Teaching of TH sounds in English by Ali karakasPresentation Transcript
THE TE A C HING OF [ θ ] and [ ð ] in E NGL ISH A L İ KA RA KA Ş E cehan SONME Z
Pronunciation teaching has its unique place in the curricula of most of the European countries though it has been neglected in Turkey so far.Mispronunciation of some core sounds is among the fundamental problems in the speech of both nonnative pre-service and in-service teachers in Turkey.
Of all the fossilized pronunciation errors, the phonemes /θ/ and / ð/ have always been problematic not only for Turkish learners ofEnglish but also for Turkish teachers of Englishwho are already on the job (Hismanoğlu, 2009).The main reason of difficulty of these phonemeslies under the fact that these sounds [θ] and [ð] do not exist in the sound system of Turkish.
As it is seen in figure 2, the [θ] sound, which is named theta, is a voiceless interdental fricative sound while the [ð] sound, which is called eth, is a voiced interdental fricative sound as it is seen in figure 1.
The voiceless [θ] sound can be heard clearly in such words like thick /θɪk/, ethnic /ɛθnɪk/ and sheath /ʆiθ/.The voiced [ð] sound can be heard in such words like thus /ðʌs/, within /wɪðɪn/ and lathe /leɪð/. Both [θ] and [ð] are highly frequent sounds in English language. As can be seen above,these sounds occur word initially, word medially and word finally.
As these sounds are not coded in the Turkish consonant chart, they are converted into the closest sounds in the mother tongue;which is also defined as ‟the establishment of mother tongue interference‟‟ (Demirezen, 2008).In this case they are mostly /t/ and /d/, to compensate for the lack of exact sounds in the target language (Dalton, 1997).
The most common tendency is that Turkish learnersreplace the phoneme /θ/ with the phoneme /t/ and the phoneme /ð/ with the phoneme /d/.Such words pairs can be given as examples: taught / thought, team / theme, mat / math, boot / booth and the like. For the phoneme /ð/, dose/those, dough/though, dare/there, sued/sooth can be given as instances.
To remedy this case, a sample lesson plan on teaching these problem causing-sounds has been developed according to the audio articulation method developed by Demirezen (2004), which is claimed to be a fossilized pronunciation mistake breaker.It is hoped that the sample lesson plan on the [θ] and [ð] sounds will correct the pronunciation mistakes of non-native English teachers and teacher-trainees in Turkey.
1 .M O TIVATIO N – WARM U P
2.REVIEWIN G TH E PREVIO U S M ATERIAL Students, remember that in our last lesson we studied the articulation of such words as sin, sink, bass, pass and some. We also learned thearticulation of these words: breeze, tease, closed, bays and rise. The [ s ] sound is a voiceless alveolar fricative consonant and, the [ z ] sound is a voiced alveolar fricative sound in English . (Barlow, J.A. & Gierut, J.A., 2002) (Baker, A. & Goldstein, 2008:52-56)
3.IN TRO D U C TIO N O F TH E N EW TO PIC My Thumbies Child: Mom: I have two thin thumbies Youve got to quit. Dont suck thy thumbs-- Theyre with me day and night. your left one or your right. My favorite thumb is on my left. Its pushing all your front teeth out. The others on my right Its ruining your bite. My thumbies always soothe me It might take years to get straight teeth, when I am feeling sad. with braces on your mouth. They help me to protect myself It isnt fun. Believe me, son. when I am feeling mad. So keep your thumbs down south. My thumbies help me fall asleep when I am feeling tired. Child: I do not know how better friends could ever be desired. Im 5years old Its time to quit-- My mother says its time to quit-- of all the silly habits. that sucking thumbs is bad. I dont want people thinking that And every time I suck my thumbs, my teeth look like a rabbits. my mom gets very mad. THE END!
5.The C orpus of [ ð ] SoundWord-Initially Word-Medially Word-Finallythis’ll /ðɪsəl/ thereof /ðɛərʌv/ either /ˈiðər/ smoother /smuðər/ breathe /brið/ blithe /blaɪð/thus /ðʌs/ thereby /ðɛərˈbaɪ/ mother /mʌðər/ northern bathe /beɪð/ scathe /skeɪð/ /nɔrðərn/thou /ðaʊ/ therefor /ðɛərfɔr/ father /fɑðər/ gather /gæðər/ clothe /kloʊð/ blythe /blaɪð/thy /ðaɪ/ therefore /ðɛrfɔr/ tether /tɛðər/ together lathe /leɪð/ scythe /sið/ /təgɛðər/than /ðæn/ they’ll /ðeɪl/ dither /dɪðər/ southern /sʌðərn sheathe /ʆið/ seethe /sið/those /ðoʊz/ then /ðɛn/ feather heather /hɛðər/ withe /wɪð/ tithe /taɪð/ /fɛðər/the /ðə/ theirs /ðɛrz/ bother rhythm /rɪðəm/ soothe /suð/ writhe /raɪð/ /bɑðər/these /ðiz/ them /ðɛm/ brother weather /wɛðər/ teethe /ti:ð/ /brʌðər/they /ðeɪ/ their /ðər/ neither /niðər/ bathing/ /beɪðɪŋ/ wreathe /rið/that /ðæt/ thence/ /ðɛns/ within /wɪðɪn/ further /fɜrðər/ mouth /maʊð/there /ðɛr/ thee / ði/ other /ʌðər/ rather /ræðər/ loathe /loʊð/though /ðoʊ/ this /ðɪs/ worthy /wɜrði/ another lithe /laɪð/ /ənʌðər/
6.E STA BL ISHME NT OF MINIMA L PA IRS (1) sheath (n) sheathe (v) /i θ/ ʆ /i ð/ ʆ thigh thy / aɪ/ θ / aɪ/ ð teeth (n) teethe (v) /tiːθ/ / ð/ tiː
6.E STA BL ISHME NT OF MINIMA L PA IRS (2) ether either (Am .) / θɚ/ i / ðɚ/ i loath (ad j) loathe (v) / ʊθ/ lo / ʊð/ lo wreath (n) wreathe (v) / θ/ ri / ð/ ri
6.E STA BL ISHME NT OF MINIMA L PA IRS (3) m outh (n) m outh (v) / aʊð/ m / aʊθ/ m thou thou / ʊ/ θa / ʊ/ ða sooth (ad j) soothe / θ/ su / ð/ su
6.E STA BL ISHME NT OF MINIMA L PA IRS (4) thus thus θʌ / s/ ðʌ / s/ thistle this’ll / səl/ θɪ / səl/ ðɪ with withe / ɪθ/ w / ɪð/ w
7.E STA BL ISHME NT OF NE A R-MINIMA L PA IRS (1) Som etim es an exact m inim al pair contrasting two phonem es d oes not existin a language. L inguists then look for near m inim al pairs. In a nearminimal pair only the sound s surround ing the phonem es are id entical. bath bathe /æ/ b θ / ɪð/ be cloth clothe / ɔθ/ kl / ʊð/ klo
8. TONGUE TWISTE RS1. 2. A sheath Either A sword sheath Either of these A leather sword sheath Either of these ethers A leather sword sheath of Sm ith Either of these third -rate ethers3. 4.Teeth ThighH ealthy teeth Thick thighH ealthy teeth in the m outh Thy thick thighH ealthy teeth teething in the m outh Thy thick thigh in a pie
8. TONG UE TWISTE RS5. 6.Breath BathBreathing the breath In the bathBreathing the holy breath Bathing in the bathBreathing the holy breath with a thief Bathing the baby in the bath7. 8.C loth WreathingWool cloth Wreathing Thom asThe thickest wool cloth Wreathing Thom as in a wreathThe thickest wool cloth to clothe Wreathing Thom as in a wreath with wrath
9.GIVING THE RUL E ð/ / is a voiced interd ental fricative sound . θ / / is a voiceless interd ental fricative sound . During the production of these sounds, the tip of the tongue sticks out a bit between the upper and the lower teeth (Demirezen 1987: 39). To produce these sounds put your tongue between your teeth and blow out air between your tongue and your top teeth (Baker, 1991: 133). (figures taken from http://englishgoes.com/en/english-pronunciation-lesson-2-th/)
9. G IVING THE RUL ESOUND VOICING DURATION PASSAGE ARTICULATOR POINT OF ARTICULATION/ð/ thy voiced continuant oral tip of tongue top teeth/θ/ thigh voiceless continuant oral tip of tongue top teeth (Nilsen & Nilsen, 1973: 54) (Baker, A. & Goldstein, 2008:156-160)
10. MINIMA L SE NTE NC E S1 Elizabeth can easily spell the word THY / THIGH.2 I don’t like EITHER / ETHER.3 My father makes a good LATHER / LATHER.4 How do you say the word LOATHE / LOTH?5 They will SHEATHE / SHEATH the blade. (Nilsen & Nilsen, 1973)6 Rachel doesn’t know the meaning of SOOTH / SOOTHE.7 TEETHE / TEETH is a difficult word to pronounce.8 Liz told me that she found THOU / THOU on the street yesterday.9 Does the word WREATHE / WREATH have two ‘e’ letters?10 Here is an example word including TH: BATH / BATHE.11 LATH / LATHE is an unknown word for many students.
11. SE NTE NC E S WITH C ONTE XTUA L C L UE S1 Julia will EITHER get ETHER or novocain.2 Please SHEATHE your knife in a SHEATH.3 The baby’s TEETH will soon TEETHE.4 They will WREATHE him in a WREATH.5 Michael is LOTH to LOATHE anyone in the class. (Nilsen & Nilsen, 1973)6 Don’t MOUTHE a speech when your MOUTH is full.7 The three children BATHE in the same BATH.8 My daughter couldn’t find CLOTH to CLOTHE her doll.9 A SOOTH herbal tea will SOOTHE her.10 Mine, THOU lord of life, send me a THOU again.11 Does THY THIGH hurt a lot after the operation?
12. ORA L RE A DINGInstruction: Listen to the paragraph carefully and notedown the words that have /ð/ and /θ/ in it. How manyvoiced and unvoiced TH sounds can you find? Even though my father is a weatherman, he cant predict with absolute certainty whether it will rain or not. Neither can the other people who work with him. They say theres only a thirty per cent chance of rain, and the next thing you know, its pouring. They predict snow, and theres nothing for another five days. Then, theres a blizzard. So rather than trust my fathers weather forecasts, I use a more reasonable approach. I ask my mother.
A NSWE R K E YInstruction: Listen to the paragraph carefully and notedown the words that have /ð/ and /θ/ in it. How manyvoiced and unvoiced TH sounds can you find? Even though my father is a weatherman, he cant predict with absolute certainty whether it will rain or not. Neither can the other people who work with him. They say theres only a thirty per cent chance of rain, and the next thing you know, its pouring. They predict snow, and theres nothing for another five days. Then, theres a blizzard. So rather than trust my fathers weather forecasts, I use a more reasonable approach. I ask my mother. There are five voiceless TH sound s and twenty voiced TH sound s.
13. C hoose the word you hear!1 "_____ be good medicine for you." the doctor said. a. Thisll b. Thistle2 Hospitals smell like ____. a. either b. ether3 He could not speak. He couldnt even ______ the words. a. mouthe b. mouth4 In 1620, the Pilgrims believed in "love _____ neighbor". a. thy b. thigh5 Swords and rapiers are kept in a ______. a.sheathe b.sheath6 The baby is crying. He must be cutting his _______. a. teethe b. teeth7 Babies usually start to _______ around 6 months of age. a. teethe b. teeth8 The carpenter is an excellent ____. a. lather (/laythe-^r/) b. lather(/lath-^r/)9 This shampoo doesnt produce enough _. a. lather (/laythe-^r/) b. lather(/lath-^r/)10 You hate him very much. In fact, you _____ him a. loathe b. loth
14. PRA C TIC E WITH TONGUE TWISTE RS1. They threw three thick things.2. Is this the thing? - Yes, this is the thing.3. Father, mother, sister, brother - hand in hand with one another.4. I thought a thought. But the thought I thought wasnt the thought I thought I thought.5. The thirty-three thankful thieves thought that they thanked the other thirty three thankful thieves throughout Thursday.6. Three thin thieves thought a thousand thoughts. Now if three thin thieves thought a thousand thoughts how many thoughts did each thief think?7. Thirty thousand thoughtless thieves thought they would make a thundering noise. So the thirty thousand thumbs thumbed on the thirty thousand drums. Read more: http://languageavenue.com/teaching-ideas/english-tongue-twisters/sound-th#ixzz14nlidqW9
15. SUMMA RY•To articulate the voiceless TH sound , put the tip of your tongue between your front teeth.•Blow out air between your tongue and top teeth.•D o not use your use.•To articulate voiced TH , just use your voice. Don’ forget that /θ/ is a voiceless interdental fricative sound while /ð/ is a voiced interdental fricative sound.
Voiced and unvoiced ‘ TH’ Sounds
1 6. ASSIGN M EN T1. In which of the alternatives is there an articulation of the voiced TH sound ?a. think b. thum b c. thus d . thud e. thistlea. ether b. bath c. cloth d . thank e. eithera. that b. m onth c. broth d . tooth e. path2. In which of the alternatives is there an articulation of the voiceless TH sound ?a. three b. thee c. thy d . thou e. bathea. though b. feather c. father d . these e. ethera. other b. m ethod c. neither d . together e. gather3. Prepare 5 tongue twisters includ ing both voiced and unvoiced TH .4. Write d own 3 sentences with contextual clues using the sound s we have learned today.5. Write a poem includ ing voiced and unvoiced TH sound s.
6.Consonant Sound PairVoiceless /Θ/ & Voiced C /ð/theater _____ clothe _____breath _____ bath _____brother _____ that _____bathe _____ thought _____those _____ cloth _____wealthy _____ whether _____thread _____ them _____weather _____ father _____these _____ think _____breathe _____ three _____thumb _____ mouthe _____healthy _____ teeth _____mouth _____ this _____bathe _____ thorough _____fourth _____ soothe _____through _____ together _____smooth _____ though _____month _____ mouth _____birth _____ thousand _____
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