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    • 1. SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
    • 2.
      • Objectives
      • Have a basic understanding of the origins of Software development, in particular the problems faced in the Software Crisis
      • Knowledge of the concepts of Software Engineering
      • Definition of Software Engineering, and the desired Software Characteristics
      • The paradigms. For each paradigm, know the associated diagram, description of the steps involved in it
      • Ability to read a given scenario and recommend with justification the paradigm for it
      • Ability to identify the continually changing nature of software development
    • 3. The emergence of software engineering The early years (50-60) Second Era (60-Mid70s) Third Era (70-mid80) Fourth Era (80's and beyond) Batch orientation The system handles the job at once in sequence Multiprogramming and Multi - User Systems. Personal Computers came to be widely used. Increased use of desktop systems Limited Distribution Computers were not widely used. Software become distributed - this was the start of the software crisis. Micro Computers also were used in other products   Object Oriented Technologies They were highly customized - they were produced only to meet specific needs.   Therefore there was a greater need for software Expert System AI Parallel Computing Software Crisis
    • 4. The emergence of software engineering
      • The task description and the requirements frequently change even during the program design phase, and continue to change even after the software system has long since been in use.
    • 5. The major problems
      • Correctness
      • Efficiency
      • Mastery of Complexity
      • Interface specification
      • Reliability    
      • Flexibility
      • Documentation
      • Maintainability
      • Project organization.
    • 6. DEFINITION OF SOFTWARE
      • Instructions (computer programs) on execution provide desired function and performance
      •   Data structures that enable programs to adequately manipulate information
      •   Documents that describes the operation and use of the programs
    • 7. Software and Hardware
      • When hardware is built the human creative process (Analysis, Design, Construction, testing) is ultimately transferred into a physical form
      •   Software is logical rather than physical system element.
      • Software is engineered (or developed) – it is not manufactured.
      • Software does not wear out.
    • 8. Software Applications.
      • Software may be applied in any situation for which a set of procedural – steps (algorithm) has been defined.
      • Information content and determinacy are important factions in determining the nature of software application.
      • Content refers to the meaning and form of incoming and outgoing information.
      • Information determinacy refers to the predictability of the order of timing of information.
    • 9. Software Engineering paradigms.
      • Software Engineering is the technological, managerial discipline concerned with systematic production and maintenance of software products that are developed and modified one time.
      • The primary goals of software engineering are to improve the quality of software products and to increase the productivity and job satisfaction of persons involved.
      • Software Engineering being labor-intensive activity, requires both technical and managerial control.
    • 10. Software Engineering paradigms.
      • In very real sense , the software engineer creates models of physical situation in software. The mapping between model and reality being modeled – has been called intellectual distance between problem and computerized solution. The fundamental principle of software engineering is to design software products that minimize the intellectual distance between problem and solution.
    • 11. Software Engineering paradigms
      • Software engineering is layered technology – An approach that must rest on organizational commitment to quality.
      • The layers are
          • Tools
          • Methods
          • Process
          • A quality focus
    • 12.
      • The bedrock that supports software engineering is a quality focus.
      • The foundation for Software Engineering is the process layer.
      • Software Engineering methods provides the technical know how-to for building software.
      • Software Engineering Tools provide automated or semi automated support for the – process and methods.  
    • 13. Generic Phases
      • 1.     Formal technical reviews
      • 2.     Software QA
      • 3.     Software Configuration Management.
      • 4.     Document preparation & production
      • 5.     Reusability management
      • 6.     Measurement
      • 7.     Risk Management.
    • 14. Software Development Life Cycle
      • Classic life cycle suggests a systematic , sequential approach that begins at system level and progresses through
          • Analysis
          • Design
          • Verification and Validation
          • Support.
    • 15. Software Development Life Cycle
      • Specification Phase
      • Object-Oriented Analysis Phase
      • Design Phase
      • Implementation Phase
      • Implementation and Integration Phase
      • Maintenance Phase
    • 16. Software requirement Analysis
      • Focused specially on software
      • Analyst must understand the information domain to understand the nature of programs to be developed.
      • The requirements for system and software are to be documented and reviewed by the customer.
    • 17. Software Design
      • Software Design is a multi step process focuses on four distinct attributes of a program.
          • Data Structure
          • Software architecture
          • Interface representation
          • Procedural logic
    • 18. Code Generation
      • Design is translated into machine readable form.
      • Can be automated
    • 19. Testing
      • Code Testing
      • Specification testing
      • Uncovers errors
    • 20. Support
      • Software may undergo change after delivery due to errors.
      • Software must be adaptable to new environment
      • Due to functional or performance enhance suggested by customer
    • 21. Project size categories
      • Based on level of management control and types of tools and techniques
    • 22. Trivial project
      • One programmer working, sometimes part time for few days, for exclusive use.
      •   Less than 500 statements & 10 - 20 sub routines. 
      • Eg. PC Software, a little need for analysis documentation
      • No Extensive test planning essential. 
    • 23. Small Projects
        • 1 - 6 months effort of 1 programmer.
        • 1000 - 2000 lines of code.25 - 50 sub routines
        • Less interaction between programmers
        • Scientific calculations for engineering on small
        • Commercial applications
        • Little interaction between customers and developers.
    • 24. Medium Size Projects
      • 2 - 5 Programmer’s team.
      • 1- 2 years
      • 10,000 – 50,000 lines
      • 250 - 1000 routines
      • medium project size
    • 25. Large Projects
      • 5 - 20 programmer’s team
      • 2 - 3 years duration
      • 50,000 to 1,00,000 lines of code
      • Package in several system
      • Eg. Large compilers
    • 26. Very large Projects
      • 100 - 1000 programmers
      • 4 - 5 years
      • 1 million source instructions
      • Consists of several major sub systems
      • 0S/360 – 5000 programmers worked for 5 years
    • 27. Extremely large projects
      • 2000 - 5000 Programmers
      • duration up to 10 years
      • 100 million lines of code
      • Often distributed processing, Multitasking
      • Requires high reliability
      • Eg. Telecomm ,defense, air traffic control
    • 28. Problems in Software Engineering
      • Potential business problems or occurrences that may cause the project
      • Potential project problems or occurrences that may cause the project
      • Technical problems or occurrences that may cause the project
      • Conform to changes in its external environment analysis
    • 29. Software Productivity factors
      • Individual ability
      • Team communication
      • Product complexity
      • Appropriate notations
      • Systematic approaches
      • Change control
      • Level of technology
      • Required reliability
    • 30. Software Productivity factors
      • Available time
      • Problem understanding
      • Stability of requirements
      • Facilities and resources
      • Management skills
      • Appropriate goals
      • Rising expectations
    • 31. Project Structure
      • Project format.
      • Use of a project format involves assembling a team of programmers who conduct a project from start to finish; project team members do product definition, design the product, implement it, test it, conduct project reviews, and prepare the supporting documents.
    • 32. Project Structure
      • Functional format.
      • In the functional approach to organization, a different team of programmers performs each phase of the project, and the work products pass from team to team as they evolve.
    • 33. Project Structure
      • Matrix format.
      • In matrix organizations, each of the functions described above has its own management team and a group of specialist personnel who are concerned only with that function
    • 34.  

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