In the Name of God,The Compassionate, The Merciful
Dr. Sayed Inseram Ali.B.Sc. ( Hons ), M.Sc.; AACC, ASMT, ASM, : USA;R.M. CANADA; IFCC U. K.
( 1 )- IMPORTANTANCE OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM:Immunology is the study of how the body protectsitself against invading pathogens and harmful cellsor substances.The basic function of the immune system are to:• Protect the body from the harmful effects of viral,bacterial, fungal, and parasitic pathogens and theirtoxins.• Destroy abnormal cells which may formed in thebody such as cancer cells.• Prevent the abnormal breakdown of the bodysown tissues.
( 2 )- NATURAL AND ACQUIRED IMMUNITY.The bodys immune mechanisms consist of :• Non-specific natural immunity.• Specific acquired immunity. – Specific. Non •Mechanical Barriers. •Antimicrobial secretion. •Phagocytosis. •Killer Cells. ( Natural ). •Body Natural Microbial flora. •Genetic factors. Specific (1) - Humoral or Cell- Mediated. IMMUNITY : (2)- Corporal Local Abs. Active : (1) - Infection. (2) - Immunization Vaccination. Passive : (1) - Transplacental Breast Milk. (2) - Antitoxins Gamma globulins.
Antibodies :Antibodies are immunoglobulins ( Ig ) which react specificallywith antigens. Immunoglobulins are composed of two types ofpolypeptide ( amino acid ) chains, i.e. heavy chains and lightchains. They are classified by their heavy chains because theseare different for each class of immunoglobulin as follows :Ig G :Ig G is the main antibody which binds to foreign antigen at alater stage of a primary infection than Ig M and forms the rapidantibody response in repeated infection i.e. secondaryresponse.Ig M :Ig M provide the early but short - lived antibody response in aprimary infection, and therefore rises in Ig M levels indicatepresent or recent infection.
Ig A :Ig A antibodies are found in secretions of the eye, nose,mouth, bronchi, and intestinal tract. They are locallyactive in neutralizing toxins and viruses, and assistingin phagocytosis.Ig D :Ig D is normally present in the body in small amount. Itis known to be active against food antigens and autoantigens of nuclear origin.Ig E :Ig E, like Ig D, is also normally present in the body invery small amounts and is found in mucousmembranes. Raised levels of Ig E are found in someintestinal parasitic infections and Allergicmanifestation.
( 3 ) - NUTRITION AND DEFICIENCY DISORDERS:An intake of essential nutrients and water is required tosustain life and to keep the different systems of the bodyfunctioning well and in harmony.( A ) - The following are required:•Carbohydrates and fats.•Protein.•Fiber.•Iron.•Other Mineral Salts.•Vitamins and Amino Acids.•Water.
( B ) - Importance of Breast Feeding a Baby.Breast milk contains antibodies and other protectivesubstances. It is a very nutritious food and is enoughon its own for a babys needs until the infant is aboutfour months old. After this, breast milk is not enoughand other food must be added to a babys diet toprovide extra calories and protein, as well as vitaminsand minerals. If this is not done a child will not growand develop normally and suffer from protein – energymalnutrition ( PEM ).( C ) – Drugs and its abuses.( D ) – Exposure to Natural Environment.( E ) – Mental Stress.
( 4 ) - SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC TEST PROCEDURES.(A)- LATEX.(B)- HAEMAGLUTINATION.(C)- JEL DIFFUSION.( D )- FLOURECENT TECHNIQUE.(E)- ELISA.(F)- RAPID TESTS ( monoclonal and polyclonal Abs. ) Diffusion.( G )- PCR. TECHNOLOGY.
( 5 ) - DIAGNOSTIC TEST REQUIREMENT. SAMPLE: S - Smallest A - Amount of M - Material P - Provided to L - Laboratory for E - Evaluation.
( 6 ) – SAMPLE REQUIRMENT. ( a ). MACRO TESTING. ( b ). MICRO TESTING.( 7 ) – HOW TO INTERPERATE THE RESULTS.A – BACTERIAL INFECTIONS. SALMONELLA.BRUCELLA.B – VIRAL INFECTION. HEPATITIS, HIV, HSV, CMV, CHLAMYDIA,RUBELLA, ETC.C – PROTOZOAL INFECTION. SHISTOSOMA, AMOEBA, TOXO.
( 8 ) - CONCCUSION.1 - No Serological Negative test gives final diagnosis. Due toseropositive window.2 - Low titre positive result should not be given finaldiagnosis till the follow up is done and confirmed.3 - In some Bacterial, parasitological and viral infection IgGresult should not be considered as final for treatment till IgM is done.4 - A confirm positive result is taken as positive.
Final Remarks: An apple a day keeps the Doctor Away But If the Doctor is good and handsome keeps thesickness away. ( Zain Lab in need is a Zain Lab indeed ). END.