Do we need to save water? Why? How, do we put it in the bank?
Water is our most important and precious resource. Without water there would be no life but it poses nonetheless increasing challenges to people, livelihoods and ecosystems around the world. Pollution, Climate Change, over population and mismanagement of resources threaten to disrupt the fragile balance of life. Today nearly 20% of the world population (One Billion people) lacks access to safe drinking water and it is projected that by 2025 almost 50% of the world population will struggle to meet their basic need. (UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft, Holland) (N.B. To bring all this data closer to home it may be interesting to note that 5% (41 million) of the European population are still lacking access to safe drinking water) Although rainfall may increase, the distribution will be uneven causing flooding in some areas (see Dublin, Carlow etc. in recent weeks) and prolonged droughts in other areas. The main problems associated with lack of access to clean water are obviously disease, with 6% of the global burden of disease attributed to it, but food, nature, production, pleasure, spirituality & culture are all aspects of our life that require water. Demand management, water distribution and re-use of water will be key points we have to look at globally in order to manage the world’s water resources sustainably It is therefore important to think, not only about our direct use of water but also about our indirect use of water. We can do this through the concept of looking at our Water Footprint .
Water Treatment All water that is supplied to residents and businesses in Ireland, irrespective of the source, (e.g. lakes, rivers, streams, springs, boreholes) will almost certainly have to go through some form of treatment to make it safe to drink. Factors such as high rainfall, soil type, and topography can all have an impact on water quality. All water supplies that are used for human consumption must meet certain standards, which have been laid down by the EU. They have to be free from microorganisms, parasites, and from any substances that may be a danger to public health if present in sufficient numbers or concentrations. There are four main techniques used in the treatment of water ; Storage: Water is stored in reservoirs where contaminants/impurities settle to the bottom (sedimentation). Coagulants may also be added causing contaminants to form clumps and also settle to the bottom. Pathogenic bacteria (i.e. disease producing) find it difficult to survive in storage and will gradually die out, while bleaching effects of sunlight helps to reduce any colour in the water. Filtration: The purpose of filtration is to remove fine, non-settleable particles from the water. Water is passed through sand or a fine wire mesh to remove particles. Sterilisation: Water must be sterilised to remove any pathogenic or disease producing organisms. This is best achieved by chemical methods. Chlorine is added to the water for public supply, but this isn’t always feasible for small installations. For smaller installations water is passed through a very fine filter capable of removing the bacteria. Other methods of sterilisation include ozone gas and ultra violet radiation. Softening: Hard water is recommended for drinking but it has disadvantages. The hardness can precipitate as unwanted scale in hot water pipes and boilers, and a great deal of soap is required to make a lather with the water. H a rd water is essentially caused by the presence of salts of calcium and magnesium. Softening of the water involves the removal of these salts. Pollutants There are many sources of water pollution in Ireland, including: Fertilisers – cause problems when used in excess and are washed off the land by rainfall and into a river or stream resulting in oxygen reduction and suffocation of fish (a process known as eutrophication); Pesticides and herbicides – again may also cause problems if large amounts run off the land and collect in a river or stream resulting in death of fish and animals higher up the food chain; Farm slurry – can cause similar problems to fertilisers; Salt – may get into the rivers when it is put onto the roads in winter, and cause serious damage to local ecosystems; Factory pollution – may be accidentally released into rivers without proper treatment; Leaching – where chemicals are washed (or leached) out of a landfill and carried into surface waters and/or groundwater; Detergents – contain phosphates which can be poisonous to aquatic life if present in sufficient quantities, e.g. phosphates can severely damage the gills of fish and kill fish eggs.
Similar to most management systems. Similar to ISO14000 and EC EMAS systems.
1. Hans van de Ven Green-Schools Office Environmental Education Unit An Taisce AN TAISCE The National Trust for Ireland
2. USE WATER RESPONSIBLY HOW ? WHY ?
3. Why? <ul><li>Essential to all forms of life </li></ul><ul><li>A very important resource </li></ul>
4. FACTS ABOUT WATER
5. Water Molecule Water Phases Water Hot Steam Cold Ice
7. Surface Tension
9. Water is a Solvent
10. Two Types of Water on Our Planet <ul><li>Fresh Water </li></ul>Salt Water
11. WILL WE RUN OUT OF WATER ?????
13. Earth’s Water Distribution Earth’s Water Fresh Water Fresh Surface Water (liquid) Fresh water 3% Other 0.9% Surface Water 0.9% Rivers 2%
14. Again Why ? <ul><li>‘ Clean’ water consumption increased, more and more people on earth need to use the 1% </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution increased (mainly sewerage leaks and chemical discharges) </li></ul>
15. WE USE CLEAN WATER FOR WHAT ? HOW MUCH ?
16. 145 litres/day >80 L 35-125 L 30-50 L 30-40 L 10-30 L 5-30 L 2-5 L 1-3 L
17. HOW ?
18. SEVEN STEPS The Greenschools Programme ISO14000/EMS/EMAS 2. Review 1. Green-Schools Committee 3.Action Plan Monitoring & Evaluation Curriculum Work Informing & Involving the school & wider community Green-Code
19. <ul><li>Record water meter readings </li></ul>2) Survey no. of taps, sinks, toilets, drips/leaks survey in school, timers on urinals, life cycle of school water, use of detergents & cleaners, local water amenities (rivers, streams, beaches), rainwater collection & usage, fertilizer. 3) Water at home – brushing teeth survey, detergent survey, waste-water survey. 2. Review
20. How to read the meter 00013 852 00014 356 504 Liter
21. Make whole school participate in water conservation Design awareness posters Certain group in committee September/ October Yes Organise ‘water action day’ Other group in committee plus teacher Before end of November Yes Reduce water used by 20% Read water meter daily/weekly Caretaker plus committee members Ongoing Yes Form ‘water squads’ with all pupils Teachers Up and running before end of October yes 3.Action Plan Goal Action Who When Done?
22. <ul><li>Check and Revise Action Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Keep all records for application </li></ul><ul><li>Water Wardens </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor progress </li></ul>Monitoring & Evaluation
23. Curriculum Work <ul><li>Geography: Human & Natural Environment and Water Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Science: Uses and phases of Water </li></ul><ul><li>Maths: Quantity Calculations and Graphs </li></ul><ul><li>Art: Posters/Projects </li></ul><ul><li>English: Essays/Poems </li></ul>
24. <ul><li>Local Businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Local Press </li></ul><ul><li>Coast Care Group </li></ul><ul><li>School Newsletter </li></ul><ul><li>Action Day </li></ul><ul><li>Parents, Grandparents, Neighbours and Friends </li></ul>Informing & Involving the school & wider community