CHAPTER 9:
ENDANGERED ECOSYSTEM
NAME : ALICXSVEN LEMINIT
CLASS :4 . ZAMRUD
TEACHER : ________________________
DATE :6th AU...
2.
Learning Outcome
9.1
Identify human activities that threaten the ecosystem
Explain the impact of human activities on th...
Compare and contrast pollutants in the air from different environments
State the sources of air pollution
Interpret data o...
have a sense of peace mind living in the dream picturesque environment is
mainly by planning development activities with g...
 To sensitize humans on various type of negative effects of their
activities towards the environment .
 To raise the eff...
Impact of Human Activities on The Ecosystem
Human activities made many drawbacks to the environment. Whether we like them ...
Human activities that endanger the
ecosystem.
Industrialisation
pollution
Burning
pollution
Greenhouse effects
Farming
pol...
The world population might reach to 10 billions in the next fifty years.
Hence, when there are increments in the number of...
1. LANDSLIDES
Soil erosion is blocked. Thus, water flows inland and causes flash flood and
landslides.
When it rains for a...
3. FLASH FLOOD
During heavy rains, rainwater flows harshly into rivers because there is a non-
existence of retention of w...
8.
In order to full fill the demands of todays food supplement, large areas of lands
have been used and will be used for f...
Industrialisation give off industrial waste and heated waste water causingwater
pollution and thermal pollution.
Toxic gas...
THE GREENHOUSE
EFFECTS
What Is A Greenhouse Effects?
The greenhouse effect is a process by which radioactive energy leaving a planetary surface i...
ozone. The sun’s rays are absorbed by the ozone in the stratosphere and thus do not reach the Earth.
Ozone is a bluish gas...
Controls and prevents the pollution of the environment
Controls the type of licensing, content and quality of
environment
...
Control and treat the toxic and dangerous waste before
disposing.
3. Educations
To increase the awareness and sensitivity ...
Restore the mining and used land for agriculture.
Put effort in rivers cleaning to ensure there is sufficient supply of
wa...
The effects of unplanned development and mismanagement of the ecosystem can lead to
damaging consequences such as soil ero...
 Biology Form 4 Text Book.
 Success (Oxford Fajar) Biology < 2012 edition > reference books.
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Biology a licxsven 2

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Biology a licxsven 2

  1. 1. CHAPTER 9: ENDANGERED ECOSYSTEM NAME : ALICXSVEN LEMINIT CLASS :4 . ZAMRUD TEACHER : ________________________ DATE :6th AUGUST 2013 (TEUSDAY) SCHOOL : SMART MRSM KOTA KINABALU 1. LIST OF
  2. 2. 2. Learning Outcome 9.1 Identify human activities that threaten the ecosystem Explain the impact of human activities on the ecosystem Evaluate critically the effect of unplanned development and mismanagement of the ecosystem Describe types of pollution and sources of pollution Explain the effects of pollution on living things and the environment Technique CONTENTS
  3. 3. Compare and contrast pollutants in the air from different environments State the sources of air pollution Interpret data on the level of water pollution in some rivers Predict the level of air and water pollution in a particular location within the next ten years Suggest strategies to solve problems related to air and water pollution in a particular location within the next ten years 9.2 Explain what the greenhouse effect is Correlate the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere with global warning Explain the thinning of the ozone layer Explain the impact of the thinning of the ozone layer and global warming on the ecosystem 9.3 Justify the need for development Explain the effect of increase in population on the ecosystem Explain measures taken in the management of development activities and the ecosystem to ensure the balance of nature is maintained Care for the ecosystem Participate in activities related to the management of the ecosystem 2. A healthy yet picturesque environment is always a significant dream to other. However numerous negative impact from unresponsible human activities has greatly affect our dream environment. It has not only cause inbalance in environment but also causes various environmental problem besides endangering the ecosystem. The only way for us and the future generation to INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. have a sense of peace mind living in the dream picturesque environment is mainly by planning development activities with great care which will possibly not affecting the environment at all. After all environment is our main home. So the environment should be preserved starting from now onwards so that the future generation will be able to feel the environment which we are experiencing now. 3. THE REASON FOR THE PAPERWORK IS BEING DONE IS DUE TO SEVERAL OBJECTIVES AS STATED BELOW :  To in still awareness among human about the importance of the preservation and the conservation of the ecosystem . OBJECTIVE
  5. 5.  To sensitize humans on various type of negative effects of their activities towards the environment .  To raise the efforts of creating a convenient , safer yet conducive environment for ourselves and the future generations .  To deduce the time for the depletion and the destruction of the environment due to the environmental problems caused by human beings . 4. Human activities that endanger an ecosystem. The world’s population might reach to 10 billion in the next fifty years. Hence, when there are increments in the number of the world’s population, it generally means that there is an increasing demand for shelter, food, medicine, transport and raw materials. Today, due to expectation of modern living and industrial revolution, the world has to confront the destruction of forests to build more houses, to being use as plantation areas and to build roads; just to fulfill humans’ needs. Unplanned developments and mismanagement of ecosystem give rise to vast amounts of environmental crisis. Among those environmental problems are greenhouse effect, global warming, pollution, soil erosion, landslide, flash flood and ozone depletion. The human activities that we are talking about are like agriculture, burning or combustion, industrialisation, urbanisation and last but not least, deforestation. ENDANGERED ECOSYSTEM
  6. 6. Impact of Human Activities on The Ecosystem Human activities made many drawbacks to the environment. Whether we like them or not, these cons of the human activities have made all of us now leaving in a hardship. The impacts can now be clearly seen by looking at our devastating environment conditions. What are the impacts? Let us see for ourselves…. Human activities usually affect the ecosystem. The activities that endanger the ecosystem is shown below:
  7. 7. Human activities that endanger the ecosystem. Industrialisation pollution Burning pollution Greenhouse effects Farming pollution Urbanisation pollution Deforestation Soil erosion Landslides Flash flood Extinction of flora and fauna Global warming Greenhouse effect 6. Human activities that threaten the ecosystem HUMAN ACTIVITIES THATENDANGER AN ECOSYSTEM
  8. 8. The world population might reach to 10 billions in the next fifty years. Hence, when there are increments in the number of the worlds population , it generally means that there is an increasing demand for shelter, food, medicine, transport and raw materials. Today, due to expectation of modern living and industrial revolution, the world has to confront the destruction of forests to build more houses, to being use as plantation areas and build roads, just to fulfil humans needs. Unplanned developments and mismanagement of ecosystem give rise to vast amounts of environmental crisis. Among those environmental problems are greenhouse effect, global warming, pollution, soil erosion, landslide, flash flood and ozone depletion. The human activities that we are talking about are like agriculture, burning or combustion, industrialization, urbanization and last but not least, deforestation. 6. 7. Large agriculture of forests are cleared for extracting timber of fuel wood, agriculture needs, and for the sake of urbanization. The impacts are enormous and outrageous. Let see what are the drawbacks of deforestation . DEFORESATIO N CAUSED -Soil erosion -Land Slides --- BURNING CAUSED -Greenhouse effects -Pollutions FARMING ,INDUSTRIAL ,URBANISATIO N CAUSED -Pollutions DEFORESTATION
  9. 9. 1. LANDSLIDES Soil erosion is blocked. Thus, water flows inland and causes flash flood and landslides. When it rains for a long time especially during rainy season, the top layer of soil loosens and slides down ,thus causing landslides. Clearing of trees causes the loss of tree leaves to protect the soil from the impact of raindrops and also causes the loss of tree roots to hold the soil in places. 2. SOIL EROSION leaning of trees causes the loss of tree leaves that protect the soil from amassive impulsive force of heavy raindrops and also causes the loss of treeroots that hold the soil in place The wide exposure to the raindrops forces, give arise to soil erosion. Here,the top layer of soil is easily being washed away by heavy rainfall. Theeroded soil, is then, deposited in rivers or streams.
  10. 10. 3. FLASH FLOOD During heavy rains, rainwater flows harshly into rivers because there is a non- existence of retention of water by plant roots as well as proper water catchments areas Due to silting in the rivers, the water flow is blocked. Thus, water flowsinland and causes flash floods in low areas. In addition, soil erosion contributes in the depletion of minerals in the soil,causing the land trouble to be used as a place of cultivation. 4. Extinction of flora and fauna  Deforestation leads to the loss of habitats for many species of flora and fauna.  This will cause an increased rate of extinction of plants and animals. As a results, it reduces biodiversity and the source of food and valuables medicines for humans.
  11. 11. 8. In order to full fill the demands of todays food supplement, large areas of lands have been used and will be used for farming purposes. Excessive use of land for farming and stock rearing lead to infertile landand may expose the soil to erosion by wind or heavy rainfalls. Inorganic fertilizers usage in farming also results to eutrophication. 9. Farming URBANISATION
  12. 12. Industrialisation give off industrial waste and heated waste water causingwater pollution and thermal pollution. Toxic gases released by industries contribute to a major concerningproblem ; air pollution. Dumping of domestic waste as well as sewage discharge from houses causes pollution. The waste materials in landfills act as toxic substances which pollute nearby water sources. 10. Industrial plants discharge industrial and heated waste water causing water pollution and thermal pollution. Toxic gases released by industries contribute to air pollution. 11. Open burning of rubbish, farms and forests release more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere which aggravates the greenhouse effect. Burning of fossil fuels causes air pollution as well as increase the carbon dioxide content. As a result, it causes the greenhouse effect and global warming. INDUSTRIALISATION BURNING
  13. 13. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECTS
  14. 14. What Is A Greenhouse Effects? The greenhouse effect is a process by which radioactive energy leaving a planetary surface is absorbed by some atmospheric gases, called greenhouse gases. They transfer this energy to other components of the atmosphere, and it is re-radiated in all directions, including back down towards the surface. This transfers energy to the surface and lower atmosphere, so the temperature there is higher than it would be if direct heating by solar radiation were the only warming mechanism. This mechanism is fundamentally different from that of an actual greenhouse, which works by isolating warm air inside the structure so that heat is not lost by convection. Who Discovered the Greenhouse Effects? The greenhouse effect was discovered by Joseph Fourier in 1824, first reliably experimented on by John Tyndall in 1858, and first reported quantitatively by Svante Arrhenius in 1896. If an ideal thermally conductive blackbody was the same distance from the Sun as the Earth, it would have an expected blackbody temperature of 5.3 °C. However, since the Earth reflects about 30% (or 28%) of the coming sunlight, the planet's actual blackbody temperature is about -18 or -19 °C, about 33°C below the actual surface temperature of about14 °C or 15 °C. The mechanism that produces this difference between the actual temperature and the blackbody temperature is due to the atmosphere and is known as the greenhouse effect Global warming, a recent warming of the Earth's surface and lower atmosphere, is believed to be the result of a strengthening of the greenhouse effect mostly due to human-produced increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases. The ozone layer protects the Earth from the ultraviolet rays sent down by the sun. If the ozone layer is depleted by human action, the effects on the planet could be catastrophic. Ozone is present in the stratosphere. The stratosphere reaches 30 miles above the Earth, and at the very top it contains THE THINNING OF THE OZONE LAYER
  15. 15. ozone. The sun’s rays are absorbed by the ozone in the stratosphere and thus do not reach the Earth. Ozone is a bluish gas that is formed by three atoms of oxygen. The form of oxygen that humans breathe in consists of two oxygen atoms, 2.When found on the surface of the planet, ozone is considered a dangerous pollutant and is one substance responsible for producing the greenhouse effect. The highest regions of the stratosphere contain about 90% of all In recent years, the ozone layer has been the subject of much discussion. And rightly so, because the ozone layer protects both plant and animal life on the planet. The fact that the ozone layer was being depleted was discovered in themid-1980s. The main cause of this is the release of CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) .Antarctica was an early victim of ozone destruction. A massive hole inthe ozone layer right above Antarctica now threatens not only that continent, but many others that could be the victims of Antarctica's melting icecaps. In the future, the ozone problem will have to be solved so that the protective layer can be conserved. There are many steps can be taken to maintain the balance of nature such as: 1. Enforcement of the environmental laws Environment quality act, 1974 STEPS TO MAINTAIN A STABLE ENVIROMENTS
  16. 16. Controls and prevents the pollution of the environment Controls the type of licensing, content and quality of environment Tests and examines the samples of substances and gas from industries Natural forestry act, 1984 -Aims at protecting and preserving our forests and wildlife Pesticides act, 1974 -Aims at controlling the use of pesticides Protection of wildlife act, 1972 -Aims at protecting wildlife animals, birds and plants Fisheries act, 1985 -Aims at controlling marine pollution 2. Use Of Technology Use modern equipment and chemicals to control oil spills. Recycle rubbish. To look for methods to do research. Change organic rubbish to biogas. Use less polluting and clean fuels in motor vehicles.
  17. 17. Control and treat the toxic and dangerous waste before disposing. 3. Educations To increase the awareness and sensitivity of the individual to the environment. To provide the basic knowledge of environmental problems and effects of pollutions. To teach the public the necessary skills to protect and maintain a healthy society. To help the individuals to become responsible and sensitive to the environment. 4. Preservation And Conservation Of The Ecosystem Force the development companies tore plant the forest trees after deforestation. Remaining the mangrove swamps area so that the ecosystem is protected.
  18. 18. Restore the mining and used land for agriculture. Put effort in rivers cleaning to ensure there is sufficient supply of water in future) Practice of biological control. A method of controlling the animal pests by using natural predators instead of using chemical substances. Factors to choose the animals predators. 5. Efficient Use Of Renewable And Non-Renewable Energy Energy plays an important role in our life Non- renewable energy will be exhausted in one day. For example, coal, oil and fossil fuels. Solar energy can be used as a substitute of fuel Renewable energy, such as solar energy, wave power and tidal power are environmental friendly and need to be developed. Conclusion
  19. 19. The effects of unplanned development and mismanagement of the ecosystem can lead to damaging consequences such as soil erosion, flash floods, landslides, eutrophication, pollution global warming, ozone depletion, climatic changes and loss of biodiversity. There are four types of pollution which are air, water, thermal, and noise pollution. Greenhouse gases released by various human activities can trap heat in the atmosphere and raise the Earth’s average temperature. Such an overall rise in the Earth’s temperature can leads to global warming. The thinning of ozone Layer is mainly due to the accumulation of Chlorofluro Carbon (CFC) in the atmosphere. Sustainable development must take into consideration of proper management of the ecosystem to ensure a balance of nature is maintained. REFERENCES
  20. 20.  Biology Form 4 Text Book.  Success (Oxford Fajar) Biology < 2012 edition > reference books.

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