“Expand the Sphere, & All Shall
1. How did Jefferson’s 1787
Northwest Ordinance and
Madison’s Federalist’s Paper
#10 on the size of the
American landscape relate to
an Empire of Liberty ethos?
2. Could competing factions
(interests) cancel each other
out, as Madison suggests, in a
expanding America to prevent
dominance of one to another
and an tyrannical
3. How is the current same sex
marriage case before the
Supreme Court an example of
“We shall form to the American
union a barrier against the
dangerous extension of the
British Province of Canada and
add to the Empire of Liberty an
extensive and fertile Country
thereby converting dangerous
Enemies into valuable friends." –
Thomas Jefferson to George
Rogers Clark, 25 December 1780
“The Gleaner of Women’s
1. At a time of the American Revolution, Mary
Wollstonecraft defended the liberties and
rights of women to have an “equal footing”
2. Her book A Vindication of the Rights of
Woman (1792) she argues that women
ought to have an education equal with their
position in society & access to wages to
enable them to care for themselves and
3. Wollstonecraft asserts that women are
essential to the nation because they
educate its children and because they could
be "companions" to their husbands rather
than mere wives.
4. Women, according to Wollstonecraft are not “ornaments for men” but deserve the same
rights and recognition inherent in Lockean ideals. However, she didn’t infer that women are
equal to men in society, but rather should stand firm in reason and refrain from emotional
sensibilities that could render them weak and disempowered in society.
5. Her book provides a example of how an early women’s movement for an equal station in
society entered and expanded gender roles within the public sphere. (page 291)
Washington’s Presidency 1789-1796
1. Established precedence: Cabinet,
Leadership, White House Pomp &
Circumstance; Moderation; Two
Terms; Farewell Address
2. Faced with internal disunion
between Federalists and Democrat
3. Faced international conflict between
France & England (Genet Affair ;
Impressments ; Jay Treaty w/GB
4. Dealt with sobering Whiskey
5. Warned nation to refrain from
foreign entanglements & political
6. Retired to Mount Vernon & Freed his
slaves in his Will – “First in War, First
in Peace, First in the Hearts of his
Countrymen.” ~ Henry “Light Horse
Beginning of Fraction/Faction Politics
The John Adams Presidency (1796-1800)
1. No one was anymore prepared
to hold office than Adams –
Immense Potential Why???
2. Suffered from Big Ego, Too
Independent, Distrusting of
common man – Federalist
3. XYZ Affair showed his strength
& his weaknesses as a leader
4. Fear of Republican Public
Sphere caused him to sign the
Alien Sedition Acts – A flagrant
affront to his former self.
5. His last minute Midnight Judge
Appointment before leaving
office contradicted his
predecessor’s wish to remain
apolitical – Why???
The Federalists effectively used the slogan
"MILLIONS FOR DEFENSE, BUT NOT ONE
CENT FOR TRIBUTE" to strengthen their
political position. ~ XYZ Affair
Republican Public Sphere: Benjamin Franklin
Bache was editor of the Aurora, a
Republican newspaper. Bache had accused
George Washington of incompetence and
financial irregularities, and "the blind, bald,
crippled, toothless, querulous ADAMS" of
nepotism and monarchical ambition. He was
arrested for his activities!!!
Kentucky Virginia Resolves
1. Democrat Republicans Reaction to Alien Sedition Acts
2. Drafted by Jefferson and Madison
3. The Virginia and Kentucky legislatures passed
resolutions declaring the federal laws invalid within
their states. The bold challenge to the federal
government offered by this strong states' rights
position seemed to point toward imminent armed
conflict within the United States.
4. Enormous changes had occurred in the explosive
decade of the 1790s. Federalists in government now
viewed the defense of their political party as the
equivalent of the survival of the republic. This led them
to enact and enforce such harsh laws against civil
5. Madison, who had been the chief architect of a strong
central government in the Constitution, now was wary
of national authority. He actually helped the KENTUCKY
LEGISLATURE to reject federal law.
6. By placing states rights above those of the federal
government, Kentucky and Virginia had established a
precedent that would be used to justify the secession
of southern states in the Civil War during the
Nullification Crisis in the Jackson Presidency and
Secession threats by South Carolina’s John Calhoun
Under the terms of the ASA over
20 Republican newspaper
editors were arrested and some
were imprisoned. The most
dramatic victim of the law was
MATTHEW LYON. His letter that
criticized President Adams'
"unbounded thirst for ridiculous
pomp, foolish adulation, and
self avarice" caused him to be
imprisoned. While Federalists
sent Lyon to prison for his
opinions, his constituents
reelected him to Congress even
from his jail cell.
Death or Liberty: Gabriel’s Rebellion
1. Gabriel Prosser was a skilled slave blacksmith
who orchestrated the first slave rebellion during
the early days of the US in Richmond, Virginia.
2. The republican ideology of the Revolution and
the anti-elitist thrust of the Democratic-
Republicans helped shape Gabriel's vision in
leading a SLAVE REVOLT.
3. Gabriel expected "the poor white people" as
well as "the most redoubtable republicans" to
join his cause to create a more democratic
republic in Virginia . He especially identified
Quakers, Methodists, and Frenchmen as those
whites who were most "friendly to liberty.”
4. The assault planned for August 30, 1800,
however, never came together. Torrential rain
caused confusion and a traitor from within the
group warned white authorities of the
5. Gabriel's careful planning demonstrates that
some enslaved people actively resisted slavery
and were well informed about the world beyond
their own harsh circumstances.
Pop Quiz #2
(3 points each = 21 points) Take out clean paper
Respond with brief answers to the following questions:
1. Very briefly highlight the significance of the relationship
between Jefferson’s Northwest Ordinance of 1787 to
Madison’s Federalist Paper #10.
2. How did Mary Wollstonecraft’s 1792 book A Vindication for
the Rights of a Woman influence American women?
3. Who was Gabriel Prosser and what did he lead?
4. How did John Adams fail to fulfill his potential as our second
5. What were the documents that Jefferson and Madison
wrote in reaction to the Alien Sedition Act & why were they
6. What did Jefferson want to achieve during his Presidency?
7. List three achievements of the Lewis & Clark Expedition.
8. EC: What circumstances prompted Mary Shelly to write
Election of 1800
A Test of Wills
1. The ELECTION OF 1800 between John Adams and
Thomas Jefferson was an emotional and hard-fought
campaign. Each side believed that victory by the
other would ruin the nation.
2. Federalists attacked Jefferson as an un-Christian deist
whose sympathy for the French Revolution would
bring similar bloodshed and chaos to the United
3. On the other side, the Democratic-Republicans
denounced the strong centralization of federal power
under Adams's presidency. Republicans' specifically
objected to the expansion of the U.S. army and navy,
the attack on individual rights in the Alien and
Sedition Acts, and new taxes and deficit spending
used to support broadened federal action.
4. Overall, the Federalists wanted strong federal
authority to restrain the excesses of popular
majorities, while the Democratic-Republicans
wanted to reduce national authority so that the
people could rule more directly through state
Marbury vs. Madison (1803) page 302
1. Before John Adams leaves office he attempts to
“pack” the Federal Courts with Federalist sympathizers
2. His secretary of state John Marshall delivers a
appointment to William Marbury.
3. When Jefferson assumes Presidency, he refused to
honor Federalist appointment by preventing his
secretary of state James Madison from delivering
4. Marbury sues Madison & it goes to the Supreme Court
under Jefferson’s cousin John Marshall who rules that
the Judiciary Act of 1789 was Unconstitutional.
5. Marshall’s Court actually rules against themselves
however Marbury Madison establishes the Supreme
Court’s Legitimacy for Judicial Review !!
1. Thomas Jefferson Presidency (1801-
2. Many feared Jefferson’s radical views
on government would lead to a
National Civil War and anarchy…His
Inaugural Speech calmed the
nation…"We are all Republicans, we
are all Federalists."
3. The Democratic-Republicans believed that government needed to be broadly accountable to
the people. Their coalition and ideals would dominate American politics well into the
nineteenth century. Can name past and modern Presidents who were influenced by
4. As an Enlightened Man, Jefferson embodied a true Renaissance President – dedicated to
Human Reason, Exploration, Sciences, Music, Architecture and Nature.
5. As a politician of democracy, Jefferson led the Nation toward his vision of the American
Republic based on "absolute acquiescence in the decisions of the MAJORITY." Stemming
from his deep optimism in human reason, Jefferson believed that the WILL OF THE PEOPLE,
expressed through elections, provided the most appropriate guidance for directing the
Additional Significant Facts on
1. Jefferson supported an Agrarian Democracy based on
affordable land for farmers & his 1787 Northwest Ordinance
2. Jefferson believed that the future of the US must be based
on hard working independent rural communities that
3. Jefferson also encouraged industry to use science and
technology to advance US production & international
4. For Jefferson, western expansion provided an escape from
the British model of industrial oppression. As long as hard
working farmers could acquire land at reasonable prices,
then America could prosper as a republic of equal and
independent citizens. Jefferson's ideas helped to inspire a
mass political movement that achieved many key aspects of
The Louisiana Purchase & the Lewis
Such a Bargain for an Empire
“Farmers were the chosen people of
Native Americans were apparently not
among the chosen
1. How did Jefferson’s Major Presidential Achievement
reflect his historical contradictions?
2. Sent delegates to France to buy New Orleans as a vital
commercial port for US
3. Napoleon, in the middle of another French War
negotiates for the sale of the entire Louisiana Territory
for $15 million ($250 today)
4. In a stroke of his pen Jefferson doubled the size of the
nation for 14 cents an acre
Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery 1804-1806
1. Jefferson dispatched two fellow Virginians,
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, to
2. They were to conduct scientific and
commercial surveys in order to find ways to
exploit the region’s resources, develop trade
with Indians, and find a commercial route to
the Pacific Ocean that could foster trade
with Asia (Northwest Passage).
3. With the indispensible help from a
Shoshone 15 year old Indian named
Sacagawea the Corps of Discovery forged
alliances with local tribes along their
4. In two years Lewis and Clark traveled 2000
miles, all the way to the Pacific (reaching it
in the area of today’s Oregon- Fort Clatsop)
5. Though they did not find a commercial
route to Asia, their success reinforced the
belief that America’s territory would one
day extend to the Pacific Ocean.
6. It was the greatest achievement of
1. Barbary Wars
a. Jefferson sent Stephen Decatur and the Marines to Tripoli to
battle Islamic Pirates & open Mediterranean Seas to open trading
2. Embargo Act
a. In order to remain neutral between France & England, Jefferson
used his Presidential powers to shut down foreign trade to
pressure nations to end Impressments.
b. In 1808 American exports plummeted to 80%
c. Though he moderated it with the 1809 Non-intercourse Act, his
Presidential image was tarred and feathered by those who saw
this as an act of Jeffersonian economic piracy!!
US Moves toward 2nd War with England
“Canada, Canada, Canada!!”
1. A group of aggressive political leaders
known as the War Hawks pushed for
war against England.
2. These new American leaders from
western & southern US states such as
Henry Clay (Kentucky) & John C.
Calhoun (S. Carolina) were a new
breed of nationalists.
3. US pride and upholding American
honor at all costs in order to expand
economic interests were paramount to
4. Coupled with heightened tensions
between western settlers (1800 –
400K lived W. of App. Mtns) and
Native Indians in the Ohio Valley, the
War Hawks pushed Jefferson’s
successor, James Madison to declare
war against England.
The Rebel Shawnee Bros: Tecumseh & Tenskwatawa “The Prophet”
1. Natives could either attempt to
assimilate into American culture as
Cherokee Chief John Ross his people
should do or…
2. Reject all “White Ways” like the
Shawnee Leaders Tecumseh &
Tenskwatawa urged and fight for their
people traditional culture.
3. Tenskwatawa, a prophet, argued that
whites were the source of all evil and
that Indians should completely
separate from everything European.
4. In 1810, Tecumseh organized attacks
on frontier settlements. In 1811,
William Henry Harrison destroyed the
militants’ village at the Battle of
5. The Shawnee Bros were emblematic
of the future erosion of Indian culture
as more white settlers entered their
6. Hunting grounds, bison, fishing and
grass lands that had been
indispensible to their culture were
now disappearing in lieu of the
entrance of whites.
Parody Cartoon of British incited Indian
Atrocities against American
William Henry Harrison, Tecumseh,
War of 1812 Becomes a State Mate
1. The declaration of war by Congress in 1812 reflected a
2. Federalists and Republicans representing northern states,
where mercantile and financial interests were
concentrated, voted against the war.
3. Southern and western representatives voted
overwhelmingly for it. Deeply divided, the U.S. lacked a
large navy or army, lacked a central bank (since the Bank of
the United States’ charter expired in 1811), and northern
merchants and bankers refused to loan money to the
4. England held the upper hand for much of the War of 1812,
defeating American navy in early sea/lake battles and even
invading the capitol In 1814, and captured Washington,
D.C., burned the White House, and forced the government
to flee (Dolly Madison saved George’s painting by Stewart).
5. The United States had a few victories, including the defense
of Baltimore at Fort McHenry, an event that inspired the
song that became the national anthem, the “Star-Spangled
6. However, under military commandeers like Commodore
Perry, William Henry Harrison, and Andrew Jackson they
began to remove the Indian threat and win decisive
victories at sea and on land.
7. The Treat of Ghent ended the War however Jackson’s
impressive victory with a militia of misfits over the British at
New Orleans provided a patriotic push and lent great
measure to his military political aspirations.
The Marquise Returns to America in 1824
• Foner begins Chapter 9 with a vignette
about Marquise de Lafayette’s return
trip to America in 1824.
• The America he visits is a far different
place than when he fought beside his
mentor Washington during the
Revolution some 50 years
• Pop = then 4 mill 1824 x3 – 12 million
• Colonial Period Travel = it cost @ much
to travel 30 miles inland than 3000
miles across the Atlantic; it took 5 mos.
to travel from Cincinnati to NYC by
• In 1824, a steam ship traveling via the
canals can make it in a few weeks.
Transforming America in the
“Rugged Individualism &
1. In 1800, America was undergoing not one, but two revolutions: one
political, the other economic.
2. 1801, when Jefferson became President, the U.S was a new,
underdeveloped country of just over 5 million.
3. Most of the pop. Hugged the Atlantic Ocean – 10% lived in rural areas –
not in cities – most remained within 20 miles of their homes – America
was a rural agrarian nation in 1801 – But this was going to change….In 100
years when T.R. took office – the US was a different nation. How???
4. Industrialization – Immigration – Urbanization – Class/Race/Gender Roles
5. The big question is how the United States emerged into such radical
changes over only a century & what movements drove these changes
during the course of the 19th Century????
T.R. in 1901
1. Electricity 5. Factories - Unions 9. Abolition of Slavery
2. Telephone 6. Urbanization 10. Women suffrage (states)
3. Refrigeration 7. Immigration 11. West is Conquered
4. Locomotive 8. Imperialism 12. Within 6 years – planes, cars,
The Mountain Men
1. The mountain men were beaver trappers and
explorers who lived in the wilderness of the
Rocky Mountains between 1810 to the 1840s.
Initially began by French trappers during the
17th & 18th Century – Americans entered fur
trapping following the Lewis and Clark
Expedition. John Colter remained in the Rockies
2. Mountain men epitomized the enterprising
independent adventuresome spirit of early
America because they not only lived in the
wilderness while trading but marketed their
lucrative beaver pelts.
3. They forged healthy positive relationships with
local Indian tribes like the Blackfeet, Shoshone,
Crows, and Cheyenne Indians
4. They were instrumental in opening up the
various Emigrant Trails (widened into wagon
roads) allowing Americans in the east to settle
the new territories of the far west by organized
wagon trains traveling over roads explored and
in many cases, physically improved by the
mountain men and the big fur companies
originally to serve the mule train base inland fur
Era of Good Feeling
• A Virginian and
Monroe ushered in a
period of national political
stability and growth.
• Governor of Virginia, a
diplomat who was part of
the Louisiana Purchase
and Secretary State,
Monroe was the last
founding father President.
• Wrought with conflicts:
• Second Bank of US Panic
• Missouri Compromise of
1820 – “Fire bell in the
• Monroe Doctrine –
Warning to Foreign
nations to keep out of
its “Fire Bell in
The U.S. Senate was evenly split during the Monroe Administration: 11 free
states and 11 slave states (Delaware and Kentucky were slave states), and
admission of a new state threatened the balance. Henry Clay, known as the
Great Compromiser, peacefully resolved the difficult dispute over slavery in
new states with the Missouri Compromise: admit one free state (Maine) to
balance one new slave state (Missouri), and ban slavery above a certain
latitude (36 degrees, 30 minutes) in the Louisiana Territory.
The Missouri Compromise became a temporary stop gap measure only
delaying the pending crisis that would divide the nation regarding the future of
slavery in the decades to come.
In his 1823 Presidential Address, a speech written by John Adams son
John Quincy Adams, Monroe’s Sec. State, Monroe established the first
American Foreign Policy Declaration known as the Monroe Doctrine.
Essentially, the Doctrine recognized newly independent Latin American
nations and their rights to self-determination without the threat of
European powers to attack them.
It was a warning to European Powers that if they intervened in the
sovereignty of Latin America, the US would see it as a threat to all of
the Americas & take any action it deemed necessary to protect these
smaller countries and US interests
The Inventor of the First American Industrial
1. In 1807, on the Hudson River in New York, the first
steamboat, built by Robert Fulton, went into
2. Steamboats made possible upstream navigation and
rapid transport across the Great Lakes, and
eventually the Atlantic Ocean.
3. In 1825, the Erie Canal in upstate New York was
completed. The canal facilitated the settlement of
upstate New York and the Old Northwest, and
helped foster trade between farmers in the west
and manufacturers in the east.
4. While canals only connected existing waterways,
railroads opened vast new areas of the interior,
while stimulating coal mining, for fuel, and iron
manufacturing, for locomotives and rail. Work on
the first railroad, the Baltimore and Ohio, began in
5. By 1860, the nation’s rail network was 30,000 miles
long, more than the total in the rest of the world
6. At the same time, the invention of the telegraph in
the 1830s by Samuel F. B. Morse allowed for
The American System Connecting Markets
1. Henry Clay believed that the future
success of national enterprise must be
determined by regional markets
controlled by supply and demand
2. This American System would connect
Northern manufacturing, banking and
artisans with Southern agriculture and
raw materials. Furthermore, western
settlements would provide the North and
South with viable future markets.
3. National Roads like the one through the
Cumberland Gap, canals, R/R and
telegraph would transport goods and
information to connect economic regions
to one another and strengthen the
4. Protective Tariffs & Taxes to foster
internal improvements would be
necessary & a national bank to ensure
monetary stability and credit
The American Industrial Revolution Factory Life for
Virginia Woolf, in the 1920s, made this point: "It is
obvious that the values of women differ very
often from the values which have been made by
the other sex. Yet it is the masculine values that
prevail" (A Room of One's Own, N.Y. 1929, p. 76)
Definition: A gender
role is a set of social
norms that are
either a man or a
woman in a social or
Gender Roles: Past & Present
Talcott Parsons Gender Role Model of 1950s Nuclear Family
Lowell Mill Girls (1810-1840)
WHAT: The "Lowell Mill Girls" (or "Factory Girls," as they
called themselves) were female workers who came to work
for the textile corporations in Lowell, Massachusetts, during
the Industrial Revolution in the United States.
WHO: The Factory girls were daughters of propertied New
England farmers, between the ages of 17 and 25 (But many
were as young as 11 and as old as 40).
By 1840, at the height of the Industrial Revolution, the textile
mills had recruited over 8,000 women, who came to make up
nearly 75% of the mill workforce.
WHY: The girls could support their families during the
depression of the 1830s; help send their brothers to college;
take advantage of educational schools provided by factory
employers; gain valuable skills that they would carry into
adulthood; develop social relations with other workers
CONFLICT: Factory owners began to abuse the girls by working them longer hours for less pay
and under dangerous working conditions.
EFFECT: Conditions in the Lowell mills were severe: Lowell girls worked from 5:00 am until 7:00
pm, for an average 73 hours per week. The noise of the spindles were deafening; girls toiled in
hot spinning rooms especially during the summer when employers kept windows shut. They
breathed in air filled with cloth and thread that led to many coughing up blood and causing
The Spatial Empowerment Effect
1. Girls lived together in boarding houses that
factory owners built near the factories.
2. Despite cramped and menial conditions; these
Lowell boarding homes fostered a close affinity
among the girls who saw one another as part of
3. This communal spirit inspired them to demand
worker rights as conditions worsened during the
1830s. They organized two strikes in ’34/’36
4. The sense of community that arose from
working and living together contributed directly
to the energy and growth of the first union of
women workers, the Lowell Female Labor
5. Started by twelve operatives in January 1845, its
membership grew to 500 within six months, and
continued to expand rapidly. The Association
was run completely by the women themselves:
they elected their own officers and held their
own meetings; they helped organize the city’s
female workers, and set up branches in other
mill towns. They organized fairs, parties, and
Oh! isn't it a pity, such a
pretty girl as I
Should be sent to the
factory to pine away and
die? Oh! I cannot be a
slave, I will not be a
slave, For I'm so fond of
That I cannot be a slave.
The Lowell girls' organizing efforts were notable not only for the "unfeminine" participation of
women, but also for the political framework used to appeal to the public. Framing their struggle
for shorter work days and better pay as a matter of rights and personal dignity, they sought to
place themselves in the larger context of the American Revolution. During the 1834 &1836
"turn-out" or strikes – they warned that "the oppressing hand of avarice would enslave us,” the
women included poems which read:
Let oppression shrug her
shoulders, And a haughty
tyrant frown, And little
upstart Ignorance, In
mockery look down. Yet I
value not the feeble
threats Of Tories in
disguise, While the flag of
Independence O'er our
noble nation flies.
1. In reaction to the factory system and the
depersonalized nature of machines, certain American
writers emphasized the individual unique qualities of
2. They placed value on the natural world and our
relationship to it.
3. These transcendentalists reasoned that individual
judgment should take precedence over existing social
traditions and institutions. Ralph Waldo Emerson
defined freedom as an open-ended process of self-
realization, in which individuals could remake
themselves and their own lives. Henry David Thoreau
called for individuals to rely on themselves.
4. In this era the term individualism was first used. Unlike
in the colonial period, many Americans now believed
individuals should pursue their own self-interest, no
matter what the cost to the public good, and that they
should and could depend only on themselves.
Americans more and more saw the realm of the private
self as one in which other individuals and government
should not interfere.
5. Thoreau, Dickinson, and Emerson established an
credible national literary field that stood on par with
Chapter 10 Jacksonian Democracy
Guiding Questions for this Unit
1. How did the era of Jacksonian Democracy
begin to shape our modern political
2. What were the major areas of conflicts
between sectionalism and nationalism?
3. Describe the battles that occurred between
Andrew Jackson and other significant actors
during this period.
4. In what ways did Andrew Jackson embody
the contradictions of democratic nationalism
and reflect the ideas of Alexis de Tocqueville?
Jackson and Nixon
Power ~ Prestige ~ Persuasion
Corrupt Bargain: Election of 1824
1. The winner in the all-important Electoral College was
Andrew Jackson, the hero of the War of 1812, with 99
votes. He was followed by JOHN QUINCY ADAMS, the son
of the second president and Monroe' secretary of state,
who secured 84 votes.
2. Meanwhile Crawford trailed well behind with just forty-
one votes. Although Jackson seemed to have won a narrow
victory, receiving 43 percent of the popular vote versus just
30 percent for Adams, he would not be seated as the
country's sixth president. Because nobody had received a
majority of votes in the electoral college, the House of
Representatives had to choose between the top two
3. Henry Clay, the speaker of the House of Representatives,
now held a decisive position. As a presidential candidate
himself in 1824 (he finished fourth in the electoral college),
Clay had led some of the strongest attacks against Jackson.
Rather than see the nation's top office go to a man he
detested, the Kentuckian Clay forged an Ohio Valley-New
England coalition that secured the White House for John
4. In return Adams named Clay as his secretary of state, a
position that had been the stepping-stone to the
presidency for the previous four executives.
The End of the
Election of 1828
• Jackson was a vicious murderer
• Jackson’s Mother was a hoar who
married a mulatto
• Rachel Donelson Jackson, who had been
separated from her first abusive husband
was called an adulteress for supposedly
not being officially divorced when she
married Jackson in 1791.
• John Quincy Adams was accused of
skinny dipping in the Potomac, hiring
prostitutes while Ambassador in London,
and gambling in the White House.
“Oh Andy! Oh Andy!
How many men have you
hanged in your life? How
many weddings make a
1. The presidential election of 1828 brought a great
victory for ANDREW JACKSON. Not only did he get
almost 70 percent of the votes cast in the electoral
college, popular participation in the election soared to
an unheard of 60 percent. This more than doubled the
turnout in 1824
2. Jackson warned that the nation had been corrupted by
"SPECIAL PRIVILEGE," characterized especially by the
policies of the Second Bank of the United States. The
proper road to reform, according to Jackson, lay in an
absolute acceptance of majority rule as expressed
through the democratic process.
3. Jackson's election marked a new direction in American
politics. He was the first westerner elected president,
indeed, the first president from a state other than
Virginia or Massachusetts. He boldly proclaimed himself
to be the "CHAMPION OF THE COMMON MAN" and
believed that their interests were ignored by the
aggressive national economic plans of Clay and Adams.
4. Jacksonian Democracy. First, it declared itself to be the
party of ordinary farmers and workers. Second, it
opposed the special privileges of economic elites. Third,
to offer affordable western land to ordinary white
Americans, Indians needed to be forced further
Panic of 1819 & Maryland vs McCulloch
• A sharp financial disaster known as the Panic of 1819. Despite the economic
downturn, Monroe remained popular and was reelected in 1820 almost
• A Economic Panic hit the country in 1819; many blamed the distress on the
policies of the Second Bank of the United States (chartered in 1817 with Monroe's
support),which was badly managed by William Jones, its first president. Monroe,
who considered the bank essential to ensure a sound currency and to control the
careless habits of state banks in making loans, succeeded in 1819 in persuading
the directors to replace Jones with Langdon Cheves, a former Congressman and a
far abler financier. Monroe approved Chief Justice John Marshall's decision in
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), which upheld the constitutionality of the bank
• The economy recovered after 1820. Monroe vetoed an appropriation for road
repairs in the Cumberland Road Bill (1822), stating that "congress does not possess
the power under the constitution to pass such a law.” With Monroe in the White
House, the House rejected most spending bills on internal projects.
• In 1819 the Marshall Court ruled against a state that attempted to tax a branch of
Second of United States that been recharted in 1816.
• The Marshall Court ruled that the Necessary and Proper Clause of Constitution
Article 1 Section 8 Clause 1: 18 prevented states from taxing a branch of the
Federal Government because to “tax is to destroy.”
• The Court determined that Congress did have the power to create the Bank. Chief
Justice Marshall supported this conclusion with four main arguments. Enumerated
vs Implied Power of the 8 Ball
Chapter 10 Pop QUIZ #2
1. List three reasons why Jackson defeated J.Q
Adams in 1828?
2. How did the Nullification Crisis bring the US
to the brink of a Civil War?
3. Was the Cherokee Nation a sovereign nation
according to the John Marshall Court?
4. Who was Nicholas Biddle and why didn’t
Jackson like him?
Alexis de Tocqueville's Democracy in America
• In Democracy in America,
published in 1835, Tocqueville
wrote of the New World and its
burgeoning democratic order.
Observing from the perspective
of a detached social scientist,
Tocqueville wrote of his travels
through America in the early
19th century when the market
revolution, Western expansion,
and Jacksonian democracy were
radically transforming the fabric
of American life.
• Tocqueville explicitly cites
inequality as being incentive for
poor to become rich
Tocqueville wrote that he did not know of any country where there was "less
independence of mind, and true freedom of discussion, than in America.”
Slavery...dishonors labor; it introduces idleness into society, and with idleness,
ignorance and pride, luxury and distress. It enervates the powers of the mind and
benumbs the activity of man. On this same English foundation there developed in the
North very different characteristics.
he Negro race will never leave those shores of the American continent to which it was
brought by the passions and the vices of Europeans; and it will not disappear from the
New World as long as it continues to exist. The inhabitants of the United States may
retard the calamities which they apprehend, but they cannot now destroy their
King Andrew or Man of the People?
1. Jackson relied on his "KITCHEN
CABINET," an unofficial group of
friends and advisers.
2. Jackson took the view that only the
President could be trusted to stand
for the will of the people against the
aristocratic Congress. Jackson's
weapon was the veto. "ANDY VETO"
used this power more often than all
six previous Presidents combined.
3. At the same time, Jackson espoused
the "SPOILS SYSTEM" in awarding
4. Jackson believed in meritocracy for
the selection of government workers.
The South Carolina Nullification
1. In 1828, Congress passed a high protective tariff that
infuriated the southern states because they felt it only
benefited the industrialized north.
2. The southerners looked to Vice President John C.
Calhoun from South Carolina for leadership against
what they labeled the "TARIFF OF ABOMINATIONS.”
3. Calhoun argued for a less drastic solution — the
doctrine of "NULLIFICATION." According to Calhoun,
the federal government only existed at the will of the
states. Therefore, if a state found a federal law
unconstitutional and detrimental to its sovereign
interests, it would have the right to "nullify" that law
within its borders. Calhoun advanced the position that a
state could declare a national law void.
4. Jackson rightly regarded this STATES-RIGHTS challenge
as so serious that he asked Congress to enact legislation
permitting him to use federal troops to enforce federal
laws in the face of nullification. Fortunately, an armed
confrontation was avoided when Congress, led by the
efforts of Henry Clay, revised the tariff with a
compromise bill. This permitted the South Carolinians
to back down without "losing face."
5. In retrospect, Jackson's strong, decisive support for the
Union was one of the great moments of his Presidency.
If nullification had been successful, could secession
have been far behind?
Jackson vs. Clay and Calhoun
1. Many political issues separated Jackson from
Calhoun, his Vice President. One was the issue
of states rights.
2. Hoping for sympathy from President Jackson,
Calhoun and the other states-rights party
members sought to trap Jackson into a pro-
states-rights public pronouncement at a
Jefferson birthday celebration in April 1832.
3. Some of the guests gave toasts which sought to
establish a connection between a states-rights
view of government and nullification.
4. Finally, Jackson's turn to give a toast came, and
he rose and challenged those present, "OUR
FEDERAL UNION — IT MUST BE PRESERVED."
5. Calhoun then rose and stated, "The Union —
next to our liberty, the most dear!" Jackson had
humiliated Calhoun in public. The nullification
crisis that would follow served as the last straw.
6. Jackson proved that he was unafraid to stare
down his enemies, no matter what position they
1. Jackson's personal animosity towards
Clay seems to have originated in 1819,
when Clay denounced Jackson for his
unauthorized invasion of SPANISH WEST
FLORIDA in the previous year.
2. Clay was also instrumental in John
Quincy Adams's winning the Presidency
from Jackson in 1824, when neither man
had a majority and the election was
thrown into the House of
Representatives. Adams' appointment of
Clay as Secretary of State confirmed
Jackson's opinion that the Presidential
election has been thrown to Adams as
part of a corrupt and unprincipled
3. Jackson believed the American System
to be unconstitutional — could federal
funds be used to build roads? He vetoed
the MAYSVILLE ROAD BILL, Clay's
attempt to fund internal improvements.
His veto of the Bank Recharter Bill drove
the two further apart.
must win for
President of the Bank of United States
during Age of Jackson
The War Against the Bank
• The SECOND BANK OF THE UNITED STATES was chartered in 1816
for a term of 20 years. The time limitation reflected the concerns of
many in Congress about the concentration of financial power in a
private corporation. The Bank of the United States was a depository
for federal funds and paid national debts, but it was answerable
only to its directors and stockholders and not to the electorate.
• The supporters of a central bank were those involved in industrial
and commercial ventures. They wanted a strong currency and
central control of the economy. The opponents, principally
agrarians, were distrustful of the federal government. The critical
question — with whom would President Jackson side?
• In January 1832, Biddle's supporters in Congress, principally Daniel
Webster and Henry Clay, introduced Bank recharter legislation.
Even though the charter was not due to expire for four more years,
they felt that the current Congress would recharter the Bank. They
felt that Jackson would not risk losing votes in Pennsylvania and
other commercial states by vetoing it. Jackson reacted by saying to
his vice-president, Martin Van Buren, "The Bank is trying to kill me,
Sir, but I shall kill it!”
• Jackson's opposition to the Bank became almost an obsession.
Accompanied by strong attacks against the Bank in the press,
Jackson vetoed the BANK RECHARTER BILL. Jackson also ordered
the federal government's deposits removed from the Bank of the
United States and placed in state or "PET" BANKS.
The Trail of Tears — The Indian Removals
1. Jackson, both as a military leader and as
President, pursued a policy of removing
INDIAN TRIBES from their ANCESTRAL LANDS.
This relocation would make room for
SETTLERS and often for SPECULATORS who
made large profits from the purchase and sale
2. The CHEROKEES of Georgia, on the other
hand, used legal action to resist. The Cherokee
people were by no means frontier savages. By
the 1830s they developed their own written
language, printed newspapers and elected
leaders to representative government. When
the government of Georgia refused to
recognize their autonomy and threatened to
seize their lands, the Cherokees took their
case to the U.S. Supreme Court and won a
favorable decision. John Marshall's opinion for
the Court majority in Cherokee Nation v.
Georgia was essentially that Georgia had no
jurisdiction over the Cherokees and no claim
to their lands. But Georgia officials simply
ignored the decision, and President Jackson
refused to enforce it. Jackson was furious and
personally affronted by the Marshall ruling,
stating, "Mr. Marshall has made his decision.
Now let him enforce it!"
3. Finally, federal troops came to Georgia
to remove the tribes forcibly. As early
as 1831, the army began to push the
Choctaws off their lands to march to
4. In 1835, some Cherokee leaders
agreed to accept western land and
payment in exchange for relocation.
With this agreement, the TREATY OF
NEW ECHOTA, Jackson had the green
light to order Cherokee removal.
5. Other Cherokees, under the leadership
of CHIEF JOHN ROSS, resisted until the
bitter end. About 20,000 Cherokees
were marched westward at gunpoint
on the infamous TRAIL OF TEARS.
Nearly a quarter perished on the way,
with the remainder left to seek
survival in a completely foreign land.
The tribe became hopelessly divided
as the followers of Ross murdered
those who signed the Treaty of New
• Alexis de Tocqueville, the French philosopher, witnessed the
Choctaw removals while in Memphis, Tennessee, in 1831
• In the whole scene there was an air of ruin and destruction,
something which betrayed a final and irrevocable adieu; one
couldn't watch without feeling one's heart wrung. The Indians
were tranquil, but sombre and taciturn. There was one who could
speak English and of whom I asked why the Chactas were leaving
their country. "To be free," he answered, could never get any other
reason out of him. We ... watch the expulsion ... of one of the most
celebrated and ancient American peoples.
—Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America
1. Worked for William Ashley Company
2. Always carried a bible with him
3. Was scarred from a terrifying encounter with a Grizzly Bear
4. Rediscovered the South Pass the lowest point in the Rockies
where Pioneers later used.
5. Led a trapping expedition into California in 1826 to be the
first Americans to enter California overland…Helped by
Missionaries at San Gabriel Mission and then arrested by
Mexican authorities. They released him if he promised to
immediately return to US….he broke his promise and
headed toward Northern California.
6. Traveled back to California in 1831 and was later killed by a
Comanche ambush on the Santa Fe Trail. The movie
Jeremiah Johnson staring Robert Redford is based on Smith.
7. While travelling overland throughout the American West,
Jedediah's policy with the Native Americans was to maintain
friendly relations with gifts and exchanges. However, if
Jedediah felt Indians were being hostile to his party, he
would make a demonstration by having one or two Natives
killed with a rifle. This was done to discourage any further
tribal aggression against him and his party. Smith punished
his men for indiscriminately shooting Indians without any
perceived threat to his party.
8. Jedediah Smith's explorations were the main basis for
accurate Pacific-West maps; all the travels and discoveries
of the trappers and fur traders since Ashley went into the
map of the western United States he prepared in the winter
of 1830–31. This map has been called “a landmark in
mapping of the American West”.
Juan Seguin: Two sides of the Texas Conflict
1. Seguin was born in San Antonio in 1806 &
emerged as one of the most wealthy
Tejanos rancheros in the Mexican province
known as Tejas.
2. Seguin represented the liberal Tejanos,
who saw American settlers as friends to
expand Texas prosperity.
3. During the Alamo siege he escaped to
bring support to the 137 American
encamped Fort against 5000 Mexican
4. Seguin, later became mayor of San
Antonio, but was finally forced to flee his
native land when racism against Mexicans
rose during the period of Manifest Destiny
5. Seguin fled to Mexico where he later
fought against his former friends during
the Mexican American War
6. What are the three stages of Settler
Conflict that Seguin’s narrative illustrates
during this era of Manifest Destiny??
Manifest Destiny• Western Settlers:
Motives; Push and Pull
• Destinations: Texas;
Oregon; Utah; California
• Texas: Stephen Austin,
Sam Houston & General
• California: Hide & Tallow
Trade > Discovery of
Gold>Land of Honey &
• Mexican American War
• Oregon: The Whitman
• Utah: Brigham Young &
• Immigrants: Irish &
1. What were the various reasons that the
United States expanded into Western
Territories during the 1840s?
2. How did this conquest of the West
contribute to a growing national conflict
over the future of slavery?
3. What is the legacy of American Manifest
The Lone Star Republic: Tejas
• Despite a 13-day holdout, the 187 Texans were crushed by Santa Anna's
forces, which numbered 5000 strong. The deaths of commander WILLIAM
TRAVIS, JIM BOWIE, and DAVY CROCKETT angered Americans as cries of
"REMEMBER THE ALAMO!" rang throughout the land. Americans flocked to
Texas, and, led by commander SAM HOUSTON, defeated Santa Anna's
forces. On May 14, 1836, Santa Anna grudgingly recognized Texan
• Most TEXAN-AMERICANS wanted to be annexed by the United States. They
feared that the Mexican government might soon try to recapture their land.
Many had originally come from the American south and had great interest
in becoming a southern state. President Andrew Jackson saw trouble. Many
Whigs and Abolitionists in the North refused to admit another slave state to
the Union. Rather than risk tearing the nation apart over this controversial
issue, Jackson did not pursue annexation. The Lone Star flag flew proudly
over the LONE STAR REPUBLIC for nine years.
• Texas was an independent country for nine years because of the slavery
debate in Western Territories
• “the fulfillment of our manifest destiny to overspread the Continent allotted by
Providence for the free development and our yearly multiplying millions.” John O’
• The "every man is equal" mentality of the Jacksonian Era fueled this optimism.
Now, with territory up to the Mississippi River claimed and settled and the
Louisiana Purchase explored, Americans headed west in droves. Newspaper editor
JOHN O'SULLIVAN coined the term "MANIFEST DESTINY" in 1845 to describe the
essence of this mindset.
• Americans believed in divine providence that they would settle the entire continent
from “Sea to Shining Sea” & that it was there ordained destiny to create a strong
• At the heart of manifest destiny was the pervasive belief in American cultural and
racial superiority. Native Americans had long been perceived as inferior, and efforts
to "civilize" them had been widespread since the days of John Smith and MILES
STANDISH. The Hispanics who ruled Texas and the lucrative ports of California were
also seen as "backward.“
Eureka!: California Here We Come
• By the mid 1830s, the 21 missions in California
were running some 400,000 head of cattle on
their lands. Some cattle were slaughtered for
fresh meat; some meat was dried for future use
or for shipment. The hides were put to a wide
variety of uses-bed mattresses, horse blankets,
saddles, shoes, chair seats, knapsacks, window,
and door coverings.
• Tallow, the fat of the steer, was also an important
commodity. There were two kinds of tallow-the
manteca, lying nearest the hide, was used for
cooking; the sebo was used for candles and soap
and was the type most often shipped abroad.
• The hide and tallow industry was in decline by
the mid 1840s, a decline that was greatly
accelerated by the discovery of gold in California
in 1848. Thousands of fortune-seekers poured
into northern California and the demand for beef
skyrocketed. For seven years ranchers enjoyed
unprecedented prosperity as prices soared to $75
a head in San Francisco.
Richard Henry Dana’s Epiphany
• Richard Henry Dana was one of the first Americans to write
about California before the Gold Rush.
• His book Two Years Before the Mast was based on his
voyage to CA
• Losing his vision during college Dana decided to enlist as a
merchant seaman, despite his high-class birth.
• On August 14, 1834 he departed Boston aboard the brig
Pilgrim bound for Alta California, at that time still a part of
Mexico. This voyage would bring Dana to a number of
settlements in California (including Monterey, San Pedro,
San Juan Capistrano San Diego Santa Barbara, Santa Clara
and San Francisco).
• After witnessing a flogging on board the ship, he vowed
that he would try to help improve the lot of the common
seaman. The Pilgrim collected hides for shipment to
Boston, and Dana spent much of his time in California
curing hides and loading them onto the ship.
• While atop the bluffs later to be named after him he looked
out over the Pacific and reflected how wonderful life was
like at that Transcendental moment in California
• To return home sooner, he was reassigned by the ship's
owners to a different ship, the Alert, and on September 22,
1836, Dana arrived back in Massachusetts.
• Two Years Before the Mast would become highly sought
after as one of the few sources of information on California.
Election of 1844: A Mandate for Western
The Democrats had championed the cause of expansion, informally linking the controversial Texas annexation issue with a
claim to the entire Oregon Country, thus appealing to both Northern and Southern expansionists. (The slogan "Fifty-four
Forty or Fight," often incorrectly attributed to the 1844 election, did not appear until later; see Oregon boundary dispute.)
Polk's consistent support for westward expansion—what Democrats would later call "Manifest Destiny"—likely played an
important role in his victory, as opponent Henry Clay hedged his position.
The Election of 1844 - James K. Polk
• How did Polk defeat Henry Clay??
• Polk was an excellent strategist. He tapped into
the public mood and realized that manifest
destiny was the very issue that could lead him to
• Polk called for expansion that included Texas,
California, and the entire Oregon territory. The
northern boundary of Oregon was the latitude
line of 54 degrees, 40 minutes. "FIFTY-FOUR
FORTY OR FIGHT!" was the popular slogan that
led Polk to victory against all odds.
• Nevertheless, Polk boldly declared to Great
Britain that joint occupation would end within
one year. The British were confident they could
win, but by 1846 they were vastly outnumbered
in Oregon by a margin of greater than six to one.
In June of that year, Britain proposed splitting
Oregon at the 49th parallel. Polk agreed to the
compromise, and conflict was avoided.
• The Oregon Treaty of 1846 divided the Oregon
Country along the 49th parallel, the original
54° 40' or Fight: Securing the
• The southern boundary of the United States with Mexico was not the only western
territory under dispute. The OREGON TERRITORY spanned the modern states of
Oregon, Idaho, and Washington, as well as the western coast of Canada up to the
border of RUSSIAN ALASKA. Both Great Britain and America claimed the territory.
The TREATY OF 1818 called for joint occupation of Oregon — a solution that was
• Oregon fever swept the nation in the 1840s. Thousands of settlers, lured by the
lush WILLAMETTE VALLEY headed west on the OREGON TRAIL. Families in
caravans of 20 or 30 braved the elements to reach the distant land. Poor eastern
families could not generally make the trip, as outfitting such an expedition was
quite expensive. The CONESTOGA WAGON, oxen and supplies comprised most of
the cost. The families fought Native Americans at times, but often they received
guidance from the western tribes. It took six months of travel at the speed of
fifteen miles per day to reach their destination.
Land & a River = War for Manifest Destiny
Polk had four goals:
1. reduce the tariff,
2. reestablish the Independent Treasury,
3. settle the Oregon dispute,
4. and bring California into the United States.
Congress enacted the first two goals, and the third was
secured through an agreement with Britain dividing up
Polk offered to buy California from Mexico, but Mexico refused
to negotiate. By early 1846, the US Congress formally annexed
Texas – w/o a formal Mexican treaty
Polk planned for war. In April, U.S. soldiers sent into the
disputed area between Texas and Mexico inevitably came to
blows with Mexican troops. Polk claimed that Mexicans had
shed blood on American soil, and he called for a declaration of
Henry David Thoreau refused to pay
taxes and was arrested
Newly elected congressman Abe
Lincoln asked: “Show me the spot
where they attacked us??”
• James K. Polk believed the US should acquire Texas for American settlers – When the
Mexican Government under Santa Ana refused to sell it – he orchestrated a war by
disputing where the boundary was: Nueces or Rio Grande River???
• He accused Santa Ana of attacking Texas settlers across the Rio Grande – The war for
land then began…It lasted from May of 1846 to January of 1848
• Polk directed the war from Washington, D.C. He sent a 4-prong attack into the Mexican
heartland. JOHN FREMONT and STEPHEN KEARNY were sent to control the coveted
lands of CALIFORNIA and NEW MEXICO.
• Many like the Whigs and New England Abolitionists protested the war….
• The MEXICAN-AMERICAN WAR was formally concluded by the TREATY OF
GUADALUPE-HIDALGO. The United States received the disputed Texan territory, as well
as NEW MEXICO territory and CALIFORNIA. The Mexican government was paid $15
million — the same sum issued to France for the Louisiana Territory.
Nearly 300 years after Cortez
conquered the Aztecs –
Mexico won its independence
Within 27 years Mexico lost all
the land Spain had secured in
a war with the US over the US
Many Americans believed the
Mexican American War was
based on greed & the desire to
extend slavery into western
Effects of Mexican
1. Manifest Destiny is secured
2. Polk’s Expansionist Policy
3. US extends territory to Pacific
4. Public Sphere emerges as
immediate means to learn
about war > Debate > Dissent
5. Future Civil War soldiers gain
valuable military experience
6. Ethnocentrism & Racism
7. Pro-slavery southerners face
off against Northern
Abolitionists on Western
War News(1848) by
Strangers in a Strange Land
Rare 1840s Photo of Pioneer Wagon Train
• Marcus and Narcissa Whitman were both from
upstate New York. In 1836 the Whitmans headed
West with other missionary couples toward along
the Oregon Trail.
• The group travelled with fur traders for most of
the journey, and took wagons farther West than
had any American expedition before them. Along
the way, Narcissa became one of the first white
women to cross the Rocky Mountains.
• The Whitmans reached the Walla Walla river on
September 1, 1836, and decided to found a
mission to the Cayuse Indians at Waiilatpu in the
Walla Walla Valley. The Spaldings travelled on to
present-day Idaho where they founded a mission
to the Nez Percé at Lapwai.
• "We never had greater encouragement about the
Indians than at the present time." This optimism
soon faded, however. The Whitman's two-year-
old daughter drowned in 1839, Narcissa's
eyesight gradually failed almost to the point of
blindness, and their isolation dragged on year
after year. Above all, the Cayuse continued to be
unreceptive to their preaching of the gospel.
Coming to America & Going West
• A potato famine in Ireland
caused over a million deaths in
• In the middle half of the
nineteenth century, more than
one-half of the population of
IRELAND emigrated to the
• In the decade from 1845 to
1855, more than a million
Germans fled to the United
States to escape economic
hardship. They also sought to
escape the political unrest
caused by riots, rebellion and
eventually a revolution in
Backlash to Immigration: Nativism
• Many Americans saw these new
European immigrants as a
threat to their jobs, American
Liberty, & homogeneity
• A Nativism Movement emerged
in cities across the US as a
prejudiced organized ideology
to reject and discriminate
against Irish, German and Asian
immigrants during the 19th
• The No-Nothing Party emerged
The Know Nothing Their
platform included the repeal of
all naturalization laws and a
prohibition on immigrants from
holding public office.
Following the Platte to the Great
Salt Lake: The Mormon Trail
• Brigham Young (left) was on the East Coast gathering
converts and raising money for the construction of an
enormous temple in Nauvoo.
• On his return, Young played a critical role in keeping the
savagely persecuted church together by organizing the
exodus that would take the Mormons westward, first to
Winter Quarters, Nebraska,
• The traveled south of the Platte River and est. the Mormon
Trail in 1846, and finally on to Utah's Salt Lake Valley, where
Young and an advance party arrived on July 24, 1847.
• Here Young hoped the Mormons would at last find the
freedom to worship and live as their faith decreed. Late in
1847 his leadership was confirmed when he was named
president and prophet of the church, inheriting the authority
of Joseph Smith.
The Church of the Later Day Saints was
established by Joseph Smith who clamed
he received the Book of Mormon from
The religious groups were constantly
persecuted in Ohio until Smith Joseph
Smith was murdered by an anti-Mormon
mob in 1844,
Ranch near Monterey CA 1830s
• John Sutter “Johann Souter”
– Swiss Land Baron (Tax
• New Helvetia – His Dream
• Mariano Vallejo – Californio
• Sutter’s Fort – Refuge for
• James Marshall – Carpenter
who discovered Gold
1/24/1848 on American River
• California's name became indelibly connected with the Gold Rush, and fast
success in a new world became known as the "California Dream."
California was perceived as a place of new beginnings, where great wealth
could reward hard work and good luck. Historian HW Brandis notes
• The old American Dream ... was the dream of the Puritans, of Benjamin
Franklin's "Poor Richard"... of men and women content to accumulate their
modest fortunes a little at a time, year by year by year. The new dream was
the dream of instant wealth, won in a twinkling by audacity and good luck.
[This] golden dream ... became a prominent part of the American psyche
only after Sutter's Mill.
Political Chart of the United States
North South Differences by 1852
1. More northerners are using
2. More northerners are literate
3. There are more libraries in the
4. There are more churches in
5. There are more newspapers &
periodicals – public sphere
What does this chart suggest
about the goal of Jefferson’s and
Madison’s Empire of Liberty for a
Chapter 11 The Peculiar Institution called
1. When the Founding Fathers signed the Constitution
there were 700 thousand slaves in America-By 1860
there were 4 million slaves in the United States of
2. Although African-Americans had been brought to
British America since the time of Jamestown colony,
American slavery grew as the south depended on
cash crops such as tobacco, rice and sugar.
3. Eli Whitney had yet to invent the cotton gin until the
last decade of the 1700s. This new invention led the
American south to emerge as the world's leading
producer of cotton. As the south prospered,
southerners became more and more nervous about
their future over their dependence on slave labor.
4. Even with the demise of slavery in Europe and
throughout Central and Southern America, it refused
to die in the US – There was even a rampant refusal
to abide by the formal ending of the slave trade in
1808 as hundreds of slave pirates continued to
import slaves into New Orleans.
A broadside advertising the public sale of slaves
1. 75% of the world’s cotton
supply came from America’s
Cotton Belt. Name those
2. A world economy was born
from the economic
relationship between King
Cotton and textile factories in
New & Old England.
3. By the eve of the Civil War
cotton had become the US #1
export & over half of the total
value of all domestic exports.
4. Southern investment in their
slaves exceeded the entire
value of all the nation’s banks,
railroads and factories by
1. Prior to the cotton gin, it took up
to 10 hours to produce a pound
of cotton, with very little profit.
The COTTON GIN ultimately grew
to produce a thousand pounds of
cotton per day with relatively
2. In 1791, the year the cotton gin
was invented, the total amount
of cotton being exported was
about 138,000 pounds. Two
years later, the amount of cotton
being exported rose ten-fold, to
3. By the start of the Civil War in
1861, the annual cotton
production had risen to 4.5
million bales – A bale averaged
350 to 400 lbs each!!!
4. Guess which 7 states seceded
from the United States first???
1. Slavery became a completely sectional issue, as few states above
the MASON-DIXON LINE still permitted human bondage.
2. These arguments also revealed the growing separation in the
needs and priorities of the northern industrial interests versus
the southern planting society, all of which culminated in the Civil
3. Nevertheless, the economic relationship between northern
textile mills and King Cotton in the Deep South continued to link
the two regions economically.
A pre–Civil War engraving depicting the
Paternalistic Defense of
“God Bless you master, you feed
and clothe us and when we are
sick you nurse us, and when we’re
too old to work you provide for
1. Planters believed they were
father figures for their slaves.
2. Slaves were an extended part
of their own family – to be
protected and nurtured.
3. In truth since many masters
forced themselves on female
slaves – their children were
truly part of their families.
1. The southern culture emerged over several hundred years
as a system to both maintain their lifestyle and protect their
economy which included slavery.
2. Unlike the depictions portrayed in Gone with the Wind,
many southerners worked small farms with few slaves and
barely made a living off of their crops.
3. However, poor or rich, all southerners firmly defended their
rights to Old Dixie: The mystique that they were united
under the banner of chivalry and southern comfort. Racism
and prejudice became justified as a means to an
4. Large plantation owners were protected of their slaves
under the banner of a paternalistic father figure. And since
many forced themselves upon female slaves – they literally
were father figures!
5. Overseers were White Slave foremen
6. Drivers were Black Slave Foremen
7. Domestic slaves were vaulted in class to work in the homes
of their masters.
8. As the Peculiar Institution spread across the South, many
states passed "SLAVE CODES," which outlined the rights of
slaves and the acceptable treatment and rules regarding
Slavery as It Exists in America
Northern factories enslaved their
workers in unhealthy working
conditions and long hours for
Southern slaves were fed, clothed
and protected by their masters
against selfish exploitive capitalists.
Unemployment in the north led to
beggars and orphans living on the
Southern planters always looked out
for the best interests of their slaves.
JAMES THORNWELL, a minister, wrote in 1860, "The parties in this
conflict are not merely Abolitionists and slaveholders, they are
Atheists, Socialists, Communists, Red Republicans, Jacobins on the
one side and the friends of order and regulated freedom on the
1. Those who defended slavery rose to the challenge set
forth by the Abolitionists. The defenders of slavery
included economics, history, religion, legality, social
good, and even humanitarianism, to further their
2. The southern economy would collapse which would lead
to a national collapse since New England textile mills
were dependent on cotton.
3. Freed slaves would kill everyone in the south reflected
by the French Revolution
4. History had always had slavery even the Bible defended
5. Defenders of slavery argued that by comparison with
the poor of Europe and the workers in the Northern
states, that slaves were better cared for. They said that
their owners would protect and assist them when they
were sick and aged, unlike those who, once fired from
their work, were left to fend helplessly for themselves.
Freed African Americans
1. Contrary to most myths about the antebellum period,
there were many southern blacks who were free – 1.5
million by 1860.
2. They could be freed voluntarily by their masters
called manumission or pressured as the abolition
movement grew stronger.
3. African Americans also escaped to freedom – a rather
risky decision as the penalties were either hanging or
harsh torture as whippings.
4. Those who were freed southern free blacks were still
denied rights by Black Codes like religion, owning a
gun, gaining a education and holding property in
5. In many states, the slave codes that were designed to
keep African-Americans in bondage were also applied
to free persons of color. Most horrifically, free blacks
could not testify in court. If a slave catcher claimed
that a free African-American was a slave, the accused
could not defend himself in court.
Free Blacks in the Old South
The Upper and Lower South
1. Slavery helped define the status of free blacks.
2. By the Civil War, half a million free blacks lived in the
United States, the majority in the South. While whites
defined their freedom by their distance from slavery, free
blacks were not radically different than enslaved blacks.
3. In most of the North, free blacks could not vote and had
few economic opportunities. In the South, free blacks could
own their own property, could marry, and could not be
bought or sold as slaves.
4. But they had virtually no other rights in southern society.
5. They could not own dogs, guns, or liquor; could not strike
whites, even in self-defense; and had to carry proof of their
6. In other American slave societies, where racial identity was
less sharply distinguished, free blacks amassed property
and prestige. In the United States, the sharp racial
distinction between black and white left little room for a
mulatto class to emerge.
7. John Mercer Langston, a lawyer from Oberlin Ohio town
came from a family of abolitionists. His brother Charles and
his brother-in-law O.S.B. Wall were among the town’s
residents who rescued a runaway slave, John Price from a
Slavery Life Varied based on Where
they were & how they worked
• Frederick Douglass worked both as a field
hand and as skilled craftsman in a Baltimore
shipyard (Key to our Stars)
• Urban slaves enjoyed more freedom than
those toiling on the land.
• For those forced to pick the cotton and even
worse cure the Louisiana sugar fields in gangs
– the drudgery lasted from sun up > sun down
Million $ ? – Why
didn’t more slaves
• Masters maintained order and discipline by various
• Slave codes that prevented slaves from having any
rights subduing their will to flee
• Strict overseers who used brutal repercussions for any
• The threat of breaking up slave families by sending
them off to a slave auction
• Despite all of these inhumane treatments, slaves never
relinquished their desire to escape to freedom in the
Reprisals for escape was brutal as these
two victims of the inhumane treatment
of their masters testify Gordon is below
• In some ways, gender roles for slaves were very different than those in the larger
society. Slave men and women were equally powerless.
• The slave family remained central to slave culture and allowed slaves to transmit
their values and traditions and strategies for survival from generation to
• A distinctive form of Christianity also helped slaves survive and resist bondage.
• Every plantation seemed to have a slave preacher, often with little education but
considerable oratorical skill and knowledge of the Bible.
• Urban slaves often established their own churches. But masters used Christianity as
another means of control and discipline. Some required their slaves to attend
sermons reminding slaves that theft was immoral and that servants should obey
Resistance to Slavery
1. Outnumbered by whites and facing federal, state, and local authorities dedicated to
preserving slavery, slaves only rarely rebelled. Compared to Caribbean or Latin
American slavery, where slaves were more numerous and more often imported
directly from Africa, slave rebellions in the United States were smaller and less
2. This does not mean that slaves simply submitted to their condition. Resistance to
slavery took many forms, from individual acts of disobedience to the occasional
3. The most common form of slave opposition was “day-to-day resistance” or “silent
sabotage”: doing poor work, breaking tools, abusing animals, and simply disrupting
plantation routine. Slaves faked illness or found other ways to avoid reporting to
work. Many slaves stole food, but less frequent and more dangerous were assaults
against whites, from arson and poisoning to armed attacks.
4. Escape was a serious threat to slavery’s stability. Most slaves who ran away would
leave the plantation for a day or two, simply to frustrate owners, but would return.
5. The smaller number of fugitive slaves who attempted to permanently escape faced
considerable obstacles to freedom. They often had little or no knowledge of
geography beyond the plantation, other than to know that them north meant
6. Perhaps 1,000 slaves reached the North or Canada each year. Most fugitive slaves
escaped from Upper South states, where they could more easily reach the North. In
the Deep South, fugitive slaves often went to cities where they could blend in with
free black communities. A loose organization of sympathetic black and white
abolitionists, called the “Underground Railroad,” helped slaves runaway.
Amistad & Major Slave Rebellions
• In a few cases, large groups of rebellious slaves gained their freedom. The most famous case
involved the slaves aboard the Amistad, a slave ship off the Cuban coast, in 1839. After they seized
the ship, the slaves sailed the ship up the American coast until it was seized. While President
Martin Van Buren wanted to return the slaves to Cuba, abolitionists helped the slaves sue for
freedom, and in the Supreme Court, former president John Quincy Adams defended them. Adams
argued that since the slaves had been brought from Africa in violation of international treaties
banning the slave trade, they should be freed. The Court agreed, and most of the freed slaves
emigrated back to Africa. While the Amistad case had no legal bearing on slaves in the United
States, it may have inspired later revolts on slave ships.
• Slaves only rarely mounted organized rebellions within the U.S. The four largest conspiracies in
American history happened between 1800 and 1831. Gabriel’s Rebellion in 1800 was followed in
1811 by an uprising on sugar plantations in Louisiana, in which several hundred armed slaves who
tried to march on New Orleans were defeated in a bloody encounter with militia and federal
troops. In 1822, Denmark Vesey, a slave carpenter in Charleston, South Carolina, organized a
rebellion. He quoted the Bible and the Declaration of Independence to justify armed resistance. His
plot was discovered before it was implemented, and Vesey and thirty-four other blacks were
An engraving depicting Nat Turner’s slave rebellion of 1831
Nat Turner was a mystic and preacher who used his visions to build up a devoted following that
he used to organize one of the worst slave revolts in southern history.
In 1831 Turner and 70 of his disciples began killing their masters and then anyone white around
Southampton Virginia. Approx. 60 whites were killed in Turner’s Rebellion
Southern whites in Virginia fled their communities in mass panic fearing that Turner and his
escaped slaves would kill them.
Turner alluded capture for two months enabling his to become the poster child for slaves gone
wild & prompting southern states to institute very harsh slave codes.
Turner’s Rebellion shocked the
South and caused owners
throughout the region to punish
and execute recalcitrant or
suspicious slaves. In the
aftermath, Virginia’s legislature
passed harsh laws further
restricting slaves and the rights of
free blacks. Other southern states
The rebellion also inspired a
growing movement of abolitionists
in the North to demand the immediate
abolition of slavery, sparking a reaction
in the South against abolition and civil
liberties that would intensify sectional