Session 7<br />Ali Raza Merchant<br />IMC CourseAdvertising DesignTheoretical Frameworks & Types of Appeals<br />IMC 2011 ...
Understand how the hierarchy of effects model explains the process a creative uses to move the viewer from awareness to pu...
Theoretical Approaches to Advertising Design<br />IMC 2011 by ARM<br />
IMC 2011 by ARM<br />Advertising - Theory<br />Three Theoretical Advertising Approaches<br />Hierarchy of Effects Model<br...
IMC 2011 by ARM<br />Hierarchy of Effects<br />PROS<br /><ul><li>Identifies the steps customers make in the buying decision
To encourage brand loyalty all six steps must be present
Thus this approach highlights the various responses that advertising or other marketing communications must accomplish</li...
Sometimes consumers make a purchase first and then later develop knowledge, liking, preference and conviction. E.g. coupon...
Not true for commodity products, socks etc where brand name is not remembered</li></li></ul><li>IMC 2011 by ARM<br />Means...
Equality
Excitement
Freedom
Fun, exciting life
Happiness
Inner Peace
Personal accomplishment
Pleasure
Salvation
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Imc course session 7 advertising design

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Session 7 - Advertising Design

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Imc course session 7 advertising design

  1. 1. Session 7<br />Ali Raza Merchant<br />IMC CourseAdvertising DesignTheoretical Frameworks & Types of Appeals<br />IMC 2011 by ARM<br />
  2. 2. Understand how the hierarchy of effects model explains the process a creative uses to move the viewer from awareness to purchase decision<br />Reconsider the roles attitudes and values play in developing advertising messages<br />Recognize how visual and verbal messages are used in ads<br />Identify times when each of the major advertising appeals are affective and when not<br />Comprehend the difficult task before the creative, as he or she begins to design the advertising message<br />Topic Objectives<br />IMC 2011 by ARM<br />
  3. 3. Theoretical Approaches to Advertising Design<br />IMC 2011 by ARM<br />
  4. 4. IMC 2011 by ARM<br />Advertising - Theory<br />Three Theoretical Advertising Approaches<br />Hierarchy of Effects Model<br />Means-ends Theory<br />Visual and Verbal Imaging<br />
  5. 5. IMC 2011 by ARM<br />Hierarchy of Effects<br />PROS<br /><ul><li>Identifies the steps customers make in the buying decision
  6. 6. To encourage brand loyalty all six steps must be present
  7. 7. Thus this approach highlights the various responses that advertising or other marketing communications must accomplish</li></ul>The Model suggests that a consumer or a business buyer moves through a series of six steps to be convinced of the purchase decision:<br />Awareness<br />Knowledge<br />Liking<br />Preference<br />Conviction<br />The actual purchase<br />CONS<br /><ul><li>Some of its underlying principles have been challenged
  8. 8. Sometimes consumers make a purchase first and then later develop knowledge, liking, preference and conviction. E.g. coupon purchases
  9. 9. Not true for commodity products, socks etc where brand name is not remembered</li></li></ul><li>IMC 2011 by ARM<br />Means-End Theory<br />PERSONAL VALUES<br /><ul><li>Comfortable life
  10. 10. Equality
  11. 11. Excitement
  12. 12. Freedom
  13. 13. Fun, exciting life
  14. 14. Happiness
  15. 15. Inner Peace
  16. 16. Personal accomplishment
  17. 17. Pleasure
  18. 18. Salvation
  19. 19. Security
  20. 20. Self fulfillment
  21. 21. Self respect
  22. 22. Sense of belonging
  23. 23. Social acceptance
  24. 24. Wisdom</li></ul>The Model suggests that the advertising contains a message or a means to lead the consumer to a desired end state.<br />The purpose of the means-end chain is to a cause a chain reaction in which viewing the ad leads the consumer to believe the product will achieve one of the personal values<br />
  25. 25. IMC 2011 by ARM<br />Means-End Theory<br />Is the basis of a model called MECCAS, which is:<br />Means-End Conceptualization of Components for Advertising Strategy<br />Its suggest using five elements in creating ads:<br /><ul><li> The product’s attributes
  26. 26. Consumer benefits
  27. 27. Leverage points
  28. 28. Personal values
  29. 29. The executional framework</li></ul>Milk Example<br />Low Fat Healthy Self respect<br /> Wisdom<br />Calcium Healthy bones Comfortable life<br /> Wisdom<br /> Pleasure<br />Ingredients Good taste Pleasure <br /> Happiness<br />Vitamins Enhanced Excitement<br /> Physical Fun<br /> Ability Pleasure <br />
  30. 30. IMC 2011 by ARM<br />Verbal and Visual Images<br />Impact of VISUAL<br /><ul><li> Visual images lead to more favorable attitudes towards ads and brands
  31. 31. They are easily remembered
  32. 32. Visual images are stored in the brain both pictures and words, this allows easy recall
  33. 33. Visual images range from very concrete to highly abstract allowing creatives to make connections with images and ad content
  34. 34. For e.g. using the shape of Spaghetti or Pizza and link it with a restaurant or Absolute Vodka campaign</li></ul>The Model determines the degree of emphasis given to the visual elements v/s the verbal elements in the ad <br />(Radio is the exception)<br />Verbal ad is the central route of the brain function<br />Visual images of the ad is processed by the peripheral route<br />
  35. 35. Types of Advertising Appeals<br />IMC 2011 by ARM<br />
  36. 36. IMC 2011 by ARM<br />Types of Advertising Appeals<br />Fear<br />Humor<br />Over the years Advertising has attempted a wide variety of approaches.<br />Advertisers mostly select from one of these types of appeals:<br />Sex<br />Music<br />Rationality<br />Emotions<br />Scarcity<br />
  37. 37. IMC 2011 by ARM<br />Products or Category with Fear Appeal<br />Life Insurance<br />Creating fear by focusing on consequences of not having life insurance when a person dies<br />Fear<br />It increases both the viewers interest in an ad and the persuasiveness of the ad<br />Shampoo/ Mouth wash<br />Invoking Fear of hair loss, baldness, bad breath and its consequences<br />Anti Smoking<br />Invoking Fear of severe diseases and death <br />
  38. 38. IMC 2011 by ARM<br />The Humor Appeal<br />Success of Humor is based on:<br /> Humor causes consumers to :<br /><ul><li>Watch
  39. 39. Laugh
  40. 40. Remember</li></ul> To be successful humor must connected directly with the product benefits <br />Humor<br />It is a clutter breaker. Humor is effective in both getting attention and keeping it<br />
  41. 41. IMC 2011 by ARM<br />The Sex Appeal<br />Sex<br />It is a clutter breaker too. <br />For instance TV ads of jewelry depict a woman wearing a nightgown in the bedroom <br />Sexuality has been employed in following 5 ways:<br /><ul><li>Subliminal techniques
  42. 42. Nudity & Partial nudity
  43. 43. Sexual Suggestiveness
  44. 44. Overt Sexuality
  45. 45. Sensuality </li></li></ul><li>IMC 2011 by ARM<br />The Music Appeal<br />Music can be the stimulus that ties a particular music arrangement e.g. Lipton sip of inspiration linked to Mission Impossible Music<br />Generally the questions asked when music is used are:<br />What role will the music play in the ad?<br />Will a familiar song be used or will something original be created?<br />What emotional pitch should the music reach?<br />How does the music fit with the message of the ad? <br />Music<br />Music helps attract attention and is linked to emotions, memories and other experiences.<br />
  46. 46. IMC 2011 by ARM<br />The Rational Appeal<br />Rationality<br />Mostly based on ELM (Elaboration Likelihood Model) <br />The approach assumes that consumers use rational though process when making purchase decisions<br />A rational appeal always follows the hierarchy of effects model stages<br />A rational approach ad leads to stronger conviction about a product’s benefits so that the purchase is eventually made<br />Print media offers the best outlets for rational appeals as it allows readers to process a lot of information in the copy<br />
  47. 47. IMC 2011 by ARM<br />The Emotional Appeal<br />Emotional<br />This appeal is based on human nature, as we have emotional needs through which the bond of the brand appeal connects with people (consumers)<br />This is perhaps the strongest of all the appeals depending upon the linkage between the brand and the customer<br />Emotional appeals can be a very strong bond between a brand and its consumers<br />Most charity brands like ShaukatKhanum, SIUT, Edhi Foundation etc., use this during Ramadhan<br />Emotional appeals have been used by all types and categories of brands which include Dalda, Blue Band Margarine, Soya Supreme, Diamond Paints, Bank Alfalah etc.<br />
  48. 48. IMC 2011 by ARM<br />The Scarcity Appeal<br />Scarcity<br />Similar to what the word “Scarcity” means.<br />The idea is to develop the feeling among consumers that either the brand or offering will not be available easily or<br />They will be one of the few ones who will own the brand as it is not easily available<br />Scarcity appeal is all about touching the ego state of human beings i.e. Humans feel good when they stand out from a group as a result of ownership.<br />Based on this, Apple Iphone was launched where availability was limited. Similarly Nintendo wii is another brand which is not freely available to consumers.<br />This appeal works best for very high end brands like Astin Martin and some models of Harley Davidson. In these cases every unit is “Bespoke” which means tailored to the owners order.<br />
  49. 49. Old Spice Campaign<br />Wendy’s “Where’s the beef”<br />Wilkinson’s Sword<br />IMC 2011 by ARM<br />Videos Shared in Class Discussion<br />
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