Historical and Modern Political Media7th Grade United States and New York State History Alida Fabian
Lesson BasicsTarget Audience: 7th grade United Statesand New York State History (easilyadaptable to 11th grade U.S. History byincreasing the depth of media study,maturity of content covered by the media,and focus on media subtleties)Lesson Length: 5 days, 40 minute periodsClass size: 15 – 30, inclusive setting
ObjectivesO Students will be able to identify techniques used in media to convey meaning and persuade others.O Students will be able to analyze how people in the past and present use the media to affect society’s political opinions.O Students will be able to create their own media with the goal of persuading others to a certain political position.
NYS Social Studies Standard 1Students will use a variety of intellectual skills todemonstrate their understanding of major ideas, eras,themes, developments, and turning points in the historyof the United States and New York. O Key Idea 3: Study about the major social, political, economic, cultural, and religious developments in New York State and United States history involves learning about the important roles and contributions of individuals and groups. O Intermediate Performance Indicator: Students will describe how ordinary people and famous historic figures in the local community, State, and the United States have advanced the fundamental democratic values, beliefs, and traditions expressed in the Declaration of Independence, the New York State and United States Constitutions, the Bill of Rights, and other important historic documents.
NYS Social Studies Standard 1O Key Idea 4: The skills of historical analysis include the ability to: explain the significance of historical evidence; weigh the importance, reliability, and validity of evidence; understand the concept of multiple causation; understand the importance of changing and competing interpretations of different historical developments. O Intermediate Performance Indicators: Students will • consider the sources of historic documents, narratives, or artifacts and evaluate their reliability • understand how different experiences, beliefs, values, traditions, and motives cause individuals and groups to interpret historic events and issues from different perspectives • compare and contrast different interpretations of key events and issues in New York State and United States history and explain reasons for these different accounts
Background InformationStudents will have already developed someskills needed for this project through thefollowing activities:O Analyzing historical sources through DBQsO Using digital video to create short newscastsO Developing posters and print advertisingThey will already have worked on developingsome of the technological skills to use newmedia.
Lesson Rationale In social studies, media literacy is bothimportant to the study of the past and thepresent. The analysis of primary sources is amajor skill that students need to develop to besuccessful in social studies courses and the realworld. Media education blended into socialstudies courses can help students develop a setof skills to understand and analyze varioustypes of media. These skills will help makethem more conscientious consumers andproducers in a democratic and capitalist country.
Lesson Rationale, cont. This lesson, which can occur anytime afterlearning about the Constitution and the establishment ofthe U.S. government, addresses the use of the mediaby special interest groups and the influential role themedia can play in political decisions. Students will lookat various forms of media from different time periodsand use questions derived from Buckingham’s (2003)key concepts, NAMLE’s (2007) key questions, and Joll’s(2008) five core questions of media literacy to analyzemedia. Then, they will use these concepts to createtheir own form of media to promote a specific politicalposition. The student created media will function as theassessment for this lesson and will require students tohave a firm grasp of the effect of media and apply it to areal-world situation.
Lesson Rationale Connections to NAMLE1. Media Literacy Education requires active inquiry andcritical thinking about the messages we receive and create.2. Media Literacy Education expands the concept ofliteracy (i.e., reading and writing) to include all forms ofmedia.4. Media Literacy Education develops informed, reflectiveand engaged participants essential for a democraticsociety.5. Media Literacy Education recognizes that media are apart of culture and function as agents of socialization.6. Media Literacy Education affirms that people use theirindividual skills, beliefs and experiences to construct theirown meanings from media messages.
Lesson Rationale Connections to “12 Basic Ways…”1. Practice general observation, critical thinking, analysis, perspective-taking, and communication skills.3. Identify how students’ prior ideas about a topic have been influenced by media messages.5. Identify sources for erroneous beliefs about a topic.6. Develop an awareness of issues of credibility and perspective.8. Analyze the effect that specific media have had on aparticular issue or topic across different cultures and/orhistorically.10. Facilitate use of a range of media formats to express students’ opinions and illustrated their understanding.11. Use media as an assessment tool.
MaterialsTechnical Materials Student MaterialsO TV or Projector with O Notebooks internet access O Pens/Pencils/MarkersO Flip Digital Camcorders O Glue/ScissorsO Student computer access O Paper/PosterboardO Editing software Other MaterialsO Printer O Media Analysis handoutO Digital Camera O Examples of historical political media (cartoons, advertisements, pamphlets, etc.) O Reflection Guide Worksheet
Lesson OutlineDay 1: The effect of historical political mediaDay 2: The effect of modern political mediaDay 3: Producing politicized mediaDay 4: Producing politicized mediaDay 5: Present and reflect on political media production
Lesson Narrative: Day 1Discussion (10 minutes)O Review democracy in the U.S. How does it work? What are our responsibilities as citizens?O Why do others care about what we think?O What are some ways people or political groups try to influence others’ opinions? (Media: articles, advertizing, political cartoons, posters, etc.)
Lesson Narrative: Day 1Introduction to Media Analysis (10 minutes)O Handout Media Analysis sheet (see next slide).O Introduce the 4 Key Concepts of Media 1. Authorship/Production 2. Messages/Meanings/Language 3. Audience 4. Representation/RealitiesO Show 0:00 – 3:30 of “Generation M-Media Literacy, Education & Choice” youtube video
Lesson Narrative: Day 1Guided Practice: Historical Media Analysis (20 minutes)O Show students historical political cartoons, campaign advertisements, and short articlesO Model media analysis for students using the questions from the Media Analysis handout.O Guide students to ask and answer the appropriate questions from the Media Analysis handoutO Provide rationale and support where neededO Ask students to compare historical media to today’s media.Homework: Bring in a digital or print example of mediafrom the present that tries to politically influence theaudience. Will use these in tomorrow’s activity.
Lesson Narrative: Day 2Review of Day 1 (5 minutes)O How and why do people try to influence political opinions?O What questions should we ask to better understand the media we encounter?Analysis of Modern Media (10 minutes)O Ask for 3 volunteers to share the modern political media they collected for homework (if no one volunteers, have some examples ready)O Guide students to use the Media Analysis handout from Day 1 to ask and answer questions about the media samplesO Discuss: What are the differences and similarities between modern and historical political media?
Lesson Narrative: Day 2Independent Practice (18 minutes)O Students in groups of 2 – 4O Students will use the Media Analysis handout to analyze 2 historical political media (provided by the teacher) and the modern political media (provided by the students from their homework assignment).O Teacher will rotate throughout the room providing assistance as necessary.Closing Discussion (7 minutes)O What patterns did you notice when analyzing media from the past and the present?O Were there certain themes that the media circled around? (Write answers on the board: campaigns, civil rights, immigration, laws, etc.)Homework: Brainstorm at least 5 topics for creating your ownpolitical media. You can produce any of the following: politicalcartoon, poster, print advertisement, TV commercial, news report orany other form approved by me.
Lesson Narrative: Day 3Introduction to Assessment (15 minutes)O Pass out the instructions and rubric for Producing Political Media (see next slide for rubric)O Explain that students will be making their own media to persuade others in their class to a certain side of a political issue or to support a political candidate. They need to choose which form of media they will use (30 second advertisement, 1 minute newscast, political cartoon, article, or print advertisement), what audience they are targeting, and the representation that they want to portray. Students may work alone or in groups of up to 4 people, and should use the ideas they brainstormed for homework to start. They will have the rest of the period and all of the next period to work on producing their media.O Field any questions students have.O Give students 5 minutes to choose groups and start workingProducing Political Media work time (25 minutes)O Teacher will rotate around the room and make sure that students have a topic and are working on putting it all together.
Lesson Narrative: Day 4Producing Political Media work time (40minutes)O Students will work on producing their chosen media with political message.O Teacher will rotate around the room providing assistance as necessary.
Lesson Narrative: Day 5Presentations (40 minutes)O Students will present their media to the classReflection (after the presentations, if timeallows, or for homework)O Students will complete the reflection guide reflecting on the production process, the decisions they made, how the audience received their product, and what they learned from the process. (see following slide for Reflection Guide)
Lesson ExtensionThe teacher should pay special attention tostudents’ understandings of how to analyzeand create media. If it appears thatstudents need remediation in any of theseareas or more time is needed to create themedia, the teacher can plan to add an extraday to the lesson.
ReferencesBuckingham, D. (2003). Media education: Literacy, learning and contemporary education. Cambridge: Polity Press.ChallengingMedia. (2008). Generation M: Media Literacy, Education, and Choice [video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yzeVjAM- drg&feature=channelNational Association for Media Literacy Education. (2007, November). Core principles of media literacy education in the United States. Retrieved from http://namle.net/wp- content/uploads/2009/09/NAMLE-CPMLE-w- questions2.pdf.Scheibe, C. & Rogow, F. (2008). 12 basic ways to integrate media literacy and critical thinking into any curriculum (3rd ed.). Ithaca: Project Look Sharp and Ithaca College.