Motivation and AffectChapter 11 : Educational Psychology March 28, 2012
Two Motivational Videos• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V6xLYt265ZM montage• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Obo6xCAHIG8 from the movie, Snatch
The Nature of Motivation• Motivation is something that energies, directs, and sustains behavior, it gets students moving, points them in a particular direction, and keeps them going.• Increases students’ time on task• All kids are motivated in one way or another• Motivation builds up over time.
Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation• Extrinsic – motivation resulting from factors EXTERNAL to the individual and unrelated to the task at hand.• Intrinsic – motivation resulting from INTERNAL personal characteristics or inherent in the task at hand.• Flow – Intense form of intrinsic motivation – person ‘looses’ track of time when engaged in an activity.
4 Basic Human Needs• Arousal – where it all begins• Competence and Self Worth – Want to feel like we can effectively deal with our environment – General belief that we are good and capable individuals – Self-handicapping – behavior that undermines our own successes (to preserve self-worth) – Mastering new challenges is key to developing a sense of competence and self-worth
4 Basic Human Needs – con’t• Self Determination – need for some autonomy and control over decisions regarding one’s life – Provide opportunities for independent work and decision making – Present rules and instructions in a non-controlling manner – Grant student choices – Evaluate students’ work in non-judgemental ways – Be selective when and how you use extrinsic reinforcers (remember Premack principle?)
4 Basic Human Needs – con’t• Relatedness – basic need to feel socially connected to others and to secure others’ love and respect. – Let the students know they are valued and allow them time to work in groups
Maslow’s Theory• Maslow (1954) presents a hierarchy of needs pyramid which can be divided into basic (or deficiency) needs (e.g. physiological, safety, love, and esteem) and growth needs (cognitive, aesthetics and self-actualization).• One must satisfy lower level basic needs before progressing on to meet higher level growth needs. Once these needs have been reasonably satisfied, one may be able to reach the highest level called self-actualization.