NAME : ALICXSVEN LEMINIT
CLASS :4 . ZAMRUD
TEACHER : ________________________
DATE :6th AUGUST 2013 (TEUSDAY)
SCHOOL : SMART MRSM KOTA KINABALU
Identify human activities that threaten the ecosystem
Explain the impact of human activities on the ecosystem
Evaluate critically the effect of unplanned development and mismanagement of the
Describe types of pollution and sources of pollution
Explain the effects of pollution on living things and the environment
Compare and contrast pollutants in the air from different environments
State the sources of air pollution
Interpret data on the level of water pollution in some rivers
Predict the level of air and water pollution in a particular location within the next ten
Suggest strategies to solve problems related to air and water pollution in a particular
location within the next ten years
Explain what the greenhouse effect is
Correlate the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere with global warning
Explain the thinning of the ozone layer
Explain the impact of the thinning of the ozone layer and global warming on the
Justify the need for development
Explain the effect of increase in population on the ecosystem
Explain measures taken in the management of development activities and the
ecosystem to ensure the balance of nature is maintained
Care for the ecosystem
Participate in activities related to the management of the ecosystem
A healthy yet picturesque environment is always a significant dream to other.
However numerous negative impact from unresponsible human activities has
greatly affect our dream environment. It has not only cause inbalance in
environment but also causes various environmental problem besides
endangering the ecosystem. The only way for us and the future generation to
have a sense of peace mind living in the dream picturesque environment is
mainly by planning development activities with great care which will
possibly not affecting the environment at all. After all environment is our
main home. So the environment should be preserved starting from now
onwards so that the future generation will be able to feel the environment
which we are experiencing now.
THE REASON FOR THE PAPERWORK IS BEING DONE IS DUE TO
SEVERAL OBJECTIVES AS STATED BELOW :
To in still awareness among human about the importance of the
preservation and the conservation of the ecosystem .
To sensitize humans on various type of negative effects of their
activities towards the environment .
To raise the efforts of creating a convenient , safer yet conducive
environment for ourselves and the future generations .
To deduce the time for the depletion and the destruction of the
environment due to the environmental problems caused by
human beings .
Human activities that endanger an ecosystem.
The world’s population might reach to 10 billion in the next fifty years. Hence, when there are increments in the
number of the world’s population, it generally means that there is an increasing demand for shelter, food,
medicine, transport and raw materials.
Today, due to expectation of modern living and industrial revolution, the world has to confront the destruction of
forests to build more houses, to being use as plantation areas and to build roads; just to fulfill humans’ needs.
Unplanned developments and mismanagement of ecosystem give rise to vast amounts of environmental crisis.
Among those environmental problems are greenhouse effect, global warming, pollution, soil erosion, landslide,
flash flood and ozone depletion.
The human activities that we are talking about are like agriculture, burning or combustion, industrialisation,
urbanisation and last but not least, deforestation.
Impact of Human Activities on The Ecosystem
Human activities made many drawbacks to the environment. Whether we like them or not, these cons of the
human activities have made all of us now leaving in a hardship. The impacts can now be clearly seen by looking
at our devastating environment conditions.
What are the impacts?
Let us see for ourselves….
Human activities usually affect the ecosystem. The activities that endanger the ecosystem is
Human activities that endanger the
Extinction of flora and fauna
Human activities that threaten the ecosystem
The world population might reach to 10 billions in the next fifty years.
Hence, when there are increments in the number of the worlds population , it
generally means that there is an increasing demand for shelter, food,
medicine, transport and raw materials.
Today, due to expectation of modern living and industrial revolution, the
world has to confront the destruction of forests to build more houses, to being
use as plantation areas and build roads, just to fulfil humans needs.
Unplanned developments and mismanagement of ecosystem give rise to vast
amounts of environmental crisis. Among those environmental problems are
greenhouse effect, global warming, pollution, soil erosion, landslide, flash
flood and ozone depletion.
The human activities that we are talking about are like agriculture, burning or
combustion, industrialization, urbanization and last but not least,
Large agriculture of forests are cleared for extracting timber of fuel
wood, agriculture needs, and for the sake of urbanization. The impacts
are enormous and outrageous. Let see what are the drawbacks of
Soil erosion is blocked. Thus, water flows inland and causes flash flood and
When it rains for a long time especially during rainy season, the top layer of soil
loosens and slides down ,thus causing landslides.
Clearing of trees causes the loss of tree leaves to protect the soil from the impact of
raindrops and also causes the loss of tree roots to hold the soil in places.
2. SOIL EROSION
leaning of trees causes the loss of tree leaves that protect the soil from amassive
impulsive force of heavy raindrops and also causes the loss of treeroots that hold the
soil in place
The wide exposure to the raindrops forces, give arise to soil erosion. Here,the top layer
of soil is easily being washed away by heavy rainfall. Theeroded soil, is then, deposited
in rivers or streams.
3. FLASH FLOOD
During heavy rains, rainwater flows harshly into rivers because there is a non-
existence of retention of water by plant roots as well as proper water catchments
Due to silting in the rivers, the water flow is blocked. Thus, water flowsinland and
causes flash floods in low areas.
In addition, soil erosion contributes in the depletion of minerals in the soil,causing
the land trouble to be used as a place of cultivation.
4. Extinction of flora and fauna
Deforestation leads to the loss of habitats for many species of flora and fauna.
This will cause an increased rate of extinction of plants and animals. As a
results, it reduces biodiversity and the source of food and valuables medicines
In order to full fill the demands of todays food supplement, large areas of lands
have been used and will be used for farming purposes.
Excessive use of land for farming and stock rearing lead to infertile landand may
expose the soil to erosion by wind or heavy rainfalls.
Inorganic fertilizers usage in farming also results to eutrophication.
Industrialisation give off industrial waste and heated waste water causingwater
pollution and thermal pollution.
Toxic gases released by industries contribute to a major concerningproblem ; air
Dumping of domestic waste as well as sewage discharge from houses causes
The waste materials in landfills act as toxic substances which pollute nearby water
Industrial plants discharge industrial and heated waste water causing water pollution
and thermal pollution.
Toxic gases released by industries contribute to air pollution.
Open burning of rubbish, farms and forests release more carbon dioxide into the
atmosphere which aggravates the greenhouse effect.
Burning of fossil fuels causes air pollution as well as increase the carbon dioxide content.
As a result, it causes the greenhouse effect and global warming.
What Is A Greenhouse Effects?
The greenhouse effect is a process by which radioactive energy leaving a planetary surface is absorbed
by some atmospheric gases, called greenhouse gases. They transfer this energy to other components of
the atmosphere, and it is re-radiated in all directions, including back down towards the surface. This
transfers energy to the surface and lower atmosphere, so the temperature there is higher than it would
be if direct heating by solar radiation were the only warming mechanism. This mechanism is
fundamentally different from that of an actual greenhouse, which works by isolating warm air inside
the structure so that heat is not lost by convection.
Who Discovered the Greenhouse Effects?
The greenhouse effect was discovered by Joseph Fourier in 1824, first reliably experimented on by
John Tyndall in 1858, and first reported quantitatively by Svante Arrhenius in 1896. If an ideal
thermally conductive blackbody was the same distance from the Sun as the Earth, it would have an
expected blackbody temperature of 5.3 °C. However, since the Earth reflects about 30% (or 28%) of
the coming sunlight, the planet's actual blackbody temperature is about -18 or -19 °C, about 33°C
below the actual surface temperature of about14 °C or 15 °C.
The mechanism that produces this difference between the actual temperature and the blackbody
temperature is due to the atmosphere and is known as the greenhouse effect
Global warming, a recent warming of the Earth's surface and lower atmosphere, is believed to be the
result of a strengthening of the greenhouse effect mostly due to human-produced increases in
atmospheric greenhouse gases.
The ozone layer protects the Earth from the ultraviolet rays sent down by the sun. If the ozone layer is
depleted by human action, the effects on the planet could be catastrophic. Ozone is present in the
stratosphere. The stratosphere reaches 30 miles above the Earth, and at the very top it contains
THE THINNING OF THE
ozone. The sun’s rays are absorbed by the ozone in the stratosphere and thus do not reach the Earth.
Ozone is a bluish gas that is formed by three atoms of oxygen. The form of oxygen that humans breathe
in consists of two oxygen atoms, 2.When found on the surface of the planet, ozone is considered a
dangerous pollutant and is one substance responsible for producing the greenhouse effect.
The highest regions of the stratosphere contain about 90% of all
In recent years, the ozone layer has been the subject of much discussion. And rightly so, because the
ozone layer protects both plant and animal life on the planet. The fact that the ozone layer was being
depleted was discovered in themid-1980s. The main cause of this is the release of CFCs
(chlorofluorocarbons) .Antarctica was an early victim of ozone destruction. A massive hole inthe ozone
layer right above Antarctica now threatens not only that continent, but many others that could be the
victims of Antarctica's melting icecaps. In the future, the ozone problem will have to be solved so that
the protective layer can be conserved.
There are many steps can be taken to maintain the balance of nature such
1. Enforcement of the environmental laws
Environment quality act, 1974
STEPS TO MAINTAIN A
Controls and prevents the pollution of the environment
Controls the type of licensing, content and quality of
Tests and examines the samples of substances and gas from
Natural forestry act, 1984
-Aims at protecting and preserving our forests and wildlife
Pesticides act, 1974
-Aims at controlling the use of pesticides
Protection of wildlife act, 1972
-Aims at protecting wildlife animals, birds and plants
Fisheries act, 1985
-Aims at controlling marine pollution
2. Use Of Technology
Use modern equipment and chemicals to control oil spills.
To look for methods to do research.
Change organic rubbish to biogas.
Use less polluting and clean fuels in motor vehicles.
Control and treat the toxic and dangerous waste before
To increase the awareness and sensitivity of the individual
to the environment.
To provide the basic knowledge of environmental
problems and effects of pollutions.
To teach the public the necessary skills to protect and
maintain a healthy society.
To help the individuals to become responsible and
sensitive to the environment.
4. Preservation And Conservation Of The Ecosystem
Force the development companies tore plant the forest trees
Remaining the mangrove swamps area so that the ecosystem is
Restore the mining and used land for agriculture.
Put effort in rivers cleaning to ensure there is sufficient supply of
water in future) Practice of biological control.
A method of controlling the animal pests by using natural
predators instead of using chemical substances.
Factors to choose the animals predators.
5. Efficient Use Of Renewable And Non-Renewable Energy
Energy plays an important role in our life Non-
renewable energy will be exhausted in one day. For
example, coal, oil and fossil fuels.
Solar energy can be used as a substitute of fuel
Renewable energy, such as solar energy, wave power and
tidal power are environmental friendly and need to be
The effects of unplanned development and mismanagement of the ecosystem can lead to
damaging consequences such as soil erosion, flash floods, landslides, eutrophication,
pollution global warming, ozone depletion, climatic changes and loss of biodiversity.
There are four types of pollution which are air, water, thermal, and noise pollution.
Greenhouse gases released by various human activities can trap heat in the atmosphere
and raise the Earth’s average temperature. Such an overall rise in the Earth’s temperature
can leads to global warming. The thinning of ozone
Layer is mainly due to the accumulation of Chlorofluro Carbon (CFC) in the
atmosphere. Sustainable development must take into consideration of proper
management of the ecosystem to ensure a balance of nature is maintained.
Biology Form 4 Text Book.
Success (Oxford Fajar) Biology < 2012 edition > reference books.