Internet Activism & Hacktivism
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Internet Activism & Hacktivism Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Political Communication In CMC (Internet Activism & Hacktivism) Alexander Katzmaier
  • 2. Internet activism
    • Internet activism is the use of communication technologies such as e-mail, web sites, and podcasts for various forms of activism to enable faster communications by citizen movements and deliver a message to a large audience
  • 3. Cyberactivists
    • Internet activists are also called Cyberactivists
    • They use CMC to promote human rights, animal rights, environmental issues and the rights of marginalized communities
    • Goals:
      • organize people around these issues
      • try to create social change
  • 4. Key resource
    • The Internet is a key resource for independent activists or e-activists
    • Especially when a serious violation of human rights occurs, the Internet is essential in reporting this to the outside world
    • Listservs like BurmaNet and China News Digest help distribute news that would otherwise be inaccessible in these countries
  • 5. Usage of Internet Activism 1/3
    • Fundraising
      • Groups like MoveOn and Care2 have successfully used the Internet to raise funds and push their causes
    • E-petitions
      • Internet activists also pass on e-petitions to be emailed to the government and organizations to protest against many issues from the arms trade to animal testing
  • 6. Usage of Internet Activism 2/3
    • Lobbying
      • Lobbying is also made easier via the internet, thanks to mass e-mail and the ability to broadcast a message widely at little cost
    • Volunteering
      • Activists themselves may not realize that they are “volunteering,” even though they are contacting voters for a candidate, or acting with encouragement from a campaign
  • 7. Usage of Internet Activism 3/3
    • Community building
      • Community building is the creation of a group of individuals within a regional area (such as a neighbourhood) or with a common interest
    • Organizing
      • To organize activities which take place solely online, solely offline but organized online or a combination of online and offline
  • 8. Example of early activism
    • Lotus MarketPlace: Households (April 10, 1990)
      • Software which contains name, address, and spending habit information on 120 million individual US citizens
      • Mass e-mail compaign was started
      • Over 30 thousand people contacted Lotus
      • Lotus issued a press release stating that it had cancelled MarketPlace
  • 9. Hacktivism
    • Hacktivism is the combination of the words hack and activism
    • Definition:
      • Hacktivism is "the nonviolent use of illegal or legally ambiguous digital tools in pursuit of political ends.”
  • 10. Techniques 1/2
    • Defacements
      • An attack on a website that changes the visual appearance of the site
    • Redirects
      • To send in a new direction or course
    • Denial-of-service attacks
      • An attempt to make a computer resource unavailable to its intended users.
    • Information theft
  • 11. Techniques 2/2
    • Web site parodies
      • A work created to mock, comment on or poke fun at an original work
    • Virtual sit-ins
      • Consists of continuous access to one specific website by many different users at the same time
    • Virtual sabotage
    • Software development
  • 12. Hacker vs. Hacktivist
    • Similarities
      • A hacktivist uses the same tools and techniques as a hacker
    • Differences
      • A hacktivist disrupts services and bring attention to a political or social cause but he or she doesn’t want to destroy something
  • 13. Examples of Hacktivism
    • General
      • One might leave a highly visible message on the home page of a Web site that gets a lot of traffic or which contains a point-of-view that is being opposed
    • 2008
      • A computer hacker leaks the personal data of 6 million Chileans (including ID card numbers, addresses, telephone numbers and academic records) from government and military servers to the internet, to protest Chile's poor data protection
  • 14. Criticism
    • Internet activism
      • Activism faces the same challenges as other aspects of the digital divide
      • Especially relevant in developing countries, where many people still lack even the basic literacy needed to access written materials on the Internet
      • „ Cyberbalkanization“:
        • The same medium that lets people access a large number of news sources also lets them pinpoint the ones they agree with and ignore the rest
  • 15. Criticism
    • Hacktivism
      • Hacktivists are defacing government websites as well as web sites of groups who oppose their ideology
      • DoS: attack on free speech
      • Depending on who is using the term, hacktivism can be a politically constructive form of anarchist civil disobedience or an undefined anti-systemical gesture
  • 16. Bibliography
    • Emerson, J. (2005). An Introduction to Activism on the Internet. http://www.backspace.com/action/ (accessed 09/02/2009)
    • Arquilla, J. (2002). Networks and Netwars: The Future of Terror, Crime, and Militancy. RAND Corporation. Chapter Eight
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_activism (accessed 11/03/2009)
    • Jordan, T. (2002). Activism!: direct action, hacktivism and the future of society. Reaktion Books
  • 17. Bibliography
    • McCaughey, M., Ayers, M. (2003). Cyberactivism: Online Activism in Theory and Practice. Routledge; 1 edition
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hacktivism (accessed 11/03/2009)
    • Delio, M. (2004) Hacktivism and How It Got Here. http://www.wired.com/techbiz/it/news/2004/07/64193?currentPage=1 (accessed 09/02/2009)
    • Samuel, A. (2004). Hacktivism and the Future of Political Participation. Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts