The sardana is a type of circle dance typical of Catalonia, Spain.
The origin of the sardana is not clear. Some say that it was already
popular in the 16th century. What remains undisputed is that the
sardana was a popular dance in the Empordà region by the end of the
As the rise of the sardana took place, in the context of the Renaixença
or newborn Catalan nationalism, the origins of the dance were
embellished in order to symbolize a distinct Catalan ethos as to serve
Catalan nationalism. Modern choreography was established as late as the
end of the 19th century.
Music for the sardana is played by a cobla, a band consisting of 10 wind
instruments, double bass and a tamborí (very small drum) played by 11
musicians. The cobla has five woodwind instruments: the flabiol which is
a small fipple flute, and the tenora and tible (two of each) which belong
to the oboe family. These and the tamborí are typical Catalan
instruments. The brass instruments include: two trumpets, two fiscorns,
and a trombone The double bass was traditionally a three-stringed one,
but now the part is usually written for and played on the modern (four-
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