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  • 1. Software Testing
  • 2. What is Testing?
    • A process of demonstrating that errors are not present
    • A process of establishing confidence that a program does what it is supposed to do.
    • A process of finding errors in a program
  • 3. Objectives of Testing
    • To greatest possible number of errors with a manageable find the amount of efforts applied over a realistic time span with a finite number of test cases.
  • 4. What Does Software testing Reveal? errors requirements conformance or the lack of it performance an indication of quality
  • 5. Testing – Why?
    • Contribute to the delivery of higher quality software product
    • Undetected errors are costly to detect at a later stage
    • Satisfied users and to lower maintenance cost
  • 6. Testing – How?
    • By examining the internal structures and design
    • By examining the functional user interface
    • By examining the design objectives
    • By examining the users’ requirements
    • By executing code
  • 7. Verification and Validation
    • Verification refers to a set of activities that ensure that software correctly implements a specific function.
    • Validation refers to a different set of activities that ensure that the software that has been built is traceable to customer requirements.
  • 8. Verification and Validation
    • Verification – Are we building the product right?
    • Validation – Are we building the right product?
  • 9. Test Case
    • “A set of test inputs, execution conditions, and expected results developed for a particular objective, such as to exercise a particular program path or to verify compliance with a specific requirement. ”
    • (…IEEE)
    • In other words, a planned sequence of actions (with the objective of finding errors)
  • 10. A Good Test-Case
    • Has a high probability of detecting error(s)
    • Test cases help us discover information (.. Kaner)
    • e.g. of information objectives
      • Help managers make ship / no-ship decisions.
      • Minimize technical support costs.
      • Assess conformance to specification.
      • Minimize safety-related lawsuit risk.
      • Verify correctness of the product.
  • 11. Other Terminologies
    • Test Scenarios - Explains which test cases to process and how to process them.
    • Test Suite – A set of individual test cases/scenarios that are executed as a package, in a particular sequence.
    • Test Cycle – A test cycle consists of a series of test suites which comprises a complete execution set from the initial setup to the the test environment through reporting and clean up.
  • 12. What Do We Test Fundamental issues : Functions, Portability, Usability, Reliability, Security, Availability Real-time issues : Timing, Capacity, Throughput,Performance System management issues: Overload, Backup & Recovery, Start-up and shut-down Purchased software Operating systems, DBMS, Communications, Graphics
  • 13. Testing Techniques (Coverage)
    • White Box Test Techniques
        • Code Coverage
            • Statement Coverage
            • Decision Coverage
            • Condition Coverage
        • Code complexity
        • Memory Leakage
    • Black Box Test Techniques
      • Equivalence Partitioning
      • Cause-Effect Graphing
      • Boundary Value Analysis
      • Use Case / UMl
      • Error Guessing
  • 14. Test Case Design
    • Complete testing is impossible.
    • The key issue of testing is to design test cases that has the highest probability of detecting the maximum errors.
    • One can develop a reasonably rigorous test by using certain black box oriented test case design methods and then supplementing them with those of white box.
  • 15. Black Box Test Techniques
    • Black box is data-driven, or input/output-driven testing
    • The Test Engineer is completely unconcerned about the internal behavior and structure of program
    • Black box testing is also known as behavioral, functional, opaque-box and closed-box.
    Input Output
  • 16. White Box Test Techniques
    • White Box Test Techniques
        • Code Coverage
            • Statement Coverage
            • Decision Coverage
            • Condition Coverage
        • Code complexity
        • Memory Leakage