the number and size of reservoirs increases  Dams and the reservoirs can be used to supply drinking water generate hydroelectric power, increasing the water supply for irrigation, provide recreational opportunities and to improve certain aspects of the environment.  However, adverse environmental and sociological impacts have also been identified during and after many reservoir constructions.
  • 36. energy stored in an atom’s nucleus 1. Waste streams 2. Radioactive waste High-level waste Other waste 3. Power plant emissions I.Radioactive gases and effluents •Risk of cancer •Comparison to coal-fired generation •Contrast of radioactive accident emissions with industrial emissions •Waste heat Environmental impact of nuclear power results from the nuclear fuel cycle, operation, and the effects of nuclear accidents. 4. Environmental effects of accidents Fukushima disaster Chernobyl disaster SL-1 meltdown 5. Greenhouse gas emissions 6. Decommissioning
  • 37.  The wind energy is a clean energy resource that may contribute to the usual energy production as an energy resource under suitable conditions.  Energy to be obtained from wind completely depends on the speed of wind and blowing period.  The wind is a reliable, continuous and determinant resource.  The wind plants may require a wide area for turbines.  They are noisy and cause bird deaths and make parasites on radio and TV receivers.
  • 38. Environmental impact of wind power 1. Carbon dioxide emissions and pollution Environmental 2. Net energy gain impact of wind power is 3. Ecology relatively Land use Impact on wildlife minor, slightly Birds higher than the Bats environmental Weather and climate change impact of hydro 4. Impacts on people power on a lifeSafety cycle basis. Aesthetics Noise annoyance 5. Offshore
  • 39. Energy industry are the main cause of climate change, global warming and greenhouse effect around the world and it give a bad impact to the biodiversity. CONCLUSION
  • 40. Greenhouse  Effect REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 41. What is Greenhouse? • Is a structural building with different types of covering  materials, such as a glass or plastic roof & frequently  glass or plastic walls  • Receiving energy (in the form of light) from outside; the  inside of greenhouse will heat & emit infrared radiation. • It happens that glass is a material pretty opaque to these  infrared radiation emitted by the interior of greenhouse. • This prevents the energy to dissipate easily outside &  leads to a temperature increase that would not happen if  infrared could freely escape from greenhouse. REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 42. Greenhouse Effect • is a natural process that warms the Earth, and, in fact, is  quite necessary for our survival. Gases in the  atmosphere, like water vapour (clouds), carbon dioxide  (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) act as a  natural blanket by preventing the sun’s heat energy from  radiating back into space, much like a greenhouse traps  the sun’s energy to warm someone’s plants even in the  middle of winter.  • The natural greenhouse effect helps warm the Earth’s  surface by as much as 33oC, and without it, our planet  would be too cold for humans to survive. http://www.dnrec.delaware.gov/ClimateChange/Pages/Greenhou REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 43. Process of Greenhouse REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 44. REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 45. • As the sun’s energy hits the Earth, some of that energy  is absorbed by the earth’s crust and by the oceans,  warming the planet.  • The rest of the energy is radiated back toward space as  infrared energy. While some of this infrared energy does  radiate back into space, some portion is absorbed and  re-emitted by water vapor and other greenhouse gases  in the atmosphere.  • This absorbed energy helps to warm the planet’s surface  and atmosphere just like a greenhouse. REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 46. Causes of Greenhouse Effect • burning of fossil fuel like coal in the industries for  producing electricity. Burning fossil fuel leads to high  emissions of carbon dioxide gas. • methane, which is more powerful than CO2 at trapping  the heat in the atmosphere, gets released from  resources such as rice paddies, bacteria in bogs and  fossil fuel manufacture. • Nitrous oxide, also a green house gas is produced during  nylon and nitric acid production, cars with catalytic  converters, the use of fertilizers and the burning of  organic matter. REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 47. Impact of Greenhouse  Environment  • Overall average annual temperatures are expected to  increase • Global Warming will decrease snow, sea ice & glacier  coverage, resulting in rising sea levels & increase coastal  flooding. • Rising temperatures will also thaw permafrost in the artic • Storm & heat waves are likely to increase in frequency &  severity. • Many wild species will have difficulty adapting to a warmer  climate & will likely experience greater stress from disease  and invasive species REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 48. Human Health • Increase d temperatures and more frequent  and severe extreme weather could lead to  increased risks of death from hydration and  heat stroke, & injuries from intense local  weather changes • Increased risk of respiratory and  cardiovascular problems and certain types  of cancers, as temperatures rise and  exacerbate air pollution REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 49. Economy • Agriculture, forestry, tourism & recreation  could be affected by changing weather  patterns • Human health impacts are expected to  place additional economic stress on health  and social support systems • Damage to infrastructure (e.g roads and  bridges) from extreme weather events is  expected to increase  REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 50. Ways to Reduce Greenhouse Effect • • • • • • • Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Use less heat and air conditioning Drive less and drive smart Factory install smoke filters Plant a tree Vehicles use unleaded petrol Enforce the law on behalf of polluting the environment • Environmental campaign REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 51. EARTH SUMMIT (Jun’92) • Also known as Rio Conference and United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) • 172 Government parties, 2400 NGO’s • Aims: – Reduce production of toxic components – Alternative source of energy to replace fossil fuels – Reliance on public transportation systems • Documents produced: – Agenda21 – Rio Declaration – Forest Principles REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 52. AGENDA 21 • Named because it is an action agenda of the UN with regards to sustainable development • No. 21 refers to the 21st century • Published: April 23, 1993 • 300-page document with 40 chapters • Divided into 4 sections: I. Social & Economic Dimensions: combatting poverty achieving more sustainable population I. Conservation & Management of Resources for Development: Conserving biodiversity Pollution control management and preventing deforestation REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 53. III. Strengthening the Role of Major Groups:  Including roles of youth, NGO’s and local authorities III. Means of implementation:  In education, technology research, etc. Development & Revolution •Rio+10 (2002): Introducing World Summit on Sustainable Development as UN’s commitment to full implementation of Agenda 21 •Rio+20 (2012): Members reaffirmed their commitment to Agenda 21, produced a document called “The Future We Want" REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 54. RIO DECLARATION • Consisted of 27 Principles intended to guide future sustainable development around the world REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 55. FOREST PRINCIPLES • A non-legally-binding authoritative statement of principles for a global agreement on the management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forest • Divided into 5 program areas: 1. Securing multiple roles for trees, forest and forest lands 2. Protecting forests and promoting afforestation and reforestation 3. Promoting better utilization and value of trees, forests and forest lands 4. Assessment and monitoring of forestrelated programs and processes 5. International and regional cooperation REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 56. REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 57. UNFCCC • An agreement signed by 154 parties in 1992, as up to 195 parties recorded in 2011 • Main objective: to stabilize greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous interference with the climate system • Participating countries have decided on meeting annually since 1995 in Conferences of the Parties (COP) to assess progress in dealing with climate change REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 58. Lists of COP’s (1995-2012) REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 59. Kyoto Protocol (COP3) • Protocol prepared during the 3rd COP held in Kyoto, Japan in 1997 • Decisions decided upon: i. Emission-reduction targets of greenhouse gasses (GHG) for 37 industrialized countries ii. Recognizing which developed country responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere iii. Hold future meetings to set penalties for violators of the established targets REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 60. Copenhagen Summit (COP15) • 2009 Conference held in Copenhagen, Denmark • Adopting the Kyoto Protocol (COP3) successfully • Aims: – Limit temperature rises to 1.5°C and cut CO2 emissions by 80% in 2050 – Agreement pledges US$30 billion to help poor countries to adapt to climate change – Reduce deforestation in return for cash for developed countries REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 61. THE END Thank You REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 62. References • • • • World Meteorogical Organization. (n.d.) Climate Change. [Online] Available from : http://www.wmo.int/pages/themes/climate/causes_of_climate_change.php [Accessed 4th October 2013] United Nations Environment Programme. (n.d.) Helping Communities and Ecosystems Adapt to Climate Change. [Online] Available from : http://www.unep.org/climatechange/adaptation/ScienceandAssessments/tabid/29573/D efault.aspx [Accessed 5th October 2013] Michael Pirdwirny. (2010) Causes of Climatic Change. Available from : http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/150960/ [Accessed 4th October 2013] The University of Cambridge. (1996) Climate Change 1995 : The Science of Climate Change. Available from : http://books.google.com.my/books? hl=en&lr=&id=k9n8v_7foQkC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=causes+of+climate+change&ots= Oy_FQClSq2&sig=bfzMU7qIdpCqfhIDRdYwn4XwU58&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=ca uses%20of%20climate%20change&f=false [Accessed 5th October 2013] REG 521 BUILDING SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT
  • 63. References • • Government of Canada. (2012) Canada’s Action on Climate Change. [Online] Available from : http://www.climatechange.gc.ca/default.asp?lang=En&n=65CD73F41 [Accessed 4th October 2013] Climate Change : Impact and Responses. (n.d.) Scientific Evidence. [Online] Available from : http://on-climate.com/our-focus/theme [Accessed 4th October 2013] REG .....