Dual‐fuel engines

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some information about dual fuel engine and can be used as a class project.

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Dual‐fuel engines

  1. 1. Gathered by: Ali Eidi Ahmadabad Ali Mohamadi Rashtin Amin Mohamadi
  2. 2. 1.Biomethane as vehicle fuel Energy Independency, Environmental benefits 2.Gas vehivle a brief history 3.Dual fuel, Technology, advantage and Disadvantage
  3. 3. • By 2025, we need to find, devolope and produce a volume of new oil and Gas that equal 8 out of every 10 barrels produced today.
  4. 4. • • • • • • The most environmental friendly fuel Cost efficient Up to 60 000 new jobs Health benefits Independency One solution to several problems
  5. 5. • • • • The ignition temperature for natural gas is higher than for gasoline and diesel fuel. Natural gas is lighter than air and will dissipate upward rapidly if a rupture occurs. Gasoline and diesel will pool on the ground, increasing the danger of fire. Compressed natural gas is non-toxic and will not contaminate groundwater if spilled.
  6. 6. • • • • • • New unreliable technology Dangerous Vehicle range Fuel storage Infrastructure costs Ensuring sufficient supply.
  7. 7. Those can be overcome by: • The proper design • Fuel management • Exhaust treatment techniques
  8. 8. • • There were many experiments with gas engines in the 19th century but the first practical gas fuelled internal-combustion engine was built by the Belgian engineer Étienne Lenoir in 1860. However, the Lenoir engine suffered from a low power output and high fuel consumption.
  9. 9. • His work was further researched and improved by a German engineer Nikolaus August Otto, who was later to invent the first 4-stroke engine to efficiently burn fuel directly in a piston chamber.
  10. 10. • In August 1864 Otto met Eugen Langen who, being technically trained, glimpsed the potential of Otto's development, and one month after the meeting, founded the first engine factory in the world, NA Otto & Cie, in Cologne.
  11. 11. • In 1867 Otto patented his improved design and it was awarded the Grand Prize at the 1867 Paris World Exhibition.
  12. 12. • • • • Integrated gas canisters High pressure (200 bar) Pressure regulator→ valves→ cylinders Fuel consumption measured in m3 (or kg)
  13. 13. • The fuel injectors must be disabled when the engine is running on gas, although fuel must still flow to the injectors and then pass directly to the return fuel line to provide cooling.
  14. 14. • The bi-fuel engines of the spark ignition petrol engines is of all sizes can be converted to natural gas by the fitting of a gas carburetor / mixer, regulator, shut-off valves, control system and fuel storage tanks.
  15. 15. • • • • Power loss encounter driveability problems Lower fuel efficiency Methane gas not always available
  16. 16. • • In performance terms the converted bi-fuel engine will generally have a 15-20 percent maximum power reduction than that for the petrol version. A further disadvantage of methane is that it is a greenhouse gas with a warming forcing factor many times
  17. 17. That of the principal greenhouse gas, CO2, gas leakage or vehicular emission, will have an impact on the overall greenhouse gas(GHG) emissions.
  18. 18. • A 15-20 percent loss in thermal efficiency was reported in a dual-fuel heavy-duty truck demonstration in Canada, where natural gas provided 60 percent of the total fuel requirement during dual-fuel operation.
  19. 19. • Production of electricity
  20. 20. • Trains
  21. 21. • Buses
  22. 22. • Tractors
  23. 23. • Lorries
  24. 24. • Maritime application
  25. 25. According to poulton there are two refueling modes with CNG : • The first is fast fill • The second is slow fill
  26. 26. • Fast fill
  27. 27. Fast fill normally requires some buffer high pressure (25 MPa) storage at the refueling station although an alternative is to use a compressor sized to fill vehicles directly without intermediate (or cascade) storage. A typical medium-sized refueling station with a compressor output around of 300 m3/hour would •
  28. 28. be capable of servicing 30 buses or 300 cars over a 12-hour period.
  29. 29. The slow fill is where one or more vehicles are connected directly to a low pressure supply via a compressor over relatively long time periods without the high pressure buffer storage facility. • For many fleet operations the refueling installation will be located at the fleet garage with trickle fill dispensers located adjacent to the vehicle parking spaces. •
  30. 30. CNG is attractive for five reasons: 1)It is the only fuel cheaper than gasoline or diesel. 2)It has inherently lower air pollution emissions. 3)It has lower greenhouse gas emissions. •
  31. 31. 4) Its use extends petroleum supplies 5)there are large quantities of the fuel available in the world. • There are several major problems needed to be solved when using natural gas engines:
  32. 32. 1) There is the set point for the best compromise between emissions and fuel economy is not clear. 2)The optimum air–fuel ratio changes with both operating conditions and fuel properties.
  33. 33. ”No single issue is as fundamental to our future as energy”

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