GCC H117 Summer session lecture 1 Initiation - Pre-Columbian - Spanish Conquest - England Settlement
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GCC H117 Summer session lecture 1 Initiation - Pre-Columbian - Spanish Conquest - England Settlement



Summer Session US History Survey Columbus to Jamestown Lecture 1

Summer Session US History Survey Columbus to Jamestown Lecture 1



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GCC H117 Summer session lecture 1 Initiation - Pre-Columbian - Spanish Conquest - England Settlement  GCC H117 Summer session lecture 1 Initiation - Pre-Columbian - Spanish Conquest - England Settlement Presentation Transcript

  • Welcome!! Today’s Agenda History 117: United States History from Colonial Period to Reconstruction Instructor: Andrew Ligeti “Andy”>>>>> Ticket Number: 1129 1. Just a Sherman Oaks Kid @ Heart, Griffith Park in 1961; Decoration Day 1865; Detroit 1972; ’68, Mate! 2. Syllabus: Think and Walk Like a Historian – 5X4 = 4 W’s & 4 C’s = 20/20 Vision 3. Are you too busy?? 4. Do you have what it takes??? 5. Should we celebrate that Columbus guy who sailed the ocean blue in 1492?
  • Sebastian Cabot 1544 Map of Western Hemisphere
  • Below is Flookys Arcade “Best Hot Dogs” in Valley & Wed Night Cruising on Van Nuys Blvd Rt is the art deco La Reina Movie Theatre
  • Am I Too Busy To Achieve my Academic Goals?…. Sleep 5-8 = 25-40 Travel 1-2 =5 -10 Eat 1-2 = 5 -10 Hygiene 1-2 = 5 -10 Errands 1-3 = 5 -15 Total 9-17 (12) = 45 - 85 Work Full Time/Part Time: Socialize/Recreate: College: Sub Total Work/College Total of Your Daily/Week Existence 24 /120 4-8 hrs day 20-40 hrs week School Each 3 unit class requires X 2 hours for study or 6 hrs/week If you carry full time load or 12 units, that’s 24 hours/week you should study…. Hey, what about weekends??? 12 hours of class time 24 hours of study time 36 hours The Number 56 Below or Above?
  • Opening up a can of worms? 1st Q’s 1. According to historian Donald Miller, how does history separate humans from other earth’s species? 2. Why does Scottish economist Adam Smith believe that the 1492 Columbus contact with the Native Indians of the Bahamas is the one of two greatest moments in history? 3. What distinct characteristics of the divergent North American Indian population did the Europeans fail to recognize? What two ways did they perceive the indigenous peoples of North America? 4. Identify the main forces that caused Columbus to sail West from Spain to China in 1492? What is the revisionist view of him and why is it still difficult to accept? 5. What circumstances contributed to Spain’s Black Legend? What evidence suggest other European Empires were also guilty of pillage and atrocities against Indigenous Americans
  • The 40-Year-Old Photo That Gives Us A Reason To Smile Late July 1973 Photo by Joseph Crachiola of children playing in suburb of Detroit
  • So…ladies and gentlemen… Our main summer question is: How can the study of America’s past help us understand how the struggle for Liberty shaped both our personal and collective meaning for freedom? 1st We need to discover where to find the key & how to turn it?
  • Who won best actor for 1939
  • 1. How do we know what we know about the past? 2. How can we use this knowledge to make you, me, and we better? 3. Does it matter? 4. Do you care? A child’s shoe and his/her sip cup – Two historical artifacts from the Holocaust – what do they reflect?
  • Lessons of Humanitarian History In January of 1942, the German leadership of the Third Reich held a meeting in a suburb of Berlin to plan the murder of every Jew on the European continent. This meeting was benignly called the Wannsee Conference. Many who attended the conference held either M.D. or Ph.D. degrees from German universities. Several lessons emerge: 1. First, one can hold a Ph.D. and be an S.O.B. 2. Second, these Germans possessed tremendous intellectual imagination, yet were horribly devoid of moral vision or ethical action. 3. Third, we learn that advancement in the world depends upon the power of the intellect; but the very existence of the world depends upon intellectual imagination and ethical action. The two are inseparable.
  • “An artistic vision without precedent” The Sistine Chapel ceiling, painted by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512, is a cornerstone work of High Renaissance art and an example of extreme European contradictions
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E- JYchakO_8
  • Not exactly Aliens…The Plains Lakota • North American Native Tribes were culturally diverse, developed, and steeped in memory. • In particular, the city of Cahokia (Mound Builders) near St. Louis had a pop. 10-30,000 established trading relations with other trbes over ½ the Continent beginning a 1000 years before Columbus arrived. • Why does Foner state that European views of Native American Indians were extreme? What were the Indians views on land use? See Foner… https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WgPM2n cMMZk Kiowa Legend 11:00 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8sP9v 6molZ4 Buffalo Dance from Dances with Wolves
  • M A R C 0 ? (He’s on the Silk Road, Bro…)
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fxGqc CeV3qk
  • A Collision of Worlds Old vs. New Euro-Asian vs. Native American What are the misconceptions of each group?
  • C1When Worlds Collide: European and Indigenous American Cultures Make Contact the 15th Century 1. What were the misconceptions that European Explorers & Conquerors had on New World peoples? What specific examples did Zinn and Foner use to emphasize such misconceptions? 2. What great contributions to European culture did the American peoples make during the Columbian Exchange? 3. Argue whether Columbus merely was a victim of centuries of European prejudice or intent on enriching himself with wealth and power by the good graces of Ferdinand and Isabella and his Christian God. Should we continue to honor Columbus? Explain 4. How did the Arawak, Cacique, Aztec and Inca experiences with the Spanish conquistadors predict centuries of racial discrimination and a quest for wealth by Europeans to the New World? 5. According to Jared Diamond how did Germs, Guns and Steel decimate the great Civilizations of the New World?
  • 6. Why is the narrative and historical writings of Bartolome de las Casas significant in understanding the full meaning of early European contact with American Natives? What views emerged that challenged those of Columbus, Cortez and Pizarro on how Native Americans should be treated by foreigners? 7. How did the the Spanish Caste System and the Encomienda system shape relations within the expanding Spanish New World? 8. How did Small Pox decimate the native population of the New World? Describe the various means that historians have learned about how disease developed and wiped out such large populations in the New World? 9. How can the four C’s of history: Contingency, Conflict, Continuity, and Connections determine critical understanding for our class? 10. Based on Spanish narratives of “When Worlds Collide,” what projections can you make for later explorations and conquests of North America by Europeans?
  • to New Guinea, but we black people had little cargo of our own?” Yali, a New Guinean politician (p. 14) • Diamond recognized the influence of geography in determining why Europeans conquered the New World • Very unequal distribution of domesticable wild plants and animals around the world. • Eurasian civilization is not so much a product of ingenuity, but of opportunity and necessity. Advanced civilizations are not created out of superior intelligence, but from the effect of a chain of developments, each made possible by certain preconditions. • Question: What were these pre-conditions that allowed Spain to conquer much of the New World?
  • The cover art actually says a lot about the way the Western world looked at, and sometimes still looks at the conquest of the New World.
  • Advance of Christianity Heroic Conquistadors Weak, effeminate, native leader Frightened, superstitious natives.
  • Continental Axis Jared Diamond: Geography mattered: 1)Dictated the domesticable species available (plant and animal) 2)Dictated the ease at which they spread.
  • Continental Axis: Climate Temperature also stays more the same in the same latitude (east-west) versus moving across longitude (north- south) Thus, crops that grow in Western Russia will also grow in France. But crops grown in France will NOT grow in Libya. Cold Winters Warm mostly year-round
  • Why are they called the Trade Winds? Ocean Currents??
  • THE SPREAD OF IDEAS • Bible • Protestant Reformation • Scientific Revolution • Enlightenment • Shakespeare • Exploration • Conquest
  • The European book output rose from a few million to around one billion copies within a span of less than four centuries ~ Charting the "Rise of the West”
  • The Spanish had an edge: • Horses • Steel (weapons and armor) • Germs • Writing • Advanced technology: seafaring ships • Gunpowder – Spanish Musket – Cannons
  • • Inca Emperor Atahualla encounters the Spanish Conquistador Francisco Pizarro at Cajamarca in 1532 • Atahualla 80,000 soldiers; Pizarro had 168 • Pizarro captures Atahullpa, collects enormous ransom, then kills him anyway • Battle key to conquest of Inca empire
  • Why Does Pizarro Succeed? • Domesticated horses used in battle • Incas already divided by civil war which rose from an epidemic of smallpox • Pizarro was transported by a sophiscated Spanish Galleon navigated by European maritime technology developed by a centralized political state
  • Historical Determinism 1. Our space aliens may have incorrectly predicted which regions of the earth would advance quicker, but according to Jared Diamond – could we now reason that Europe had an advantage in modernity? 2. Historical determinism is the stance in explaining history or advocating a political position that events are historically predetermined…or are based on relevant contingencies that influence how history unfolds. 3. Case in point: The Colombo Caper
  • It’s Italy for Explorers ~~~~ Genoa, Venice,
  • Portugal’s Prince Henry the Navigator’s Sagre school of navigators and map makers (Their ITT Tech) Bartolomieu Diaz (1487) Vasco de Gama (1497) All employed the fastest and most maneuverable ship on the high seas The Caravels were capable of “beating” the wind by sailing “windward” or against it: ‘A’Tacking it  Harbinger for the Age of Discovery
  • Hail Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli 1397-1482 .
  • Wrong Right Getting There….Why we’re called America Amerigo Vespucci's Map
  • Columbus made 4 journeys to the New World between 1492 and 1503 What was the significance of this event in historical determinism?
  • Visionary explorer?? Discoverer of the New World?? Christianizing Messiah?? The propagator of the enslavement and the demise of millions of native Americans? A delusional megalomaniac Geneon navigator who went to his deathbed unaware of his true accomplishment? Columbus was christened by Ferdinand and Isabella “Admiral of the Ocean Sea” following his October 12, 1492 landing on San Salvador.
  • The Stealth Executioner: Small Pox Plague Disease (especially smallpox) was one control – not intentional at first • Peru’s population fell from 1.3 million in 1570 to 600,000 in 1620. • Mexico’s population fell from 25.3 million Indians in 1519 to 1 million in 1605 • Native population had no immunity because of isolation from the population networks of Africa and Eurasia.
  • The Stealth Executioner Taken from Florentine Codex • Sores erupted on our faces, our breasts, our bellies; we were covered with agonizing sores from head to foot. • The illness was so dreadful that no one could walk or move. The sick were so utterly helpless that they could only lie on their beds like corpses, unable to move their limbs or even their heads. They could not lie face down or roll from one side to the other. If they did move their bodies, they screamed with pain.
  • Cortes (1521) & Pizarro (1532) Conquers Aztec and Inca Empires • 1517—Spaniards begin to explore Mexico • June 3, 1519 Spaniards arrive at Cempoala with 11 ships, 600 soldiers, 200 native servants, 16 horses, 32 crossbows, 13 muskets, and 14 cannons • Dona Marina is also known as La Malinche became Cortez’s translator and mistress • Enters into strategic alliances with Aztec Enemies (Tlaxcalans) • November 8, 1519 – Cortes enters Tenochtitlan & kidnaps Montezuma from 11/14/1519- 5/20/1520
  • Spanish Conquest of Peru • Francisco Pizarro (c. 1475-1541) • Pizarro, having explored Isthmus of Panama with Balboa reaches northern Peru in 1524. • Hearing about great wealth of Incas plans his conquest of Incas • Under Francisco Pizarro 169 Spanish soldiers 1532 Battle of Cajamarca (Inca Empire 15 mill) • Pizarro reads about Cortez triumph over the Aztecs by killing Montezuma • Pizarro tricked Atahualpa—killed him after he got Atahualpa’s gold • Fierce resistance for at least 100 years • What attitudes about the indigenous tribes do Cortez and Pizarro share? • http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/201 0/04/inca-skeletons/
  • Encomienda System "sin indios no hay Indias" (without Indians, there are no Indies – i.e. America) >Spanish crown granted a Spaniard a specified number of natives to protect them, teach them Spanish, and convert them to Catholicism. >In return the natives were made to contribute to the wealth of the Spanish land owner in mining gold, sliver and farming. >In reality this system was a inhumane treatment of the indigenous people that enslaved, tortured, raped, pillaged and murdered them. As witnessed by Bartolome de las Casas
  • Did someone say Optimal Fragmentation??? • According Jared Diamond, societies that have been able to balance freedom with a semblance of control become technologically advanced quicker. • Too much central control = stagnation • Too much fragmentation = constant turmoil • If a society finds a  Medium they get healthy competition that advances their mission • Take Europe and the Printer or Portugal/Spain and the Caravel….and you get the first truly World Super Power
  • Bartolome de las Casas (1584-1566): An embodiment of reform and tolerance during an age of murder & mayhem
  • Bartolomo de las Casas 1484-1566 “Protector of the Indians” 1. Spanish historian who originally was a Encomienda owner and later became a reformer. 2. Witnessed the atrocities of Spanish treatment of Indians
  • A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies & The Black Legend • In 1552 Las Casa published the first book that contained accounts of the abuses committed by Spaniards against Native Americans that he witnessed. • His account was largely responsible for the adoption of the New Laws of 1542, which abolished native slavery for the first time in European colonial history and led to the Valladolid debate. • The book became an important element in the creation and propagation of the so-called Black Legend – the tradition of describing the Spanish empire as exceptionally morally corrupt and violent
  • The 1550 Valladolid Debate In 1550, de las Casas defended the Indians rights against the Encomienda System against Ginés de Sepúlveda who argued that the Indians were pagans and barbarous and required conversion by Spanish masters in order to become civilized. Las Casas maintained the Indians were indeed civilized and imbued with social norms and; that a peaceful mission was the only true way of converting the natives The Judges took several months before coming to an inconclusive verdict: both Sepulveda and de las Casas each claimed they’d had won.
  • Cabeza de Vaca’s La Relación • November 1528 • A former Conquistador of Pánfilo de Narváez, de Vaca became stranded on Galveston Island with survivors who became captured by local native Indians. Those who had been masters were now subjects. • Cabeza de Vaca resorted to diplomacy, and probably considerable prayer, in hopes that these Indians would take pity and show mercy on his band of disparate former conquistadores. • He and only three survivors (among them a black slave named Estevan) were initially enslaved but gained their trust of the Avavares people. For seven years they traveled through the southwest developing a relationship and growing respect for the idegenous Indians they had once thought as savages.
  • Northwest Passage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uQOT MSeYias Fall on Me by REM
  • Jacque Cartier (1534/35) Henry Hudson: 1609 Hudson River 1611 Hudson Bay Samuel Champlain Jacque Cartier
  • Samuel Champlain at war with the Iroquois @ Lake Champlain (The Iroquois were enemies of the Huron, traders with the French In the 150 years since European contact, perhaps 80 million Indians—nearly one-fifth of humankind at that time—died
  • Where is this place??? Hint Sinatra like singing about it 
  • Chapter 2 Guiding Questions 1. What motivated England to colonize the New World? How similar to or different from Spain’s motives, discussed in Chapter 1, were England’s? 2. Why was the Jamestown Colony unstable and its survival questionable? Who settled there? What were their goals? How did they interact with the Indians? 3. How was tolerance and intolerance of religion significant in the founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony? What was John Winthrop’s Vision of a “City on a Hill”? 4. Explain how Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson showed how the Puritan belief in each individual’s ability to interpret the Bible could easily lead to criticism of the religious establishment. 5. Discuss the idea of the rights of Englishmen and what that meant to the settlers in the New World. How did the English Civil War affect the colonists’ understanding of their rights?