Money creation


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Money creation

  1. 1. Money Creation Ms. Ross Spring 2007
  2. 2. Jack and the Beanstalk <ul><li>Suppose Jack purchased 100 beans at market. When he plants those beans at home, the resulting beanstalk produces five times as many beans as he planted. How many beans grew on the beanstalk? </li></ul><ul><li>500! </li></ul>
  3. 3. Jack and the Beanstalk <ul><li>Is there a way for money to be created in the same way? </li></ul><ul><li>Who or what can create money this way? </li></ul><ul><li>Today we are going to explore the process by which banks can create money. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Reserve Requirement <ul><li>When people deposit money in a bank, banks hold on to some of the deposited money as reserves but lend the rest of it. </li></ul><ul><li>Banks make money by charging a higher rate of interest on the loans they make than the rate they pay on deposits. </li></ul><ul><li>In this activity, we will assume that banks will hold only the required reserve ratio and lend the rest out. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Reserve Requirement <ul><li>Today the reserve requirement is 10 percent. </li></ul><ul><li>That minimum has been set by the Federal Reserve. </li></ul><ul><li>To make today’s activity work more easily, we will assume a reserve requirement of 20 percent. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Assessment <ul><li>You were recently walking by the U.S. Mint in Philadelphia and you heard one tourist say the following: “All the money in the United States is created in this mint and the U.S. Mint in Denver. It is sure amazing to think that every dollar you have ever saved or spent was created in either this building or the one in Denver.” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Post Money Creation Activity: <ul><li>Although the US Mint produces coins and the Bureau of Engraving and Printing prints Federal Reserve Notes, money is created when one bank’s loans becomes another bank’s deposits and that bank uses much of the deposit to make another loan! </li></ul>
  8. 8. Money Creation <ul><li>Since money includes all currency in circulation plus the total deposits in depository institutions, the process of lending and depositing in successive banks creates money. </li></ul><ul><li>This process of successive loans and deposits is called money creation. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Money Creation <ul><li>The money creation process is limited by the amount of reserves banks choose to hold and can be affected by the amount actually deposited in depository institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>However, reserve requirement delineate an upper limit on the amount by which money can be created through the successive deposit and loan process. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Money Multiplier <ul><li>The simple money multiplier is the amount that an initial $1 increase in deposits will eventually add to the money supply if banks lend all but their required reserves and all of the borrowed money is deposited into a depository institution. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Money Multiplier <ul><li>The money multiplier can be found by dividing the required reserve ratio into one. </li></ul><ul><li>Money Multiplier = 1/required reserve ratio </li></ul><ul><li>1/0.20 = 5 </li></ul><ul><li>The money multiplier for our activity is 5. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Money Multiplier <ul><li>With the $100,000 initial deposit, what is the total amount the money supply could expand in our example? </li></ul><ul><li>$100,000 X 5 = $500,000 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Money Creation <ul><li>If the Fed raised the required reserve ratio from 20 to 25 percent, how would the activity have been different? </li></ul><ul><li>The money multiplier would be 1/0.25 = 4. Only $400,000 would have been created by the process. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Money Creation <ul><li>In reality, the Fed changes the required reserve ratio very infrequently. </li></ul><ul><li>The last change occurred in 1992. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Money Creation <ul><li>If money is created when banks make loans, how is money destroyed? </li></ul><ul><li>Money is destroyed when loans are repaid. However, banks can use the proceeds from the repaid loan to make another loan. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, money is usually recreated to replace the money destroyed when the loan was repaid. </li></ul>