Spanish Empire in the Americas By: Alicia Willes History 140 Online
Struggle and Survival in Colonial AmericaBy: David Sweet and Gary Nash
Chapter 2 – Diego Vasicuio: Native Priest Was a very quiet Peruvian-Indian man He lived in the time of 1671 and avoided several conflicts such as the Spaniard imperial System He tried to keep the religious traditions alive when the Spaniards tried to convert the Indians of Peru to Catholics Given public punishment by the other priest, Prado, because Diego’s preaching were very similar to the Christian Religion
Chapter 7 – Martin Ocelotl:Clandestine Cult Leader Born in 1496 Baptized in Tetzcoco and christened with the Spanish name, Martin An underground priest Martin was punished for teaching his ancient, religious views He was an enemy of the Holy Faith by the Spaniards Became rich by making money through his housing and his teachings His punishment for teaching was humiliation of the colony and was sent away on a ship to Spain for execution but disappeared at sea
Chapter 9 – Juan de Morga and Gertrudis de Escobar: Rebillious Slaves Juan was a slave who-bought by master Mestizo who torments him. He sells his soul to the devil so that his master will like him and pretends to see the devil. Juan and Gertrudis’s utilization of the social institutions shows their success in using the primarily ineffective bureaucracy institutions to their advantage.
Chapter 11 – Isabel Moctezuma: Pioneer of Mestizaje She was the first born child of Moctezuma and Tecuichpotzin Married five different Aztec men: two Indians and three Spaniards Grew up in a time where wedding ceremonies were done between nobles Third marriage was a symbol of the integration process Bared six children The last surviving heir to the throne of Moctezuma the second
Chapter 13 - Beatriz de Padilla:Mistress and Mother In 1650 there was a great scandal in the sleepy town of Lagos, near Guadalajara in western New Spain. The Shameless mulatta Beatriz was accused by the royal agent don Juan Sanchez de Vidaurre 64 years old and the owner of several farms and ranches in the vicinity, and by a secular priest and some other, of having caused dreadful and mysterious things to happen to two of her lovers. According to the charges she had poisoned the first of them, a priest and then several weeks later, she drove the lord mayor of Juchuipila crazy through the exercise of magic. This undertook a complete investigation of the case.
Chapter 16 – Miguel Hernandez:Master of Mule Trains Was one of the leading mulatto citizens By 1604, started his own freight business after working as a muleteer, having over 20 mules to ship. The Spaniards had an opposite stereotype of Racial, but Miguel was successful and owned good property for his family He was respected for his good virtue and fortune
Chapter 18 – Enrico Martinez:Printer and Engineer Born in Hamburg about 1557 He was very smart and knew a lot about science and politics. He was a printer, writer, engineer, politician When he became imprisoned for his own work, his opportunities in life to succeed ended.
The AztecsRise and Fall of An EmpireBy: Serge Gruzinski
Chapter 1 – Tula, The Mythical Beginning Teotihuacan, the city of the gods Tula was an ancient civilization in Central Mexico. Around 1000 A.D. Tula took over the heritage of the Teotihuacan In the 12th century, Tula fell The Toltec heritage lived on through the people of Tula. It left a mark in history.
Chapter 2 – The Empire Builders In 1440, Moctezuma came into power. In 1465 he conquered Chalco and died in 1469 Engaged in war to expand his empire and gain power The triple alliance was formed Gave sacrificial offerings to praise the gods “Moctezuma 1 using the diladem glyph”
Chapter 3 – The Aztecs, conquering Heroes Ahuitzotl came into power in 1486. He finished the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan. He pushed back the Aztec boundaries by war and thousands of people were sacrificed during his time to the gods in 1487. In 1503, Moctezuma II succeeded gaining power . He continued the Aztec power politically. He was the best known ruler.
Chapter 4 – The Clash of Two Worlds Unnoticed by the Aztecs, the Spaniards arrived in 1492 Moctezuma was removed by power The city fell on August 13, 1521 where 240,000 people died In 1522, Cortez became the governor and captain-general of New Spain. With his lead, the Spanish left the coast and attacked Tenochtitlan
Chapter 5 – From Resistance to Collaboration The stopping of Sacrifices Christianizing Indians Destroying sacred temples Instilled a new way of thought and life Indians resisted Mass outbreaks of disease Christianity and the church prevailed
Chapter 6 – The Aftermath of the Conquest Today there are traces of the Aztec’s traditions and practices because of it being passed down to people and woven into their own tradition and practices By 1813, a massive Cathedral was finished to represent New Spain The modern world was beginning to set in stone. In 1910, the Revolution ended Slavery
Wikipedia Source – Spanish Empire **In 1492, Spain drove out the last Moorish king of Granada. After their victory, the Catholic monarchs negotiated with Christopher Columbus, a Genoese sailor attempting to reach Cipangu by sailing west. **The 16th and 17th centuries are sometimes called "the Golden Age of Spain" (in Spanish, Siglo de Oro). As a result of the marriage politics of the Reyes Católicos, their Habsburg grandson Charles inherited the Castilian empire in America, the Aragonese Empire in the Mediterranean (including a large portion of modern Italy), as well as the crown of the Holy Roman Empire and of the Low Countries, Franche-Comté, and Austria (this one, along with the rest of hereditary Habsburg domains was almost immediately transferred to Ferdinand, the Emperor's brother). “Columbus and the Catholic Monarchs”
Wikipedia Source – (continue) Matters began to change in the 1520s with the large scale extraction of silver from the rich deposits of Mexico's Guanajuato region, but it was the opening of the silver mines in Mexico's Zacatecas and Bolivia's Potosí in 1546 that became legendary During the 16th century, Spain held the equivalent of US$1.5 trillion (1990 terms) in gold and silver received from New Spain “ The pillars of Hercules with the motto ‘Plus Ultra’ as symbol of the Emperor Charles V in the Town Hall of Seville”
Wikipedia Source – (continue) After Columbus, the Spanish colonization of the Americas was led by a series of warrior-explorers called Conquistadors. The Spanish forces, in addition to significant armament and equestrian advantages, exploited the rivalries between competing Indigenous peoples, tribes, and nations, some of which were willing to form alliances with the Spanish in order to defeat their more-powerful enemies, such as the Aztecs or Incas—a tactic that would be extensively used by later European colonial powers. The Spanish conquest was also facilitated by the spread of diseases (e.g. smallpox), common in Europe but never present in the New World and so no immunities, which reduced the indigenous populations in the Americas “The Battle of Pavia” “Aztec sacrifices, Codex Mendoza”